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)< 



3«c 



1 



3^. 



Si 





GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



Modern Spanish Language 



AS NOW WRITTEN AND SPOKEN IN THE 
CAPITAL OF SPAIN 



BY 

WILLIAM I. KNAPP, Ph. D., 

•TSBBT PROFBSSOR OP MODERN LANGUAGBS IK YALB COLLBGB. 



SECOND EDITION 

CAREFULLY REVISED BY THE AUTHOR. 




BOSTON: 

^^^!]H5SHED BY GINN & COMPANY. 

1885. 




Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the 3rear z88a, by 

WILLIAM I. KNAPP. 
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



v.. 



J. S. Gushing & Co., PmNtsBS, loi Pkaxl Srs^kr, B 



OSTON. 



PREFACE. 



IT has seemed to the writer df this volnme that a sj^tematic 
presentattoa of the laws that govern the official Castilian lan- 
guage, at the present stage of its development, and fresh from its 
nafite atmosphere, would need no apology. Whether in public 
or private instruction, nothing can adequately substitute . the thor** 
Ough acquisition of the forms and inflections of a language, and 
these are best comprehended and retained by the tabular arrange- 
ment, which at the same time furnishes an accessible base of sup- 
plies for reviews or reference. 

Spanish is not usually the first foreign tongue the student 
meets, and therefore the experience he has gained in Greek and 
Latin, Or in French and German, 4may be turned to . profit ia 
saving much hrksome routine indispensable to his earliei' studies. 
He does not need, for example,^o be taught the rules Of slgree*^ 
ment, to which general grammar has already accustomed his 
mind, but what he wants above all to know is, the forms of the 
article^ the pluralization of words, the variation of adjectives, and 
the conjugation of verbs. Thb done, he can proceed to read any 
ordinary prose, leaving the syntactical pectiliarities to be noted by 
experience, until a second and more critical rehearsal puts him 
in possession of aU the hcts of the language. Therefore, a gram- 
mar that win facilitate this end, giving him, at a small outlay of 
time, the requisite preliminaries to reading and writing,' wliile 
furnishing ample means for more thorough subsequent studies, 
would seem to be the one most urgently called for. At least 
this is the case in our colleges, wherein the use of the so-called 
speaking-methods is impracticable by reason of the diffusion of 
gr^unmatical material. 



vi Preface. 

The plan of teaching with the present book involves two peru- 
sals. The first will take the learner over essentials in a little 
more than eight weeks,, at five recitations each. The lessons are 
arranged for the ordinary college class, by whom many of the 
rules and forms would require to be read over only, or would be 
self-evident by virtue of previous experience and discipline. With 
younger pupils, and such as are destitute of linguistic training, 
shorter lessons can be easily provided by a suitable parcelling out 
of the full ones. For a considerable distance in Section IV, only 
English themes are furnished for translation into Spanish, since 
this method best tests the students diligence at the early stage 
of his work. Subsequently, however, after the essential elements 
have been reviewed, a Spanish dialogue has been inserted, made 
up out of a popular Madrid play, reduced and re-fashioned to 
adapt it to class purposes. 

The second perusal of the grammar is to be made in conjunc- 
tion with another volume, — the Modem Spanish ' Readings, 
While thus entering into the spirit of the litcnsuy. life of the 
Spaniard of to-day, the learner, by a carefidly' graded series of 
Spanish-English and English-Spanish themes, will be insensibly 
conducted along to a degree of familiarity with the spoken lan- 
guage that will call for and satisfy every principle' recorded in 
the present text-book. At the same time, he will have learned 
the mode of life and the manners and customs of the people of 
the Peninstda ; and the usages of society, polite address, corre- 
spondence, etc., as they exist, or are carried on in all circles at 
Madrid. To possess the technical terms popularly employed 
there in most of the relations of life, will be, it is hoped, appre- 
ciated; at least they will be sought for in vain elsewhere in 
books. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION FIRST. 

PAGB 

PHONOIiOGY — Alphabet i 

Vowels 2 

Diphthongs and triphthongs 5 

Consonants 7 

Tonic accent 15 

Graphic accent . 17 

Division of syllables .. . . . .. . .18 

Capital letters 19 

Orthographic signs 20 

Castilian vulgarisms . . 21 



SECTION SECOND. 

FORM AND INFLECTION 25 

Article . . . 28 

Noun — Gender . ." . . . . . . . 32 

Number .' . 44 

Inflection 49 

Adjective 51 

Number 52 

Gender . . 53 

Apocopation %. 57 

Position 61 

Comparison 65 

Comparative formulae 67 

Superlative relative • ^ . 70 

Sup)erlative absolute 74 

Numerals — Cardinals 80 

Ordinals 83 

Fractionals • • . 85 

Mnltiplicativesi etc. ' 87 



viii Contents. 

rAGB 

Personal pronoun . . « 90 

Inflection 94 

Cases 96 

Position of object 102 

Disjunctive form .«.«.... 104 

Pleonastic construction lot; 

Inflection and use of usted 106 

Reflexive pronoun 108 

Two objective pronoms no 

Mismoypropio 114 

Possessive adjectives and pronouns .* II6 

Demonstratives 124 

Relative pronouns 129 

Interrogative pronouns . .138 

Indefinite pronouns • . . .140 

Verb . 161 

Conjugation of the auxiliary- verb kaber . . . .162 

Remarks on 163 

Conjugation of the impersonal verb haber . . . .165 

Remarks "on 167 

Regular verb — active conjugation . ... 168 

Verb endings 169 

First conjugation — kahlar 1 71 

Second conjugation — comer, 1 74 

Third conjugation — vivir . . i , . * 178 

Remarks on the three conjugations 181 

Regular euphonic changes 184 

Progressive form of the verb . . . . . .188 

Conjugation of estar .190 

Passive voice . . 192 

Conjugation of ^^r 193 

Passive conjugation — ser Uamado 196 

Remarks on 198 

Use of ser and estar , 200 

Reflexive verb 201 

Conjugation of alabarse 203 

Conjugation o{ figurarse 206 

Remarks on the reflexive verb 208 

Special uses of , . . 212 

Passive and reflexive 213 

Reciprocal verb 216 



Contents. ix 

Verb — continued, pack 

Impersonal verb 217 

Irregular verb 221 

Steins and changes 221 

Present stem 224 

Tonic preterit stems 227 

Future stems 229 

Firdt claSs — first and second conjugations «... 229 
e stemis — first conjugation 230 

Euphonic changes 231 

e stems — Second conjugation 232 

' o stems -^ first conjugation ....... 233 

EUphoiiic changes 234 

stems — second conjugation 236 

Euphonic changes 237 

Second class — third conjugation 238 

e stems and o stems . . 241 

Third class — third awjugatioa 24a 

Euphonic changes 244 

Fourth class — verbs in -«i> 245 

Fifth class — tonic preterit verbs 247 

First conjugation 248 

Second conjugation. ......... . , 249 

Third Qonjugatioi) . ... , . • . . 255 

Sixth clajra — piisceJlaneQus > ^57 

defective vprbs 263 

Irregular past participles 265 

Index to irregular verbs 271 

Adverb 283 

Use of certain adverbs 290 

Negation in Spanish 296 

Comparison of adverbs 299 

Preposition 304 

Use of 306 

Conjunction 318 

Interjection 320 



Contents. 



SECTION THIRD. 

PACE 

ESSENTIAIiS OP SYNTAX — Article 323 

Numerals 335 

Laws of agreement — Adjective and noun .... 339 

Verb with its subject 341 

Use of the tenses 344 

Subjunctive mode 356 

Correspondence of tenses 362 

Use of the infinitive mode 363 

Gerund 370 

Use of the past participle 371 

Reiglmen of verbs 374 



APPENDIX TO SECTION SECOND. 
DIlilNUTIVES AND AUGMENTATIVBS .382 

SECTION FOURTH. 

DRIUi-BOOK 393 

£1 Bar6metro — Comedia 415 

Spanish-English Vocabulary 440 

English-Spanish Vocabulary 465 



Section First. 



-•o^ 



PHONOLOGY. 



The Spanish Alphabet* 

1. The Spanish Alphabet has in use at the present 
day twenty-four simple letters, with which certain com- 
pound and ligatured forms have been associated as inde- 
pendent sigfns. The whole, therefore, stands thus : — 



a 


i 


a in ah. 


n 


ene 


d'ney. 


b 


h6 


b& in ba\^. 


n 


efie 


ain'yey. 


c 


c6 


ihd in /^ne. 


o 


6 


d. 


ch 


ch^ 


chd in cAase. 


P 


pd 


pa in /tfle. 


d 


d^ 


dd in <^le. 


q 


cd 


coo in coo\. 


e 


6 


& in tfle. 


r 


ere 


S'rey. 


f 


efe 


ajey. 


rr 


erre 


air'-r-rey. 


g 


g^ 


*ka in 'A^7te. 


s 


ese 


d}cey. 


h 


ache 


dHchey, 


t 


td 


td in /tfke. 


• 
1 


£ 


i in ^e. 


u 


d 


00 in ooit. 


• 

J 


jota 


'ho'td. 


V 


y6 


vd in vd\&. 


1 


ele 


a'ley. 


X 


dquis 


d'keece. 


11 


eUe 


aiPyey, 


y 


ygriega igre&'gd. 


m 


erne 


d'mey. 


z 


zeta 


thdUd. 



■ a. The Gothic or Black Letter (called in Spain leira gdiica, or 
de TdrtiSf from an early Venetian printer) was used for Mss. {tibros 
de tnano) throughout the Middle Age. The same was employed 
almost exclusively in printed books (Jibros de molde) from the intro- 
duction of the art into Spain (1474) till about 1550, when it had 



2 Phenology. 

well-nigh disappeared from new books, and was only occasionally 
seen in reprints of old Black Letter texts. 

b. 6^ and v were oonstantly interchanging in the older language, 
and are still designated in the primary schools by the ancient names 
ii and H de corazon (heart-shaped m, that is, v) since the new Aca- 
demic vi is not practically distinguishable from bi} 

c. The letter k is at present authorized by government and by the 
Academy in a very few imported words, such as kil6metro, kii(h 
metre; kilogruno, kilogram; Mpis or k^pi, a fatigue cap. 

d. IV, called doble m, is found only in foreign names or in learned 
transUtesations. The Gothic and Arabic initials, v, w, usually be- 
came gu ia Castilian,. Thus wadrAMceblr* tAe great river ^ became 
GKxadalquiTir; al-westr, the visier, became algonoil, the con- 
stable. The Teutonic ''zc/^r" appeared as ^erra; ^* wassail^ as 
gaMM%Jest; and to ** ward^ guard, or keep, became guardar. 

2. An letters of the alphabet are feminine in Span- 
ish, and commonly stand with one of the articles : — 

ponga usted una h, put in an h. 

cuando vayas al correo no te when you go to the Post, dotCt 

olvides de mirar en la F, farget to look in F. 

halagueAo se escribe con h, halagikfio is spelled with an h* 

Pronunciation. 

3. The present section on the Castilian pronunciation is based 
on the reformed orthography initiated by the Royal Spanish Academy 
in thdr Dictionary of 1803, improved in that of 1822, and finally 
adopted ia their Ortografia of Madrid, 1826. A view of the ancient 
pronunciations or reference to the obsolete orthography do not come 
within the design of this elementary work. 

Th^ Towels. 

4. Important General Law. -^ In Castilian the vowel 
sounds predominate over those of the consonaats to a 

1 Vi, as the name of the letter v, was first, I think, introduced into the 
Academy's Dictionary of 1837, — the eighth edition. Before that it was often 
catted ik comoncmtt^ u consonant. 



degi^e without parallel ih the other Romafice tongues ; 
and whereas the vowel dounds are full and sonorous, 
those of the consonants are subordinate, smothered, and 
frequently suppressed. 

5, The vowels have but one quality of sound each, 
and this they preserve uniformly in all situations. In 
ordinary passive discourse, however, ^ and o slightly 
lower their primitive key when they stand in an open 
syllabl(5 or before the letters n and r final. 

e. The vowels are a^ ^, / (/), #, And i#, pronounced aji 
follows : — 

a Mke ^ in ah, nevet •& in «dd* made } mato, 4mm0« 

f, " a '* alei **. ip^, rn/t: me^lecho* 

1 (y) " e ** lae^ «* hit,<i/sh: tlno, tlnta. 

o ^ o ** bne, " noi : odio, tesoro. 

m ^ 00*^ ooam^ ** bMd,«M: gala, uatod', 

a. Before n and r final, o sounds as in g^ne, and e as 
i»th^e: — 

error, error, — ait't-rorr*, 
rm/^Um, nation, — nak-ihe^^tif, 
comer, to eat, — ko-mair', 
filacer, pleasure, — plah-thair', 

b, E final has the a quality, but it is given short as y 
in merg/. So trist^, sad^ — tree'-st^, not triss'-tay. 

7. Y standing alone or final is a vowel, and is then a 
mere substitute for the Spanish L At the b^inning of 
a word or syllable (between vowels) It is a true conso- 
nant with the phonetic value of y in jear, enunciated 
with emphasis : — 



T VOWBL. 

i 

y, and, muy, wry. 

ley, law, voy, /^. 



T CQ|fSOHA^. 

yo, /. l«syes, laws, 

ya, now, r«yes, kingi. 



4 Phonology. 

Remark. — In En^ish one syllable is often accentuated at the 
expense of the vowel sounds in the other syllables; but in Span- 
ish a vowel never suffers its original quality to be absorbed or 
shrunken because the syllable in which it lies does not receive the 
primary stress. Thus, do not pronounce, for example, cansado, 
tired \ pillage, sea; animalito, a small animal; imposibilidad, 
impossibility f — as if written cdn-sah'-do or k'^n-sah'-do, pyaif-i-go^ 
dnnd-mUU'ee^-to, imm-possy-bilfy-dahd* ; but kan*'Sah**'*JfOf pyaif*- 
M-go, ah'-n^-mM-y^-to, eet9if'p<^^if'b^'U'dahth'\ 

a The five vowels are divisible into strong (a, o^ «) 
and weak (^, /), with reference to the phonetic influence 
they exert on the consonants c and g: — 

9. C before the strong vowels equals k : ca, co, co. 

10. C before the weak vpwels equals th in Mink : ee, ei. 

11. G before the strong vowels equals ^ (^ hard) i (a, go, go. 

12. G before the weak vowels equals guttural 'h : ge, gi. 

13L C with the k sound is written qu before weak vowels : que, qui. 

14. C with the th sound is written % before strong vowels : za, zo, zu. 

15. G with the ^ sound is written gu before weak vowels : gue, gui. 

16. G with the guttural sound is written/ before strong vowels : Ja, Jo, Ju. 

17. U is silent between q or g and the weak vowels. 
When it should be vocal in those positions it assumes 
the diaeresis («), and cUy gii diphthongal are pronounced 
kw^ gWy as also elsewhere, when u is not mute. 

la Note well, therefore, the following combinations : 

TowelB. 



likek: ca. 


que. 




qui. 


CO, 


cu. 


" th: za. 


ce. 




ci. 


20, 


zu. 


«• gh: ga. 


gue. 




gui. 


go» 


gu. 


« 'h: ja. 


gc, 




gi> 


Jo» 


ju. 




DlphtbongB* 






Likekw: cua. 




cue 


9 


cui, 


cuo. 


" gw: gua. 




gUe 




gfii. 


guo. 


" 'hw: jua. 




jue, 


1 




juo. 



Diphthongs, 5 

19. The two stem vowels e and o amplify into ie and 
ue respectively when the accent falls on those vowels ; 
but they recover their primitive form as soon as the 
stress is transferred to another syllable : — 

sentir', to feeL 
sentfmos, we feel, 
tend^ro, shopkeeper, 
sentimental', sentimental, 
rogar', to request. 



rogdmos, we request. 

bondad', goodness, 

agordro, diviner, 

Ofic^nse, of Huesca (Lat. Oscd), 



siento, I feel, 
sienten, they feel. 
tienda, shop, 
sentimiento, feeling, 
raego, / request, 
ruegan, th^ request, 
bueno, good, 
agtiero, omen, 
Huesca, name of a town. 



a. Hence ie is the diphthong of e^ and ue that of o. 

^^ * 

IHphthongs and Triphthongs* 

20. These are vowels in jiixtaposition which are pronounced in 
one wave of sound, forming, either alone or with a foregoing, con- 
sonant, a single syllable; they are, therefore, divisible neither in 
prosody nor in printing. They always preserve the alphabetic sound 
of each of the vowels composing them, never passing over into new 
phonetic combinations as in English and French. Nevertheless the 
complex sounds they produce are reckoned as one^ and the tonic 
accent, if it be on that syllable, is distributed over the vowels as if 
they constituted a single long vowel. Hence, if one of the vowels 
i or u is accentuated, these do not form diphthongs or triphthongs 
with the other vowels. Thus tio in continuo, continuous ^ is a diph-' 
thong, but not in continw^, / continue ; so r«no, a kingdom, — 
diphthong; U/do, read^ — not a diphthong; ven/tz, indulgence; 
ven/d, I came. 

21. True diphthongs and triphthongs are : — 

hay. 



gr«y. 



ai (ay) : 


baile. 


donaire, 


hablais, 


au: 


causa, 


pauta, 


caudal'. 


ea: 


Unea, 


traquea, 


B6reas. 


el(ey): 


relna, 


peine. 


hableis, 


eo: 


td6xieo, 


marm^reo, 


virgCneo. 



6t 



Pk^n»hgx. 





dBWlA» 




levini. 


Steopa* 




1*; 


gracl% 




tiiila» 


oUuiaiila. 




le: 


delo, 




slento^ 


dene. 




lo: 


predo, 




<$<ilo, 


estudlo. 




In: 


dttdad, 




tntmntff 


ettviucteoo* 




ol (oy) : her6lc(s 




dolte^ 


sols, 


lioir. 


ua: 


fraguis 




recua^ 


igiial. 




ue: 


duelo, 




bueno, 


pues. 




ul (oy) : culdado, 


» 


ruldoso. 


hulrCat 


muy. 


tto: 


mutuo^ 




arduoy 


antfgno. 




Ial: 


Mtal8» 




eamblals, 


vaiteliv 




lei: 


avkls. 




camblels. 


varleii. 




ual 


(uay): averifi^nals. 


santiguals. 


fragnaK 


«'Mn^ 


uel 4 


(««y) : averigiielH 


santigaeisy 


flragOaUi 


WtKt* 


ia. 


Improper diphthongs are : — 






ae: 


trae, 


Ptos. 




lo: 


9|Bor|0|) 


desvario. 


al: 


ralz. 


traidc 


>. 


oa: 


can6a» 


proa. 


an: 


ba«l» 


stand 


L 


eet 


bJroe, 


eerrde^ 


ea: 


pelea^ 


lancoa. 


<4: 


Oldoi 


<ibtie. 


cie: 


Ieer» 


^oe< 




oot 


loor, 


Feijdo. 


el: 


H 


soiifef* 


«a: 


gancAa, 


feliit. 


•o: 


v«o, 


beodb. 


ue: 


coating 


ofuontti. 


la: 


dia, 


alegfia. 


«l: 


nildo, 


hnldA. 


le: 


fl«, 


eonfle. 


tlOl 


contin^o, 


diitt. 



83. Thus are pronounced, rapidly indeed, but not 
constituting true diphthongs, all concurrent vowels in 
different words ; as, Xa /^legrfa, the joy ; la alta, casa, tAe 
lofty hotise ; mi alma, my soul; la /da, t&e departure i 
Xu ^sposa, thy wife; ^u ^oca, his times ; d 2^sted, to you. 
Identical letters are more perfectly run together in the 
ordinary language ; la amistad, the friendship ; su «tili- 
dad, his usefulness; d^ ^te, of this ; mi /da, my de- 
parture. This principle has occasioned many contrac- 
tions, as, d^l for d^ el ; d^ste, for d^ ^ste ; d^nde, from 
Latin d^ mde» thence; dtfnde, from d^ «iid€, where ^ 



Consofutnts. 

24. Likewise vowels ^leporated 
4icninded as if concurrent : — 



ahi, there. 

ahora, now, 

tahona, bokmj. 

tahur, gimakr. 

ha hablado, AassfokiH* 



desahucio, ejection (law), 
almohadilla, cuskiom^ 
rehusar, to refuse, 
Sahagun,-5]f. Faamdm (toim). 
mi hijo, my sen. 



25. In poetry a diphthong may be dissolved by the 
diuresis when the metre requires it : — 

suave, mild^ — sttave. | riela, twinkles, — riela. 

Consonants* 

B, V. 

26. These two letters are distinct in theory, and in 
most situations interchangeable in practice. ^ The Cas- 
tilian does not give either of them the full English 
TOund, except after w, because with him the approxi- 
mation of the organs employed in their production 
amounts to simple contact without pressure (§ 4) : — 



beber, to drink (aac, bever) . 
vivir, to live (anc. biuir), 
"^pudta, turn (a&c.^M«Qte). 



volver, to turn (anc Muer)., 
enviar, to send (anc. embiar), 
efX7\6kai, jealousy (zncymbidia). 



The ancient orthography is, as usually happens in Spain, the 
modern popular pronunciation, especially in the Castiles. 



1 Blanco White, a learned Spaniard of this century, declared the identity of 
b and v rather strongly, in these words : " My friend's destination was a town in 
fhe mountains or Sierra de Ronda, called Otbera or Olvera, for we make no 
'difference in the pronimdation of the ^and the v.** -^ Letters from i^ain, iy 
DoM Leutadio Dohlad^^ London, zSaa, p. i6z. The Spanish Academy affirm, 
also, that these two letters *' are alike in a great part of Spain, although they 
4Migfht not to be.'*— Gramdtka^ ed. of 1870, p. 3x5. See, also, their Orteigrafla, 
Madrid, z8a6, p. 51. 



8 



Phonology. 



C HARD mnd Qu. 

27. Cy before the strong vowels or another consonant, 
and qu before the weak vowels, sound always like k: — 



casa, house. 
cosa, thing. 
cura, parish priest. 
claro, clear ^ light. 



qae, that^ which. 
qniere, he wishes. 
tabiqne, thin partition. 
inqoieto, restless. 



C WSAK amd Z. 

2a C, before the weak vowels, and s before the strong 
vowels, have the value of lA in tAink : — 



cena, supper. 

cita, appointment. 

cielo, heaven. 

hace, makes, does. 

acento, accent. 

ac^quia, caned for irrigation. 

nacion, nation. 



hizo, he made^ did. 
brazo, arm. 
corazon, heart. 
razon, reason. 
caza, game. 
azogue, quicksilver. 
taza, (tea)cup. 



a. Z cannot stand before the weak vowels, but is 
changed into c: — 

racional, rational. 



razon, reason. 
feliz, happy. 
laz, Ught. 



felicidad, felicity. 
luces, li£^s. 



b. Cc are found together only before the vowel r, and 
are pronounced regularly k'th : — 

accion, action. \ faccioso {Carlist) rebel. 

Ch. 

29. This letter has been considered as distinct in the 
Dictionaries only since 1803. Its constant phonetic 
value is that of ck in cAmxcA. Formerly it represented 
also the k sound in classic and scripture words ; but 
these are now written with c before the strong vowels, 
and qu before the weak ones : — 



Consonants^ 



mucho, mtich. 
hecho, dane^ made. 
muchacho, boy, 
avechuolio, sparrow-hawk, 
cbillar, to shouts scream, 
Acates, Achates, 
Cristiano, Christian, 



ducho, expert, 
cuchara, spoon, 
bicho, insect, 
alcachofa, artichoke, 
chiquitin, a little one, 
Aquiles, Achilles, 
Ecequias, Hezekiah, 



D. 



3a D has technically the common English sound ; 
but, as in the case of b and v^ there is simple contact 
without pressure, on the part of the organs involved in 
its formation. The Spanish dy therefore, has never the 
decided English sound, being rather inclined to a 
smothered th in Mough : — ^ 



dorar, to gild, 
desde, from, 
dehesa, pasture ground, 
sdbdito, subject, 
albedrio,/r^^ wiU, 



fndio, Ecut Indian. 
arde, it burns, 
sordera, deafness, 
tildar, to censure, 
verdadero, true. 



31. Between vowels, especially in the endings adoy 
eda, idoy odOy udo, d has a less equivocal sound of th in 
/Aough, wea/Aer. At the end of a word its quality is 
the same, but it is asserted with much less decision : — 



hado, fate, 
blvidado, forgotten, 
marido, husband, 
polvareda, cloud of dust, 
lodo, mud, 
engrudo, paste. 



corned, ecd ye, 
virtud, virtue, 
ciudad, city, town, 
verdad, truth, 
usted, you, 
vivid, Hve ye. 



The d thus pronounced may be graphically repre- 
sented by the (^ raised above the line to suggest the 
tenuity of its value; as, di^o^ co-m^i^, lai^rdr. This /^ 



lo Phonology, 

must never be pronounced as in /Aink, however, which 
is the characteristic of c weak (§ 28). 

a. Dr always equals d'r or f^V, but not as in drt^xa : 
^rama, drama ; a^rede, on purpose (obsolete) ; Ma^d. 

G RAKD mnd Go. 

32. G^ before the strong vowels or another conso- 
nant, and gu before the weak vowels, sound like g in 
go and /»ilt : — 

albergue, refuge, 
manguito, muff, 
gulnda, cherry. 
malaguefio, cfAfdia^, 



gasto, expense* 
^SpQ^^ fruiHon, 
gula, glutt4my, 
guante, gicve. 
greda, chalk. 



guisado, stewn 



a. If etymology or uniformity of the g value in in- 
flection require the u in gue, guiy to become vocal^ as it 
is in the combinations gua, guoy then the diaeresis must 
always be employed : — 



agua, water, 
lengua, tongue* 
fragua, he forges. 

So also 

agttero» omen {attgurium) . | agUelo, grandfather (for abud^. 



desagtte, drainage, 
lingOista, linguist, 
fragile, he may forge. 



G» J* GUTTURAL. 

33. Gy before the weak vowels, andy in all positions, 
but chiefly before the strong vowels, have the gfuttural 
sound of the Arabic hkd. This sound is often repre- 
sented by the German ch after strong vowels (as in 
Ba^A, Lo^A, Bur// ; not as in PerA, LirAt, Burner), and the 
modern Greek T^vyo^* fidxcupa, etc., but it is like none 
of them sufliciently to be cited as equivalents, save the 
Arabic. It must be learned from a native of Castile : — 



CoHsanaHis, 



ti 



algibe, cistern, 
^fli^e, he afflicts, 
diligencia, mail-coach. 
gime, he groans. 



byof 

Jarro, weUer-'^ikher, 

ataio, jAar# (»/ (Jkith). 

trabajo, ia^or. 

mujer, woman. 

bandeja, waiter (for serving). 



a. In Andalusia (Southem Spdn) this sound is reduced to the 

H. 

34* /T is totally silent In the sixteenth century it 
had a decided aspiration, of which it still retains a slight 
trace before the diphthong ue, not, however, appreciable 
to most foreigners: — 



habtar, to sfieah. 
liaber, to have. 
ahf, there. 
hacemos, we tnake^ 
hermano, brother. 



huevo, egg. 
huerta, ptantaOon. 
hueso, bone. 

^««^^» \ names of places. 
I, > 



Huesca, 



35. i/ sounds as in English. The Latin ml^n^ or, fay \o^ «f flM 
ihort vowel, m^n^ becomes Spanish by changing n into r and in- 
serting b, which in this situation is distinctly enunciated. Thus, 

bonsbr^, man^ from homlne-n). 

nomIn[e-ni] for nomen* 



nombre, name, 
cumbre, top, 
lumbre, light , 
Biimbre, rush, 
liambre, hunger, 
hembra, female. 



culmlne-m. 

lumln[e-m] 

vimlue-m. 

fiua[Ine-mi 

foemlna-m. 



** lumen. 



(4 



famem. 



a. Mn, not contracted from mtn, usually becomes /I («;/) by 
assimilation of the m^\ ^ommxrta makes sue««o, sue^o, dream. 
Even in words in which the mn are retained, the lower orders often 
pronounce them pn and gn ; as h!/^o or \i\gno for \C\mno, hymn. 
So the ancients (thirteenth century) occasionally wrote Dy/na an4 



I Seei Hoto pQ ^ 



J 3 Phonology. 

BygnsL for Calila e DimftSi (Fables of Bilpay). Compare the Greek 
hu/Mos and Latin som^us. 

i. Latin and English mm stand in modem Spanish 
as nm : — 

ininenso, boundless. inmortal, immofial. 

R SMOOTH* 

36. Single r, between vowels, has the pure alphabetic 
sound, as in very : — 

ara, aKar, \ bolero, a dance. | toro, bull. 

37. Before any consonant, and after 6, d, /, v, — r must 
always have a full, decided, and independent sound : — 

arde, if burns. 
hombre, man. 

catre, cot-bed. 

Thus arr-i^eyy om^-Vreyy kd'frey. 



ladra, {the dog) barks.. 
lastre, ballast. 



3a When final, the single r is still more distinctly 
pronounced, and is emphasized almost into the charac- 
ter of the double rr: — 

vivir, to live. 
placer, pleasure. 

The vowel before r is to be given quick and emphatic, 
not drawling as in English. 



hablar, to speak. 
comer, to eat. 



R ROUGH. 

39. When the single r stands at the beginning of a 
word, or after the letters /, «, j, it is pronounced with a 
rolling sound. 1 The same is always the case and in all 
positions when the r is doubled : — 

1 This rough sound of r after /, n, and i, has occasioned the intercalation 
of d, as well as the obsolete makeshift of transposition. Thus val</rd for vaVrd; 
^esidxk for vetCrd (ancient vemd) ; ten</rd for ten*ra (ancient terna) ; Es^ras, 
Ezra, for Es'ras, So also tierno, ten</er, came from ten'ro (tSnSru-m) and 
yenvo (French gen^re) from ^en*ro (gSnSru-m), by metathesis of nr. 



Consonants. 



13 



R SMOOTH. 

pera, pear. 
aro, hoop, 
pardo, grey, 
puerto, port, 
tarde, evening. 
cordero» lamb. 
bruto, brute, 
ladron, thief, 
triste, s€ui, 
arar, to plotigh, 
acabar, to finish. 
vcr, to see. 



R BOLUNG. 

ruedo, (door)mat, 
rogar, to request. 
ramo, bough. 
roto, broken, 
rufdo, noise. 
alrededor, around. 
enredo, snarl, plot. 
honra, honor. 
Israelita, Israelite, 
error, error, 
parra, grapevine. 
torre, tower. 



S. 



40. S is always and in every position pronounced like 
the English s in jaid, never as in pha^e, wayj ; — 



mesa, table. 
camisa, shirt. 
base, basis. 
los, las, the. 
dtmdc, from, since. 



racimps, clusters. 

pasas, raisins. 

ese, esa, eso, that (is, ea, id) . 

grueso, bulky. 

lesna, anvl. 



41. X is now everywhere pronounced as in English, 
that is, ks : — 

- ejacto, exact, \ sexo, sex. 

Remark. — The national prefix es, when it comes from the Latin 
ex, has now been graphically (at least) fixed by the Academy as ex'. 
The people, however, very generally continue to pronounce, for ex- 
ample, 

e.tranjero.>-«i»«r, ? ^y,^ ^^ ^^^ < extranjero. 

estenor, external, > c exterior. 

This has produced among the illiterate great confusion, by reason 
of their interchanging the es from ex with es prothetic, as in «pl^n- 
dido, ^cuela, from the Lat. splendidus, schola. So one hears tx- 
plendor, ejxalera, e;rcdndalo, and even ercoba, — for erplendor, 



14 Phonology. 

splendor; ejcalen, staircase; e^dlndalo, scatukU; aftd ejcoba, a 
broom} 

Ligatured Consonants, 

42. Z/ is pronounced like /> in •*wil//oti/* or I/i 

in WU/iam : — 



sello, stamp. 
silla, chair* 
polilla, moths. 
rastrillo, raJU* 



Have, k^. 
lloro, weeping. 
lleno, fM* 
Uuevg, fif rM^< 



N. 

43. iV with tilde « (^) is pronounced «>, as in " a« 
^w/" or like ni in u«/on • : — 

otofio, autumn. 
barrefio, dish-trough. 
engafio, deception. 



afio, year. 

peldallo, round {of a ladder) 

lefia, firewood* 

guifiada, wink. 



rebaflo, flock. 
44. Ligatured vowels are diphthongs and triphthongs. 



1 A eopy of the Udt Dictionary of tlM Academy (1869), printed oa one lide 
of a leaf only, leaving the other blank, and which belonged to the late Aeade« 
mician Selior Segovia Izquierdo, fell into my possession at Madrid shortly after 
the owner's death in 1875, la it I fiad in his handwriting twoi^-eight ex- 
amples of these false ex's under this characteristic epigraph : ** Voces que, 
comenxando con la sSlaba f j, baa dado los ignorantes en cseribtr co» ^s." He 
omitted, however, ^xplendor and expUndido, whi^h I have often beard from 
otherwise clever, though unlearned, persons. 

s From titUU-m, a corrupt form of iltUlu-m, in its later signification of mark, 
sign — contracted regularly A'/7^m, and by metathesis of the /7, iilte, tilde. 

* The origin of ^ is the mark of abbreviation over the original hh, nm 
(da«ffu-m, daivao, da^o, hss). In the earliest Spanish MS9. the bar {ras^d) 
appears as a mere sign of shortening, as oaio for ann(K Mr. Vollmdller, m his 
edition of the Poema del Cid, has mistaken this ras^o for a phonetic sigi) or 
fitde, which If certainly came to be later. Mr. Pidal was therefore correct |n 
regarding it as a nnere note of abbreviation, and hi printing anno, although we 
0|^e it were prefiNabie to havo reproduced fBUCMutty tbe original bar {Smiy. 



Accents 



n 



Tonie AeeenU 

45. Words ending in a consonant not infl€Ctioiial» are 
regularly accentuated on the ultimate^ unless otherwise 
graphically indicated : — 



verdad» trutk. 
corner^ to uU. 
jardin, garden, 
amor, hv4, 
desleal, diskytd, 
de^pues, afterward^. 
Adam, Adam. 
Frances, Frenchman, 
Aleman, German* 
capaz, ca^a^'. 
desliz, («Mr«/> O^. 



C41i2, (sacramental) cup, 
hui^ped, g-uest, 
Arbol, tree. 
tnirmol, marble. 
c^kcel* prmn^ 
sJctor, ifartifiedy pqktce^ 
titil, useful, 
CAdiz, Cadt2, 
T^lmesis, Thames. 
Est^ban, Siephem, 
Bdrgos, Burgm (II^/syvK)* 



An inflectional termination is the plural sign (r^ es) 
or the tense endings {s, es, mos, an, en). 

a. The words oariCoter, ekaracter, and r4f^XMn^ gov- 
ernment, regimen, form the irregularly accented plurals 
caract/res^ regiments. 

b. Infinitives and Imperatives second person plural, 
follow the regular rule of consonant terminals : — 



querer, ta wish, 
comprar, to buy. 



quered, wish ye. 
comprad, buy ye. 



c. The second person plural of verbs has the accent- 
uation on the ultimate, or the diphthong, unless other- 
wise graphically marked : — 



Uamais, ye coil. 
qu/^]ieis, ye wish' 
dtdSf ye iayn 



UamAbais, ye were eaUingn 
qn^riais, ye were wishimg, 
comprAseis, ye should buy. 



i6 



Phonology. 



d. Proper names in ez and a few in es accentuate the 
penult ; the rest follow the general rule of consonant 
terminals : — 



Fernandez. 


CervAntes. 


Soils. 


Martinez. 


M6ntes. 


Mad6z. 


S^chez. 


Sanchiz. 


Vald^s. 


Diez. 


Ruiz. 


Viv^s. 


F16res. 


Mufilz. 


Cortes.' 



46. Words ending primarily in a vowel or a diphthong 
(which is always considered as constituting a single 
syllable) are regularly accentuated on the penult, unless 
otherwise marked : — 



odio, hatred. 
rostro, countenance. 
biiitre» vtdture. 
manteca, butter. 
audiencia, upper court. 
andamio, staging. 



l&stima, pity. 
zdngano, drone. 
mAquina, machine. 
alegrla, joy. 
alell, gillyflower. 
compr6, he bought. 



a. This principle is not modified by itiflectionail end- 
ings. See, however, § 45, by c : — 



odios, rancor. 
amas, thou lovest. 



m^quinas, machines. 
quieren, they wish. 



47. Compound words have the accentuation of their 
simple components, and adverbs in mente follow the 
natural stress of the adjective to which that ending is 
attached : -— 

un pisa-verde, an exquisite. 
un saca-corchos, a corkscrew. 
un corta-plumas, a penknife. 



fi&ciln^ente, easily. 
siLbiamente, sagely. 
ten^mente, tenaciously. 



1 The unaccented endings ez, es, are patronymics, formed on the basis of 
the Latin ablative is. Thus, Femdndez is from ^ Ferdinandis, of the Ferdi' 
nand family ; Cervdntes, from ^ Servandis, of the Servandos. The accented 
ending es^ on the contrary, is geographical, from -ensis, formed like Carthor 



Accent. 



17 



Chraphic Accent. 

4a The acute accent (') is the only mark now in use 
in Spanish. It should be graphically applied only in 
the following cases : — 

a. To indicate an irregularly accentuated syllable :— 



melancdlico, mdanchofy. 
par^ntesis, parenthesis, 
venlamos, we were coming, 

b. To distinguish homonyms : — 



macho, much. 
espafiol, Spanish. 
francos, French. 



a, hcu (obsolete). 

al, to the. 

aun, yet^ still » 

de, oft from. 

e, /have (obsolete). 

el, the. 

ha, hcu. 

luego, afterward. 

mi, my. 

mas, but* 

o, oh. 

se, one's self. 

si, //. 

te, thee. 

tu, thy. 



^, to, in, ai. 

dl, othenvise (alids)» 

^un, even, also, 

66, he may give. 

6, and (before i or hi). 

^1, he, him. 

hd, ago. 

lu^go, therefore^ 

m(, me (prepositional case). 

mils, more. 

6, or (and u before o). 

s^, I knew \ be thou. 

si, yes; one'^s self (prepos. case). 

t^, tea. 

t&,thou. 



c. To distinguish verbs identical in form with other 
parts of speech ; also verbs with pronouns attached to 
them : — 

cdmo, feat. 
su^fio, I dream. 
si^ntese, sit down. 



como, as. 
suefto, dream. 
dime, .^e me. 
tdngase, let him have. 



v^te, be off {go thyself). 



giniensis. Span. Carfaginis ; Valdensis^ Span. Valdis, See Godoy Alcdntara : 
Apellidos Castellanos^ Madrid, 187X, — a very interesting, but not very scholarly. 
book, in view of the author's fodlities. 



IS 



Phowohgy. 



d. To distinguish demonstrative adjectives used sub- 
stantively : — 



aquel, that (ilky 
ese, tMa/ (Jsti). 
este, tkis (hie). 



aqu^, thai ous. 
^se, that one, 
^ste, this am. 



e. To distinguish the interrogative and exclamatory 
use, direct and indirect, of certain pronofuns and ad- 
verbs : — 



C($mo, howf 
cu^, ivhich f 
cudn, haw! 
cuindo, when f 
cuinto, how mueh f 
cuyo, whose f 
d(5nde« where t 
qu^, whatf 
qui^n, whof 



como, as, 
cual, as^ which, 
cuan, as. 
cuando, wAm. 
cuanto, as muck, 
cuyo, wkosB, 
dondft, where, 
que, which, thai, 
quien, who, 

f. In certain correlatives : — 

qui^n— ^qui^, one — another, some — others, 
tudks-^cufles, edme-^others. 

Remark.*- The Academy does not always strictly observe its 
own rules touching the graphic accent, but the great printers of 
Madrid (Aribau & Co., Fortanet, and Ginesta) are sufficient guides. 

JDtviaion o/ SyUableB. 

49. A single consonant between vowels begins a 
syllable : — 

me-sa, taUe, \ la-bor, needle-work, 

a. The letters ck^ rr, //, and H, are considered as 
simple consonants, and follow the same rule : — 



mu-cha-cho, 6oy, 
pan-ta-lla, lamp-shade. 



ni-fio, child, 
tie^rra, land. 



CapiUii Letters. 19 

W. Two set^rable consonants standing between vow- 
els are divided : — 

pucr-ta, door. \ gtis-to, pleasttre. 

Exception. — the letters b, c, ch, d.fygjy /, q, t, v, z, 
followed by / or r, cannot be separated, unless they 
unite compound words : — 

jya-ta-bra, w&tii. I ta-bU, kaard. 

ai-flo, century. I po-drd, he will be able. 

sub-lu-nar, sub^mir. 

51. Three or four consonants, of which s is thfe scc-r 
ottd, divide srfter the x ; *— 

cons-tan-te, constant. \ trans-cri-bir, to copy. 

«. Otherwise compound words are to be resolved into 
their elements : — 

cor-ta-pla^nmB,^ta«ibv^ I ca-ri~Iar-go, lon^faced. 
pre-po-si-cion^ pteposiHem. I ad-je-ti-vo, at^ictive. 

5Z True diphthongs and triphthongs are indivisible : 

Vie4ni(, -he comes. j bue-no, good. 

ppQ-clrtU, ye ptwo. I va-cieis, ye may empty* 

but 

ki*Qr, ptaise. I le^r, to read. 

TL-X^^'VL^y coffin. I %;axi'T6LrK^ false key. 

Capitol Letters* 

i3. These follow the same general laws as in English, 
with the following important exceptiohs : — 

a. Adjectives derived from the names of nations, 



20 Phonology. 

provinces, towns, and men, are written with small 

initials : — 

el idioxna irances» the French language. 

la sal andaluza, Andalusian wit and humor. 

las tablas alfonsfes, the Alfonsinian Tables. 

la escena madrilefia, the Madrid stage [theatre). 

but 

el Andaluz, the Andalusian. I el Frances, the Frenchman. 
el lliajd^tSLQ^theMadriUnian. \ el Catalan, the Catalonian. 

b. The pronoun yo, /, is written with a small initial, 
unless it begins a sentence after a period, or introduces 
a quotation : — 

^1 y yo, he and I. \ dijo : ** Yo soy," he said: **itis /." 

Orthographic Signs. 

54. The diaeresis is used to dissolve a diphthong, and 
to render vocal a silent u after g : — 

sUave, mild. I liela, it glimmers. 

cigUena, stork. I argllir, to argue. 

55. The punctuation marks are identical in Spanish 
and English, except the signs of interrogation and ex- 
clamation, which in Spanish, beside the regular form at 
the end of the phrase, are inverted at the beginning: — 

I tiene usted un libro ? have you a book f 

\ cuin presto se va el placer ! how quickly pleasure passes away! 

56. The following are the technical names of most of the terms 
relating to orthographical signs : — 

interrogation Cj-?) interrogacion. 
exclamation (;-!) admiracion. 
dash ( — ) rayita. 

** (....) puntos suspensivos. 
double dash (=^) dos rayltas. 



comma (,) coma. 
semicolon ( ; ) punto y coma. 
colon ( : ) dos puntos. 
period (.) punto. 
full stop, punto final. 



Castilian Vulgarisms. 



21 



hyphen (-) guion. 
diaeresis (••) crema. 
parenthesis ( ) par^ntesis. 
brackets ([]) corchetes. 
brace (|) corchete. 
apostrophe (') apdstrofo or virgu- 

liUa. 
quotation marks (•*'') comillas. 
index (^P) manecilla. 
star (*) estrellita. 
asterisk^ asterisco. 
dagger (f) cruz. 



section (§) pdrrafo. 
Paragraph (If) calderon. 
///f/f (') tilde, as n, 
bar ( ) rasgo, as admon. for 

administracion, <2^^^.* 
cedilla (9) cedilla (obsolete), 
^ar^/ (/\) Uamada. 
capitcUs (letras) mayusculas. 
small letters^ minusculas. 
catch word, reclamo. 
reference^ cita, llamada. 
italics^ cursiva, bastardilla. 



to underscore^ subrayar. 



«•* 



NOTE 

ON Castiuan Vulgarisms among the lower classes, frequently 

QUOTED IN literature. 
Towels. 

57. The vowel e is occasionally employed for i: — 

prencipal for principal. vesita for visita. 

prencipio ** prlncipio. enquilino " inquilino. 

vesitar " vlsitar. endina " indigna. 

denguno for ninguno. 



SB, Vowels are diphthongized irregularly, and i inserted : — 

quli for ca. 

naide *' nadie. 

Alifonso, a, " Alfonso, a. 



halga for haya. 
cudiao 1 



cuidiao / 



" cuidado. 



59. The diphthong ie is reduced to its primitive e, and vice 
versa : — 

pacencia for paclencia. | concencia for conctencia. 

diferlencia for diferencia. 



1 This sign of abbreviation which originated the tilde is taken from the 
Arabs. See Wright's Arabic Grammar. Vol. I., p. 23, d. 



OMMMMUUitS* 

60. ^Midtreaslly P98S over into ^ by the aspirate A :^ 

Tuelve, he returm^ makes huelve and guelve. 

bueno,^iw^, *• hueno •• giUeno. 

ihvift\Q^ grandfather ^ ^ ahuelo " agtielo. 

bufaardilla, a//iV» "^ huardilla " gvlrdiUa. 

a. Qa th« other hand, g ]^si8ses over into b dirougb hi — 

agur, bye-bye^ makes ahur and abur.^ 
ag:uja, medle^ ** abuja ^ abtija. 
agujero, hoU^ •* abujero " bujero. 

Some of these formfn vix.* <9iiUh> guar^Ua, abur, avur, and 
ahur^ are included in the native dictionaries, while all are frequent 

in the national drama and fwvelq <U cosiumbrei* 

• 

61. Cc, C is rejected before c and /, as might be expected from 
the national repugnance to double letters : — 

efeto for efecto. 



acton for aeeton. 
aflicion " afliccioil. 
facioso " faccioso. 



direto " directo. 
conduta " conducta. 



Hence the liteiary forms ob)«to, ^9^^ and sujeto, suhfect, 
afioion (zS^z^ici), fondness ^ io obedience to this popular law* 

62. Ch, Among the peasants of both Castiles, a very peculiar 
sound of the ch is frequently heard, approaching the Basque ts : — 
mvichiLchsi, Itche, cka^SL. 



■^■♦*— a n i l I M > «**!*»<< i^—^»« 



1 Agur (French keur in bon/kur, malhatr) is a renmani of the Reiiian pass- 
ing salutation " bonum augurvim tibi sit," our *' good luck to you/* now used 
in Spain in turning from a person or on leaving a shop. The popular tradition 
is that ft means the devit, and perhaps the original should read ** prosit tibi 
Augur/' the Augur {Le, Apollo) be with thee. At all events. th« oel^rated 
statesman and scholar, Martinez de la Rosa, sought to exorcise the paganism 
by saying " Abur adios** 

^ See among many othen fhe saineUs of RamtOn de la Cruz, Madrid. 1843, 
a vols. 8* ; the Bscenas AfmiHNmuf, of Ae now venerable Mesonero Romanos, 
best edition^ Madrid. i86a; th« Es^mu AmdtUwuu, by " El Selitario** (Serafin 
Est^banez Calderon). Madrid^ 1847, 4*, and the Bspm^lts Pit^tadM per si 
mismos, containing articles by the liest tsJeal^ qi oootcmpofajry ^p^ua. 



CastilUm Vtdjgarisms. 



^J 



63. Di Thk feller k tonstantlx omitted botmmi vowtla ind 
when final : — 



Prio 


for 


Prado, 


t6o 


for todo«. 


casao 


M 


casado. 


k 


" dp. 


lao 


« 


lado. 


p\xi ser 


" pucde ser. 


ocupao 


M 


ocapad<k 


MadH 


<^ Madrid. 


mario 


<l 


marido. 


com^ 


" corned. 


vi'a 


M 


vida. 


berda 


« verdad. 


n&aand 


na« 


nada» 


necesii 


** necesidad. 



ttsU aad oit£ for usted. 
The contraction do for wh is Goii),mQa to all classes. 

a. This system of suppression has produced the degeneration of 
Spanish words from tlie Latin : — 



Md$ce» io sii^. 


Old Spftn. 


seer,' 




Mpdwi 


scr, /!p ^^* 


Ticl4$re» to s<e^_ 


M 


y^^% 




M 


ver, /<? j#^. 


legCre^ to read^ 


(( 


leer. 




M 


ker. 


comedSrey io eat. 


M 


comer, 




M 


corner^ 


dcHetmny crimen 


M 


delicto 




M 


delito. 


mente captu^, silfy. 


M 


mentecapto* 


M 


xnentec^to. 


civljtat-em, state^ 


M 


cibdad, 


town 




ciudad. 



64. //^ before «tf frequently passes over into^;-r- 



guevo for huevo. 
I^erta " huerta. 



gUeso for hueso. 
I^espede " hu^sped. 



These incorrect forms are met with in the old literature, especially 
in Mss. Giieie for Huete, Giiesca for Huesca. See also B, V. 

65. U like y consonant : — 

yeno for lleno. | yeba for Ueva. 

66. ^ is frequently dropped or barely aspirated, especially when 
final: — 



pu^ or pue' for pues. 



I Io' bueno' for los buenos. 



1 Gerund : seyendo ; part, past, stydo, stido^ and sido^ in Old Spanish, even 
in documents dated as late as X5oa to 1546, in my possession. 



24 Phonology, 

67. Kis often pronounced too emphatically, like the Englishy.- — 



y^gua, mare. 






ya, already. 


yeso, lime. 






yo,/. 


L Metathesis is very 


common : — 


Blivia and blibia 


for 


Biblia, BibU, 


probe 


u 


pobre, poor. 


pedricar 


« 


predicar, to preach* 


presona 


« 


persona, person. 


percurador 


u 


procurador, aUorney, 


perlado 


« 


prelado, prelate. 


naide 


M 


nadie, nobody. 



" abemuncio " (Sancho) " " abrenuncio " (D. Quijote), / renounce, 

69. Other vulgar forms are conosgo for conozco, / knew ; 
dende for desde ; denantes for ^tes ; onde for donde. Gipsy 
words abound in the vocabulary of the lower orders ; as, chav6 for 
muchacho; parn^ for dineto; camelar for querer; diquelar for 
ver,* etc. Of English the Peninsular war seems to have bequeathed 
only el monls, the money / 

1 The best work for these terms, which are scattered about the modem 
popular drama, is El Gitdnismo^ containing Grammar and Vocabulary, by F. 
S. Mayo, alihs QuindaI6, Madrid, 187O1 la*, pp. 15a. 



Section Second. 



•«o*- 



FORM AND INFLECTION. 

JPreliminary Metnarks* 

70. There are in Spanish the usual nine Parts of Speech ; namely, 
the noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, participle, adverb, preposition, 
conjunction, and interjection. 

71. Of these Parts of Speech, the first five are capable of various 
degrees of inflection ; the rest are said to be invariable} 

72. The inflection of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns may also 
be called declension ; that of verbs, conjugcUion, Adjectives, adjec« 
tive pronouns, and past participles are likewise said to be varied^ 
with respect to gender and number. 

73. Declinable or inflected words have number, gender, and, to 
a certain extent, case. Verbs have number and person, mode and 
tense. 

74. The declinable parts of speech are inflected by the aid of 
prepositions, chiefly de, of, fronts and 4 to^ at, which may for this 
reason be termed case-prepositions. 

75. Although cases are, properly speaking, wanting in Spanish, 
except in the personal pronouns, their technical names are con- 
venient for exact and concise statement. We shall, therefore, desig- 
nate them as follows : — 



^ The inflection of a word signifies the various changes that take place in its 
structure or endings to expiess number, gender, case, person, mode, and tense. 

as 



26 



Form and Inflection. 





Case Name. 


Enff. Eqnlvalent. 


Span. 
Slgrns. 


En^r. Slffna. 


N. 


Nominative. 


Nomin. or Subject. 






G. 


Genitive. 


Possessive. 


de 


's,s\of,from. 


D. 


Dative. 


Indirect Objective. 


k 


tOy at. 


I.A. 


Impersonal Accusative. 


Direct Objective. 






P.A. 


Personal Accusative. 


Direct Objective. 


k 




P. 


Prepositional. 


QViih any preposition,) 



76. The Accusative is usually like the Nominative when the direct 
object of an active transitive verb is the name of a thing, animal, or 
place (Impersonal Accusative) , and like the Dative when the direct 
object represents a person, thing, or abstract quality personified 
{^Personal Accusative) : — 



este muchacho destroza sob libros, 
un buen padre quiere ^ sob hijos, 
el vicio aborrece & la virtud, 



this boy mutilates his books, 
a good father loves his childrea. 
vice abhors virtue. 



77. The Prepositional case is like the Nominative, except in cer- 



tain personal pronouns : — 

el nifio sale i. paseo con el ve- 

cino, 
no podrd hacer eso sin ml, 
estaba fiiera de sf de gozo, 
; Dios se apiade de ti ! 
no quiero ir con ^1, 



the child goes out to walk with 

the neighbor, 
he cannot do that without me. 
he was beside himself for joy. 
may God take pity on thee ! 
I do not care to go with him. 



78. Leading prepositions are : — 



4, to (motion to) ; at (position), 
ante, before (presence), 
con, with (means, accompaniment) . 
contra, against, 

de, of from (possession, origin). 
desde,/r^7///, since (time, place), 
en, /», at (state, place), 
entre, between (two) ; afnong 
(several). 



hdcia, towards^ toward, 
hasta, //'//, until^ to^ up to, 
para,/J7r (destination) ; /^(end). 
para con, toward (moral direc- 
tion), 
por, by (agent) ; for (motive). 
sin, without, 
sobre, on^ upon. 
tras, after ^ behind (order). 



Preliminary Remarks. 



27 



a. The following govern the Genitive : — 



d casa de, to one's house (motion) . 
dntes de, before (time, order), 
despues de, after (time, order), 
delante de, before (place, posi- 
tion) . 
de trds de , behind (place , position). 



cerca de, near. 

en casa de, in, ait one's house 

(rest) . 
Hjos 6&, far. from, 
encima de, on, upon, over, 
debajo de, under^ beneath. 



Ezaoiplefl. 



entrega el libro al hombre, 

vamos todos & Sevilla, 

cartas k varios, 

Pedro quiere k Juan, 

estd & la puerta, 

ante el rey, el alcalde, 

se hirid con una lanza, 

salid con un aniigo, 

se sublevaron contra la autori- 

dad, 
la madre del mozo, 
la fuerza de la sangre, 
vengo de Italia, 
construido de laton, 
contento de dlguien, 
vive del viento, 
bebe del vaso, 
es amado de todos, 
desde aquel dia, 
desde el palacio, 
en Madrid ; en casa, 
en el campo ; en la ciudad, 
esta carta es para mf, 
lo hago para un amigo, 
se come para vivir, 
justo para con los hombres, 
hecho per un artesano, 
creado pop Dios, 
per un buen motive. 



he delivers the book to the man. 
let us all go to Seville, 
letters to divers (persons). 
Peter likes John, 
he stands at the door, 
before the king, the mayor, 
he wounded himself with a lance, 
he went out with a friend, 
they revolted against the authori- 
ties, 
the lad's mother, 
the power of blood. 
I come from Italy, 
made out of brass, 
satisfied with somebody, 
he lives on air. 
he drinks out of a glass, 
he is beloved iDy all. 
from (since) that day. 
from the palace, 
at Madrid ; at home, 
in the country ; in the city. 
this letter is for me. 
I do it for a friend, 
men eat to live, 
just toward men. 
made by a mechanic, 
created by God. 
for a good reason. 



28 



Form and Inflection. 



salid sin capa, 
traa este sugeto vino OtrO, 
& caaa del cura» 
tetes de ^ste entr^ yo, 
AateB del tiempo, 
usted esti Antes de dl, 
despues de esto, 
vino despnes de mf, 
delante del palacio, 
detr^ de la puerta, 
cerca de la ciudad, 
en caaa de un amigo, 
l^jos de la poblacion, 
endma de la mesa. 



he went out without a doak. 

after this person came another. 

to the curate's (house). 

I came in before this (man). 

before the time. 

you are before him (rank). 

after this. 

he came after me. 

before the palace. 

behind the door. 

near the city. 

at a friend*s (house). 

far from the town. 

on the table. 

under the table. 



debajo de la mesa. 

Remark. — In giving the various inflections of declinable words, 
the enumeration of cases will ordinarily be limited, for brevity's 
sake, to the Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and one of the two Accu- 
satives. 

The Articles.^ 

79. The Articles are of two sorts : the Definite, el, 
thsy and the Indefinite, un, an or a. They agree with 
the noun they limit in gender, number, and case, and 
are inflected as follows : — 



SINGUUIR. 


PLURAL. 1 


N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 


Masc. 


Fern. 




Masc. 


Fein. 




el 

del 

al 

el 


la 

dela 

&la 

la 


the. 

'j, oft or from the. 

to or at the. 

the. 


los 

delos 

A los 

los 


las 

delas 

A las 

las 


the. 

s\ of ox from the. 

to ox at the. 

the. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 


un 

deun 

A un 

un 


una 

deuna 

A una 

una 


an or a. 

of Qi from an ox a. 
to or at an or a, 
an or a. 


(Wanting.) 



1 Although the Articles are properly determinative adjectives, tb^y are given 
here because they serve to distinguish the gender and case of nouns. 



The Articles. 



29 



80. Del and al are contractions of de el and d el re- 
spectively. At the present day the uncontracted forms 
are used only when the article el belongs to a quoted 
epithet, title, or heading : — 



un suelto de * El Imparcial,' 
una extraordinaria d * El Porve- 

nir,' 
una carta de ' El Globo,^ 



but 



un artfculo de fondo del Diario 

de la Corte, 
una carta al Diario oAcial, 



an item in * The Impartial.^ 
a * Porvenir ' extra. 

a letter in * The Globe.' 



a leader in the Court Journal, 
a letter to the official Gazette. 



81. The Masculine Definite Article el is at present 
regularly employed before a feminine noun in the singu- 
lar number, when it begins with the syllable a or ha 
having the tonic accent : — 



el alma, the soul (in general) . 

el dnima, the soul (in purgatory). 

el ama,^ the mistress, nurse, 

el dgua, the water. 

el dguila, the eagle. 

el ave, the bird (generic). 

el arte, the art. 

el habla, the speech, 

el hambre, the famine. 



but 



las almas, las dguilas, 
el arte po^tica, 
la alta casa, 
el agua esta ya clara. 



la alegna, the Joy. 

la animacion, the stir. 

la aguja, the needle. 

la alhaja, the jewel. 

la avenida, the inundation. 

la armadura, the mounting. 

la hacienda, the estate. 

la hazafia, the eoCploit, 

la Habana, {tJie) Havana. 



the souls, the eagles. 

the art of poetry (poetic art) . 

the lofty house. 

the water is now clear. 



^ Una ama de Haves or de gobierno, a housekeeper ; una ama de leche, a 
wet-nurse; una ama, in general, a mistress^ the lady of the house^ with reference 
to the servants, employees, etc. 



30 



Form and Inflection, 



a. The Indefinite Article is often found employed in 
the same way, whatever be the accent, but not by the 
best modem writers and speakers: — 



un ave, for una ave, 

** con un alma toda fuego,*' 



a bird. 

with a soul all fire. 



82. The Indefinite Article has properly no plural ; 
the adjective unos, fem. unas, some, may, however, be 
used to express the partitive value of a substantive, 
especially when it has an attribute : — 



tengo casas y heredades, 
el rey posee palacios, 
tengo Unas casas muy bonitas, 
el rey posee unos palacios muy 
regalados. 



I have houses and lands, 
the king possesses palaces. 
I have some very pretty houses, 
the king possesses some very 
sumptuous palaces. 



a. When the noun has no attribute, unos is equiva- 
lent to a few^ but with a weaker force than algunos or 
unos cuantos^ in the signification of some^ any, a few: — 



una frutera con unas frutas, 
quiso dar unos pasos, 
I tiene usted (algunos) libros ? 
tengo algunos ; no tengo mas que 
unos cuantos, 



a dish with fruit. 

he was about to take (a few) steps. 

have you (any) books ? 

I have some ; I have only a few. 



Remark. — It is evident, therefore, that there is no partitive 
article in Spanish as in French, although there is a partitive con- 
struction formed by the genitive case : — 



son gentes de las mis ricas que 

hay en la ciudad, 
su marido es elector y de los in- 

fluyentes, 



they are (some) of the wealthiest 

people in town, 
her husband is a voter, and (one) 

of the influential (ones). 



The Articles. 



31 



nie DetermlnatlTe IiO« 



83 The so-called neuter article lo, the^ is employed 
with adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns (very seldom 
and always illogically with nouns), to express substan- 
tive ideas : — 



lo bueno, 

lo malo, 
lo ameno, 
lo posibie, 
lo infame, 
lo mejor, 
lo olvidado, 
lo que, 
lo cual, 
lo mio, 
lo demis, 



the good, that which is good, the good thing {rh 

ayaBov) . 
the evil, that which is bad, the evil thing {ro kokov), 

what is lovely, the loveliness (/.^. of nature). 

what is possible, one^s best, the possibility. 

what is infamous, the infamy. . 
the best, that which is best, the best thing. 

that which is forgotten, the past and gone, 
that which, what ; todo lo que, ail that, 
.which thing, which ; todo lo cual, ailofwhich* 
mine, that which or what is mine (jo ifioy). 
the rest, that which or what remains. 



lo justo no es siempre lo mds 

hacedero, 
lo ameno de este valle, 
hard lo posible para efectuarlo, 

reconozco lo infame de su accion, 

no entiendo lo que dice, 
todo lo que reluce no es ofo, 
dicho lo cual se retird, 
did d cada uno lo suyo. 



what is just is not always what 

is most feasible, 
the loveliness of this vale. 
I shall do my best to bring it 

about. 
I acknowledge the infamousness 

of his act. 
I do not catch what he says, 
all is not gold that glitters, 
saying which he withdrew, 
he gave to each his own. 



a. As a pronoun, as well as an article, lo has a variety 
of uses that need only be illustrated at this point : — 



lo creo, lo aseguro, 

yo soy ciego y 61 no lo es, 

^1 es artista y yo no lo soy. 



I think so, I assert it confidently. 
I am blind and he is not (so), 
he is an artist and I am not (one) • 



32 Form and Inflection, 



es lo de siempre, 

lo del palacio, lo del rey, 

versos ^ lo divino,^ 



it is the old story (that of alway). 
the (affair) of the palace, of the 

king, 
verses (turned) into the sacred 

(style). 



See further under The Adjective. 

The Koun* 

GSSNDISB. 

84^. Spanish nouns have two Genders only : the Mas- 
culine and Feminine. All substantives, even those 
designating inanimate things, substances, and abstract 
ideas, are of one of these two genders : — 



el hombre, the man, 

el caballo, the horse, 

el libro, the book, 

el azucar, {the^ sugar. 

el vicio, {the) vUe^ bad habit • 



la mujer, M^ woman* 
la vaca, the cow. 
la pluma, the pen, 
la leche, {the) milk, 
la virtud, {the) virtue. 



Hence libroy azicar^ vtcio, for example, are gram- 
matically considered to be males, like Aotnire, caballo ; 
and the corresponding pronouns 61, he^ le, hiniy apply 
equally in both cases. So pluma, leche^ virtud, are 
considered as females, and the corresponding pronouns 
would be ella, shcy la, lur, It^ then, is not a translation 
of //, Uy ella, lay when reference is made to the name 
of a thing, substance, or an abstract idea, but an idio- 
matic adaptation to English usage. The Spanish trans- 
lation of it could only be ello as subject, if expressed, 
and lo as object or predicate : — 

1 Such is court or secular poetry metamorphosed into religious verse by a 
sort of sacred travesty. Boscan and Garcilaso (1543) were so transmuted by 
one Sebastian de C6rdoba (1575). For examples, see my edition of Boscan, 
Madrid, 1S75, at pp. xxvii and jao. 



The .Noun, — Gender, 



33 



veo al hombre, le veo, 
tengo el libro, le tengo, 
busco d la dama, la busco, 
busco la pluma, la busco, 
^crees lo que dice? lo creo, 
(ello) consta, U is evident. 



I see the man, I see him. 
I have the book, I have him (it) . 
I seek the lady, I seek her. 
I seek the pen, I seek her (it), 
do you believe what he says? I 
believe it. 



85. General Rule, — In the greatest number of Span- 
ish nouns, the ending o indicates the masculine gender, 
and the ending a the feminine : — 



el hermano. the brother, 
el gozo, the joy. 



la tia, the autit, 

la alegrfa, (the) delight. 



86. The gender of a word may be determined in part 
by its signification and in part by its ending. 

87. Masculines by signification are : — • 

a. All nouns of whatever ending that denote males, 
or the dignities, professions, and pursuits commonly 
assigned to males : — 



el papa, the pope, 

el rey, the king. 

el juez, the judge, 

el cura, the curate, 

el periodista, the journalist, 

el tahur, thegatnbler. 



el grabador, the engraver. 

el albafiil, the mason, 

el ebanista, the cabinet-maker, 

el sastre, the tailor, 

el buey, the ox, 

el avestruz, the ostrich. 



b. The names of countries, cities, and towns usually 
follow the gender indicated by the final vowels o^ a\ \i 
they end in a consonant they are mostly masculine : — 



Valencia, Segovia, la Andalucfa. 
^adrid, Y^leZf Burgos. 



Logrofio, Oviedo, Lugo, el Cdrpio. 
Jadn, Almoddvar, el Escorial. 



34 



Form and Inflectum. 



Remark. — Masculines in o may be poetically used in the femi- 
nine, the noun la ciudad, the city, being understood ; and feminines 
in a are masculine when the inhabitants are intended : — 

la gran Toledo, great Toledo, | todo Mdlaga, {dl Malaga. 

Except in those proper names of places from which the article is 
inseparable : — 



la gran ciudad del Toboso, 
Bernardo del Carpio, 
la Corufia entera. 



the great city of £1 Toboso. 
Bernard of £1 Carpio. 
All Corunna (the "Groyne'' en- 
tire). 



c. The names of most rivers, whatever be the end- 
ing:— 



el Guadiana (wddt-Anas), 
el Guadalquivir (wdd-^l-kebtr^ 
the great river). 



el Guadalaviar (wdd-M-abidd^ 

the white river), 
el Guadalajara (jtony river). 



d. Indeclinable parts of speech and phrases used 
substantively : — 



el porqu^, the wherefore, 

el sf , the consent. 

el pagard, the promissory note. 

los afueras, the outskirts. 

el viva, the applause. 

el p^same, the condolence. 

el conquibus, the wherewithal. 

el creer, believing, belief. 



el besamanos, the (roycd) saluta- 
tion. 

el pro y el contra, the pro and 
con. 

el qui^n sabe, the query. 

el qud dir^n, public gossip. 

el vayven or vaiven (va y viene), 
the oscillation. 



e. The names of most fruit-trees or their wood are 
masculine, while those of their fruits are feminine : — 



el manzano, the apple-tree. 
el castafto, the chestnut-tree. 
el naranjo, the orange-tree. 
el guindo, the cherry-tree, 
el avellano, the hasel^ree. 



una manzana, an apple. 
una castafta, a chestnut. 
una naranja, an orange, 
una guinda, a cherry. 
una avellana, a hazelnut. 



Tfu Noun. — Gender. 



3S 



el olivo, the olwe-iree, 

el peral, the pear-tree, 

el moral, the mulberry-tree. 

el nogal or la noguera, the walnut, 

e! roble or la encina,' the oak. 



una aceituna, an oUve, 
una pera, a pear, 
una mora, a mulberry. 
una nuez, ^ walnut, 
una bellota, aii acorn. 



Exceptions. 



la palmera, the palm-tree. 

la higuera, the fig-tree, 

el limonero, the lemon-tree, 
el membrillero, /^ quince. 
el albaricoquero, /^ apricot. 



\ 



un d^til, A ^iiEz/^. 

un higo, a fig. 

una breva, an early fig. 

un limon, <i lemon, 

un membrlllo, ^ quince. 

un albaricoque, a« apricot. 



Remark. — Elfruto (masc.) is the fruit on the tree, or in a figu- 
rative sense ; la fruta (fem.) is the fruit gathered, exposed in the 
market, or served on the table. On the other hand, la rama is the 
bough or branch attached to the tree, and el ramo^ when plucked, 
as also in a metaphorical sense. 

8a Feminine by signification are : — 

a. All nouns, of whatever ending, which denote fe- 
males, or the dignities, offices, professions, and pursuits 
which may be ascribed in Spanish countries to women : — 



la emperatriz, the empress, 

la reina, the queen. 

la in£dinta, the princess royal, 

la vaca, the cow, 

la gallina, the hen, 

la costurera, the seamstress. 



la estanquera, the tobacconist. 
la patrona, the landlady, 
la peinadora, the ladfs hair- 
dresser. 
la doncella, the lady^s maid, 
la oficiala, the work-woman. 



Except: el duefto, the owner ^ proprietor^ or proprietress; un 
dngel, an angeU which are applicable to persons of either sex. 



1 The Latin quercus exists only in the family name Alburquerque ; that is, 
arbor querci (kerki), the ancestral arms being an oak on a white ground. See 
Madoz &nd Nufiez de Qsistro. Encina is from the diminutive of iUx^ — tlicinu^ 
ekina^ encina. The ancient fisimily name was written £n»ina, EnuMos^ and 
Enfina, etc. Eoble is from robur {rdbdre, roble). 



36 Form and Inflection. 

m 

b. All letters of the alphabet : — 

la b (b^), tA€ Utter b. \ una h (ache), an A. 

89. Masculines by ending are : — 

a. AH nouns, of whatever signification, when they 
end in ^ : — 



el libro, tAe book. 
el reino, the kingdom. 
el sueio, the ground^ floor. 



el tintero, the inkstand. 
el cerro, the hili. 
el palacio, the fiaiace. 



Except : la mano, the haftd; la reo, the {female) culprit. 

b. Nouns in a designating males, or derived from 
Latin masculines : — 



el monarca» the monarch. 
el Carlista, the Carlist, 
el cometa, the comet. 



el plane ta, the planet. 

los albac^as, executors (Arabic). 

el dia, the day. 



Also, el mapa, the map. 

Likewise foreign words in general ending in an accented d : el 
sofd, the sofa; el mand, {the) manna; el albali, the royal patent or 
certificate. 

c. Nouns in a derived from Greek and Latin neuters 
in a (genitive -aTo^^ -atis), or such as follow their anal- 
ogy:— 



el clima, the climate. 

el drama, the drama. 

el enigma, the enigma. 

el idioma,* the language. 

el lema, the motto ^ legend (Xrjfi/xa). 

el tema, the theme, exercise. 



el problema, the problem. 
el poema, the poem. 
el r^uma, the cold. 
el sistema, the system. 
el telegrama, the telegram. 
el programa, the program. 



1 Never idiom as a peculiarity of speech, which is idiotUmo in Spanish. 



The Noun. — Gender, 



37 



9a Feminines by ending are : — 

a. All nouns, of whatever signification, when they 
end in a^ derived from Latin feminines of the first de- 
clension, or from neuter plurals. The latter often have, 
besides the singular meaning, a collective one echoing 
their plural origin: — 



la mesa, the table, 

la tabla, the boards plank, 

la regla, the rule, 

la casa, the house, 

la silla, the chair, 

la puertR, the door^ gate. 



la hoja,* the leaf, leaves, 

la caza, the shooting, game, 

la lefia, the firewood, 

la vifia, the vine, vineyard, 

la boda, the marriage^ nuptials, 

la loza, the crockery * 



From mensa, tab&la, regiUa, casa, sella, porta ; folia, capta, ligna, 
vinea, vota, lutea. 

b. Nouns terminated in dady tady tudy ton, umbrey iCy 
which are derived from Latin accusatives feminine in 
tatenty tutenty ionenty ineniy iem: — 



la verdad, the truth. 

la libertad, (the) liberty, 

la virtud, (the) virtue, 

la nacion, the nation, 

la muchedumbre, the throng. 



la servidumbre, the servatits (col- 
lectively), 
la esp^cie, the species, 
la s^rie, the series, 
la superficie, the surf cue. 



From veritatem, libertatem, virtutem, nationem, multltudinem, 
spedem, etc, 

91. Nouns not denoting males or females, and those 
terminated or derived otherwise than above indicated, 
do not uniformly show the gender, in which case it is to 



1 The collective sense is illustrated in this sentence :. esta planta Ileva mucha 
hoja, this plant bears much leaf^ or has all gone to leaves^ a phraseology very 
common amonjg Castilian farmers and peasants. 



38 



Fdrfft and Inflection, 



be learned by a habit of associating the noun with an 
article': — 



el drbol {arborem^ {.), the tree. 
el talle (la taille)^ the waist. 



la cdrcel {career em ^ m.), the Jail, 
la calle, the street. 



92. Masculine nouns in a may assume the feminine 
article when they are applicable to women : — 



un Belga, 
un Carlista, 
un artista, 
un compatriota« 
un atleta, 
un indigena. 



una Belga, 
una Carlista, 
una artista, 
una compatriota, 
una atleta. 
una indigena. 



a Belgian. 

a Carlist. 

an artist 

a compatriot. 

an athlete. 

a native, abogginal. 



a. On the other hand, a few feminines in a now gen- 
erally assume the masculine article when they denote 
male persons : — 



la centinela, 
la espia, 
la guard ia, 
la guia. 



el centinela, 
el espia, 

el guardia marina, 
el guia. 



the sentinel, 
the spy. 

the midshipman, 
the guide. 



Except : la recluta, the recruit ; la escolta, the escort, 

b. Several nouns denoting persons, of other endings 
than tty have a common form for both genders : — 



el or la c6mplice. 


the accomplice. 


el or la hereje. 


the heretic. 


el or la intdrprete, 


the interpreter. 


el or la jdven. 


the youth (young man or woman) . 


el or la m;^rtir. 


the martyr. 


el or la reo. 


the criminal, defendant. 


el or la testigo. 


the witness. 


el or la asistente, 


the sick-nurse. 



1 Better witli the itidefinite article, since the definite does not always serve as 
a guide to gender. See 8i. 



'The Noun. — Gender, 



39 



93. Many femmine nouns in tf, denoting things, as- 
sume personal significations, and then may belong to 
either gender, but are preferably masculine : — 

the swordsman. 



la espacja, sword, 
la atalaya^ watch- 
tower, 
la trompeta, trumpet. 
la ayuda, aid,. 
la mdscara, mask, 
la csUavera, skull, 

una ordenanza, ordt-' 
nafue, 

la cabeza, head, 

la guia, guide, gi^ide- 
book, 

la alhaja,7>ze/^/. 

laguarda-ropa, ward- 
robe. 



el espada, 
el atalaya, 

el trompeta, 
el ayuda, 
el <7r la m^cara, 
el caiavera, 

un ordenanza, 

el cabeza {seldom), 
el guia, 

el alhaja, 

el guarda-ropa, 



the warden or keeper 
of a watch-tower. 

the trumpeter. 

the aid or aide. 

the masker. 

the mad-cap« harum 
scarum fellow. 

an orderly. 

the head, chief, 
the guide (man). 

the **gem'' (irony).' 
the master of the w. 
(office). 



94. Many ^ouns were formerly feminine which are 
now masculine in ordinary plain prose ; preserving the 
archaic feminine, however, in the poetic, sublime, or 
affected style, and in certain traditional phrases : — 



el mar, the sea, 
el puente, bridge. 



allende la mar, beyond the sea (archaic) . 

la puente Segoviana, the aqueduct at Segovia, 



a, M^gen, margin of a book, or edge of a stream, 
is either masculine or feminine, without difference of 
meaning : — 



las mirgenes de este libro han de 

ser muy anchas, 
pas^andome por el mdrgen del 



no. 



the margins of this book are to 

be very broad, 
walking along the margin of the 



river. 



1 Generally in the phrase : es buen alhaja, he's a **pretty ** fellow, a ** hrighi 
boy^^Ct meaning, he is a man of doubtful reputation, a "lark/* a hypocrite, etc 



40 



Form and Inflection. 



So el or la dote, the dowry ; but las dotes, (intellectual or mofal) 
endowm/nts. 



b. Arte is feminine in the plural in all senses. In the 
singular it is feminine with some adjectives and mascu- 
line with others, although the feminine greatly pre- 
dominates : — 



las bellas artes, the fine arts, 
el arte po^tica (8i), poetic art, 
the art of poetry. 



las artes mecinicas, the mechanic 

teal arts, 
el arte dramdtico, the drama. 



95. Some nouns, denoting things, have a different 
meaning according as they are masculine or feminine : — 



el cometa, the comet, 

el crisma, (the^ holy oil, 

el c6Iera, the cholera, 

el corte, the cut, edge, 

el canal, the canal (or for irriga- 
tion). 

el capital, capital (money) . 

el moral, mulberry-tree, 

el frente,/r£7«/, head, 

el drden, order (ecdes., polit., 
archit.). 

el parte, despatch, message^ (tel- 
egram, etc.). 

el pendiente, ear-ring, 

el ^z^fish (in the water). 



la cometa, the kite (child's toy), 
la crisma,^ the head (vulgar), 
la oSlera, the rage, 
la cdrte, the court, metropolis. 
la canal, the channel (straits). 

la capital, the capital (city), 
la moral, morals, the moral. 
la frente, the forehead, 
la drden, <?r^/fr (command, order, 

e,g,<t of St. James, etc.). 
la parte, the part, portion. 

la pendiente, shpe, declivity. 
la pez, pitch. 



96. Compound nouns usually assume the gender of 
the second member when that is in the singular ; but if 
it be in the plural the whole word is masculine, which- 
ever be the gender of the second term : — 



^ Because the part christened. The people say : te roropo la crisma (or el 
bautismo), I'll break your head (chrism, baptism). 



The Noun, — Gender. 4 1 



la guardaropa, the wardrobe. 
el guarda-canton,* ^ard-post, 
el fcrro-carril, the railway. 



el cortaplumas, the pen-knife. 
el portamonedas, porte-monnaie. 
el mondadientes, the tooth-pick. 



Except : el tranvfa,* the tramway (horse railroad). 

Remark. — Of course if the word indicates a male person or his 
office it will be masculine : — 

el guarda-aguja,/^ J7c///^^-/^//^r.| el guarda-ropa, the master of the 

I wardrobe. 

Formation of the Feminine of Personal Nonns. 

97. Masculine nouns indicating persons, their employ- 
ments, creeds, etc., may be made feminine at will by 
observing the following rules : — 

a. By changing final into a : — 



el abuelo, grandfather. 

el hermano, brother. 

el muchacho, boy^ lad. 

el nifio, child, little boy. 

el 2Lm\go. friend. 

el amo, master. 

el compaiiero, companion. 



la abuela, grandmother. 

la hermana, sister. 

la muchacha, girl. 

la nifta, child, little girl. 

la 2xci\^? friend. 

el ama (81), mistress. 

la compafiera, companion. 



Except: el diablo, the evil one; el diicono, the deacon, which 
make in the feminine la diablesa, the she-devil ; la diaconisa, the 
deaconess. Reo is unchangeable : el reo, la reo, the defendant, and 
el dueho means the owner, male or female, while la dueha signifies 



1 1 am ignorant of the technical English equivalent of guardacanton. It is 
a stone post set at the corner or edges of a park and along the country high- 
ways to keep carriages in the road. 

* First introduced into Madrid with the thing itself in 1871, and the gender 
wa^ the object of considerable discussion in the journals. It is now universally 
given as masculine, and sometimes spelled tramvia. 

« In good society, among ladies only. Gentlemen (unless intimate friends) 
use it with qualificatives, or prefer conocida, acquaintance. Es una conocida 
mia, she is a friend ofmine^ or es mi buena amiga ; es muy amiga mia, she is a 
goodjriend of mine. 



42 



Form and If^ection. 



the duenna in all its associations. But dueho^ fern. dueMOt is regu- 
lar in the sense of master, mistress of one's self; as, no fu( duefia 
de mi misma, /was not mistress of myself ^ I co$4ld net control myself . 

b. By adding a to the masculine endings d^ /, n, r^ s, 

and 2 : — 



el hudsped, ^esty boarder. 

el Espaftol, Spaniard. 

un oficial, officer ^ journeyman. 

el Aleman, German, 

el chiquitin, little one, wee thing. 

el seftor, the gentleman, Mr. 

un aguador, waier<arri£r. 

el marques, marquis. 

el Frances, Frenchman. 

un Andaluz, Andalusian. 



la hu^speda, the guest. 

la Espafiola, Spanish woman. 

una ofizyaX'Siyjourneywoman. 

la Alemana, German woman. 

la chiquitina, wee thing. 

la seftora, the lady. Madam, Mrs. 

una aguadora, water girl. 

la marquesa, marchioness. 

la Francesa, French woman. 

una Andaluza, Andalusian. 



c. A few in ^i:?/* and tor change those endings into 
triz : — 



el actor, the actor. 

el emperador, the emperor. 



la actriz, the actress. 

la emperatriz, the empress. 



d. The following add esa to the stem of the mascu- 
line : — 



el abad, the abbot. 
el alcdid-e,' the warden. 
el alcald-e, the mayor. 
el baron, the baron. 
el cond-e, the earl. 
el duqu-e, the duke. 



la abadesa, the abbess. 

la alcaidesa, the warden^s wife. 

la alcaldesa, the may or'' s wife. 

la baronesa, the baroness. 

la condesa, the countess. 

la duqiiesa, the duchess. 



e. The following add isa to the masculine stem : — 



el didcon-o, the deacon. 
el poet-a, the poet. 
el profet-a, the prophet. 
el sacerdot-e, the priest. 



la diaconisa, the deaconess. 
la poetisa, the poetess. 
la profetisa, the prophetess. 
la sacerdotisa, the priestess. 



1 Formerly an alcdide was the commander of a fortress; such a personage is 
now 9. general or comandante^ while alcdide has descended to the chief of a 
state or city prison. The turnkey is el llavero; jailor, carcelero%. 



The Noun, — Gender. 



43 



f. Nouns in e not derived from Latin present partici- 
ples generally change that ending into a : — 



el sastre, the tailor » 
el monje, the ntonk, 
el elefante, the elephant » 



la sastra, the tailoress. 

la moQJa, the nun. 

la elefanta, the elephant. 



Remark. — Hdroe, hero^ makes heroina, heroine, and jabalf , wild 
booTy makes jabalina. 

g. Nouns in ante^ ente, iente {yente), formed from, or 
on the analogy of, the Latin present participle, should 
be invariable ; but popular usage tends more and more 
to give them the feminine in a: — 

la comediante, or la comedianta, 

la farsante, la &rsanta, 

la pariente, la parienta, 

la asistente, la asistenta, 

la pretendiente, la pretendienta, 

la presidente, la presidenta, 

la protestante, la protestanta. 

Exception : la in&nta, the princess rcyal, never la infante. 

9a Some nouns are irregular in the formation of the 
feminine : — 



el comediante, 
el farsante, 
d pariente, 
el asistente, 
el pretendiente, 
el presidente, 
el protestante, 



the actor, actress, 
the ** humbug.'* 
the relative, 
the sick-nurse, 
the claimant, 
the president, 
the protestant.. 



don (with Christian name), Mr. 
el prfncipe, the prince. 
el rey, the king. 
el raton, the rat. 
el gallo, the cock. 



dofta (with Christian name), Mrs. 
la princesa, the prificess. 
la reina, the queen. 
la rata, the mouse. 
la gallina, the hen. 



a. Likewise the following proper names : — 



Cdrlos, Charles. 
Enrique, Henry. 
F^lix, FeUx. 
Josd, Joseph. 
Miguel, Michcul. 
Pablo, Paul. 
Pedro, Peter. 



Carlota, Charlotte. 
Enriqueta, Henrietta. 
Felisa, Felicia, . 
Josefa, Josepha. 
Micadla, Michaela. 
Paula, Paula. 
Petra, Petra. 



44 



Form and Inflection, 



d9. A few nouns have a distinct form for the femi- 
nine : — 



el hombre, the man, 

el padre, the father, 

el marido, the husband, 

el yerno, the son-in-law, 

el caballero, the gentleman. 

el toro, el buey, the buU^ the ox, 

el caballo, the horse, 

el varon,* male (pi persons) . 

el macho, male (of animals) . 



la mujer, the woman, 

la madre, the mother, 

la esposa, the wife, 

la nuera, the daughter-in-law, 

la dama, the lady, 

la vaca, the cow. 

la y^gua {equa) , the tnare, 

la hembra, the female (persons). 

la hembra, the female (animals). 



100. The names of some animals are masculine in 
form, and include the female; others are feminine in 
form, and include the male. To distinguish such, the 
words macho (masculus) and hembra (foemlna) are used 
when necessary : — 



el macho de la perdfz, 
la hembra del niisefior. 



the male pheasant, 
the female nightingale. 



Remark. — An intolerable construction is often heard among 
the uneducated ; for example : la perdiz macho^ el ruisehor hembra. 
In the predicate, however, we would say ; esta perdiz es macho, this 
pheasant is a male; este niisefior seri hembra, this nightingale 
must be a female. 



NUMBER. 



101. Spanish nouns have two numbers, the singular 
and the plural : — 



el hombre, the man, 
la mujer, the woman. 



los hombres, the men, 
las mujeres, the women. 



1 The regular derivative form, la varona, the wopian, in its proper sense, is 
only found once (in Genesis II.), to represent the Hebrew fsAa, — "called 
varona" (UAa, woman), "because she was taken out of varon" {UA, man). 



The Noun. — Number. 



45 



Formation of tike FliiraL 

102. The following assume s : — 

a. All unaccented vowel terminals, except^: — 



la casa, t^e house, 
el billete, the ticket, 
la metrdpoli, the capital, 
el amigo, the friend, 
el espfritu, the spirit. 



las casas, the houses, 
los billetes, the tickets, 
las metrdpolis, the capitals. 
los amigos, the friends, 
los espfritus» the spirits. 



b. The accented vowel terminal /: — 



la«, {the) faith, 

el pi^, the foot, 

el caf(£, the coffee-house. 



las fi^s, the certificates, 

los pids, the feet, 

los cafifs, M^ coffee-houses. 



Except the letter of the alphabet, la i^ las 4es. 



103. The following 

a. All consonant 
(28 a) : — 

el hudsped, the f^iest, 
la verdad, the truth, 
el reldj,* the watch, 
la piel. the skin^ hide, 
el varon, the man^ male, 
la nacion, the nation, 
el dolor, the pain, grief , 
el mes, M^ month, 
el juez, the judge, 
I4 vez, /^ //>M^ (vicis). 



assume ^^ : — 
terminals, converting z into c 



los hu^spedes, M^ hoarders, 

las verdades, M^ truths, 

los relojes, /^ watches, 

las pieles, M^ f^{>u, ^/V^j. 

los varones, the males, 

las naciones, /^ nations, 

los dolores, the pains , sorrow, 

los meses, M^ months, 

los jueces, the judges, 

las veces, /^ //w^j (vices) . 



Remark. — El lordt an English /!?r<af» makes los lores ; la Cdmara 
de los lores, /^ House of Lords, 

1 From horologium, " time reckoner," is now often written reld in the singu- 
lar, and always pronoudted so in Spain ; in the plural it is pronounced and 
written relojes. 



46 



Form and Inflection. 



b. Terminals in ^: — 

el rey, the king, 
la ley, the law. 
el buey, the ox. 



los reyes« the kings. 
las leyes, the laws, 
los bueyes, the oxen. 



c. Accented vowel terminals, except /: — 



el baj^, the pasha. 
el rubf, the ruby, • 
el jabaK, the wild boar. 
el rondd, the rondeau. 
el tisd, the tissue. 



los baj^es, the pashas, 
los rubies, the rubies, 
los jabalfes, the wild boars. 
los rond<5es, the rondeaux. 
los tisdes, the tissues. 



Exceptions in i: el papi, papa^ — los papds; la mami, mam-' 
ma^ — las mamds ; el sofd, the sofa, — los sofiis. 

Except, in /: Mara^>edi (an imaginary coin, in which accounts 
were formerly kept,— thirty-four to a real of five cents), has the 
three plurals : los maravedies^ maravedises, and maravedis, of 
which the first is now obsolete. 

Except. \VL d", el landd, the landau, — los land<5s ; and many 
others. 

Except, in ^ : la tribd, the tribe, — las tribds ; but this word is 
now pronounced tribu. 

Remark. — Letters of the alphabet and most monosyllables be- 
long to this rule : — 



la f, la (5, la d ; 
los sfes y los ndes, 



las fes, las 6es, las des. 
the ayes and noes. 



Better, however, los que dijeron sf, those who said " aye^ etc. 

104. Invariable are : {a) the unaccented endings is 
and es^ in words of more than one syllable ; (p) patrony- 
mics in s and z ; {c) most pure Latin technical or con- 
ventional terms : — 



la crfsis, the crisis. 

el pardntesis, the parenthesis, 

el juives, Thursday, 



las crfsis, the crises. 

los par^ntesis, the parentheses. 

los judves, on Thursdays, 



The Noun. — Number. 



47 



elmdrtes, Tuesday. 
F16res {^proper name). 
Vald^s {proper name). 
Fernandez (^proper name), 
el deficit, the deficit. 



los mdrtes, on Tuesdays. 
los. Flcjres, men like Flares. 
los Valdds, men like Valdis. 
los Fernandez, the Fernandez. 
los deficit, the deficits. 



105. Compound words, when not already plural in 
form, usually attach the plural sign to the last member 
only, unless the first is an adjective or apparently 
such : — 



el padrenuestro, the pater noster. 
el tranvia, the tramway. 
el guardacanton, the guard-post. 
el ferro-carril, the railway. 
el cortaplumas., the pen-knife, 
el mundadientes, the tooth-pick. 



los padrenuestros, pater nosters. 
los tranvias, tramways. 
los guardacantones, guard-posts. 
los ferro-carriles, railways. 
los cortaplumas, pen-knives. 
los mundadientes, tooth-picks. 



but 



gentilhombre, {court) gentleman. 
ricohombre,' crown counsellor. 



gentileshotnbres, gentlemen. 
ricoshombres, counsellors. 



Remark. — Hidalgo, a nobleman of the lowest grade^ a gentle- 
man^ makes, properly, in the plural, los hidalgos , and, by a mista- 
ken tradition, hijodalgo^ hijosdalgo.* Feligrfe, parishioner^ from 
fiHus ecclesiae^ makes, x^^zxXy^feligrises. 



1 Originally ricdme ; that is, ric'ome, man of the realm^ not rich man, which 
is hombre rico. The term is in part adoption and in part a translation of the 
Gothic rlk'inan^ realm-man, ReUhsmann in modern German. 

*-* As if from fijo de algo, son of somebody, or, rather, son of something, con- 
tracted Vofidalgo. Hidalgo is the word Italicus (like galgo from gallicus, sirgo 
from sericvs, etc.), one having the /us ita/icum or Roman citizenship, with an 
aspirate 'f, like huevo from ovum. This early aspiration of the initial seems 
to have suggested the popular make-shift Jlio dalgo of the middle age, to ex* 
plain the forgotten italico or itaVco. This is proved by the derivatives : hidal' 
go, a, adjective, noble; as, una accion hidalga, a noble act; hidalguia, noun; 
as, la hidalgufa castellana, Spanish heroism^ or, rather, all that ts most noble 
in the Castilian character. 



48 



Form and Inflection. 



106. Certain masculine plurals, indicative of rank and 
kindred, aside from their natural and obvious meaning, 
include the husband and wife, and the two sexes of 
other relatives : — 



OS reyes, the kings ^ sovereigns ; 

OS prf ncipes, the princes ; 

OS infantes, the princes royal \ 

OS duques, the dukes ; 

OS presidentes, the presidents ; 

OS padres, the /others, parents ; 

osesposos, ) 

oscdnyuges,r'^^^''^'^^^^«^^' 

OS hermanos, the brothers ; 

OS tios, the ufules ; 

OS hijos, the sons, children ; 

OS nifios, the children ; 

OS abuelos, the grandfathers, 

grandparents ; 
OS amos, the masters ; 
OS sefipres, the gentlemen ; 



the king and queen, 
the prince and princess, 
the infante and infanta, 
the duke and duchess, 
the president and his lady. 

the father and mother. 

the husband and wife. 

the brother and sister. 

the uncle and aunt. 

the son and daughter (of any age) . 

the boy and girl. 

the grandfather and grandmother. 

the master and mistress, 
the gentleman and lady. 



Example. 

Ayer salieron los reyes i. paseo, yesterday the king and qtteen drove 
out; los reyes catdlicos« the Catholic king and queen, or, the 
Catholic sovereigns (Ferdinand and Isabella, reigned A. D. 
1474-1504, 1516). 

Remark. — Most of these may also include several of both 
sexes : the princes and princesses royal, the sons and daughters, the 
boys and girls, the brothers and sisters ; like the German Gebriider, 
Gesckwister , etc. On the other hand, el matrimonio means the 
husband and wife (das Ehepaar), the man and his wife; una cama 
de matrimonio, a double bed, a bed for two. So, la pareja properly 
signifies two policefnen (who usually go in pairs in Spain). Vaya 
usted d llamar una pareja, go and call the police (a brace of poUce- 
men). 



The Noun, — Inflection^ 



49 



INFLECTION. 



107. Spanish nouns have no other inflectional ending 
than the plural sign.* They may, however, be declined 
by the aid of the case-prepositions de and d, either with- 
out the article or with it : — 



el amigo del rey, 
i, la puerta del palacio, 
las calles de Madrid, 
Maria busca i. Inds, 
aficionado d los libros, 
abismado en lectura, 
un amigo del juez, 



the king''s friend, 
at the palace door, 
the streets of Madrid. 
Mary seeks Agnes, 
fond of books, 
absorbed in reading. 
a friend of the judge. 



106w Inflection wiUiout the Article. 



N. 


Carlos, 


Charles. 


In&, 


Agnes. 


G. 


de Carlos, 


of Charles, Charles*. 


de In^s, 


of Agnes, Agnes'. 


D. 


a Carlos, 


to Charles. 


a In^s, 


to Agnes. 


A. 


a Carlos (76), 


Charles. 


a Ines (76), 


Agnes. 


N. 


libro, 


book. 


libros, 


books. 


O. 


de libro, 


of book. 


de libros, 


of books. 


D. 


a libro, 


to book. 


a libros. 


to books. 


A. 


libro, 


book. 


libros. 


books. 



el libro de Cdrlos, 

la pluma de Inds, 

Juan ve d Maria, 

Luis quiere mucho i Pedro, 

da un libro i, Antonio, 



Charles's book, the book of 

Charles. 
Agnes's pen. 
John sees Mary. 
Lewis is very fond of Peter, 
give a book to Antonio. 



1 Save in a few meagre cases, like Cdrlos, from Carolus; Dios, from Deus; 
querque in Alburquerque, from arbor querci {qutrcHs); duende, wizard^ e/f, 
*from Dens Endi, iAe Iberian god Endo ; Ferndndez, from Fredinandts^ etc. 



50 



Form and Infiection. 



este juguete es propio de nifios, 

una hoja de libro, 

no habia de libros, 

DO quiero libro alguno, 

la puerta tiene goznea, 

U ciudod esti circuida de muros 



this toy b for childrcD. 

a book-leaf, the leaf of a book. 

he is not speaking of books. 

1 do not want any book at aH. 

the door has hinges. 

the town is surrounded by walls. 



109; Inflection with the DeOnlte ArUelfk 





K„^,» 


the man. 








N. 


el hombre. 


the woman. 


- 


G. 


del hombre. 


the man's. 


de la mujer. 


Ihe woman's. 


D. 


al hombre, 


to Ihe man. 


ilamujer. 


(0 Ihe woman. 


- 


A. 


at hombre (76), 


Ihe man. 


£ li mujerC76), 


the woman. 


N. 


los hombres. 


Ihe men. 


ks mujeres, 


the women. 


1 


G. 


de los hombres. 


Ihc men's. 


de los mujeres. 


[he women's. 


D. 


i los hombres, 


to Ihe men. 


s las mujeres. 


to Ihe women. 


A. 


a los hombres. 


"""■"■ 


£ las mujeres. 


the women. 




N. 


el libro, 


the boolt. 


la pluma. 


Ihe pen. 


G. 


del libro. 


of (he book. 


de la pluma. 


of the pen. 


■ 


D. 


al libro, 


to Ihe book. 


£ la plumi. 


to the pen. 




A. 


el libro, 


Ihe book. 


la pluma, 


Ihe pen. 




N. 


los libtos. 


Ihe books. 


las plumas, 


the pens. 


1 


G. 


de los libros. 


of Ihe books. 


de bs plumas. 


of Ihe pens. 


i 


D. 


a los hbros. 


to the books. 


i las plumas. 


to the pens. 


A. 


loa libros. 


Ihe books. 


lasplumas, 


(he pens. 



el palaeio de los reyes, 

la pnidencia de la mujer, 
las habitaciones de la casa, 
las calles de h ciudad, 
sale de la habitacion, 
da el regalo 6. los nieos. 



the king's and queen's palace 

(106). 
the woman's prudence. 
the rooms of (in) the house. 
the streets of the town, 
he goes out of the room. 
he hands the present to the chll- 



The Adjective. 



SI 



HO. Inlleetlon wltb the Indefinite Aitlele. 



MaflGuUne. 


Feminine. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 


un hombre, 

de un hombre, 

a un hombre, 

un hombre. 


a man. 
a man's, 
to a man. 
a man. 


una mujer, 

de una mujer, 

a una mujer, 

una mujer. 


a woman, 
a woman's, 
to a woman, 
a woman. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 


un libro, 

de un libro, 

a un libro, 

un libro, 


a book, 
of a book, 
to a book. 

a book. 


una pluma, 

de una pluma, 

k una pluma, 

una pluma. 


a pen. 
of a pen. 
to a pen. 

a pen. 



111. Inflection of Kenter Iio wiU& AdlJeetiTes. 



Positive. 


SnpetlatlTe. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 


lo bueno, 

de lo bueno, 

k lo bueno, 

lo bueno. 


the good, 
of the good, 
to the good. 

the good. 


lo mejor, 

de lo mejor, 

k lo mejor, 

lo mejor. 


the best, 
of the best, 
to the best. 

the best. 



veo un hombre y una mujer, 
busco al criado dc un amigo, 
el vestido de una sefiora, 
un paftuelo de caballero, 
aqu( tkne usted un servidor, 
lo peor es que no lo sabe, 

nos saca de lo bueno, para caer 
en lo malo, 



I see a man and a woman. 

I am seeking a friend's servant. 

a lady's dress. 

a gentleman's handkerchief. 

a servant at your disposal. 

the worst (of it) is he does not 

know it. 
he draws us away from good, to 

bring us into evil. 



The Adjective. 

112. Adjectives have two numbers and two genders, 
besides the absolute form with lo: — 



52 



Form and luJUction. 



un libro nuevo* a new iook^ 
los hombres sabios, wiu men^ 
lo malo, w^ is evil^ the evil. 



loche fr(iGa« fresh milk* 

frutas ricas, luscieus fntH, 

lo ancho, whsU is wide^ the width. 



lia Adjectives, whether attributive or predicate, 
agree in gender and number with the noun they 
qualify: — 



un hombre robusto, 
ttna linda casa, 
sefiofas caritativas, 
estas nifias son guapas, 



a stout, healthy man. 
a pretty house, 
benevolent ladies, 
these young girls are pretty. 



a. With lo, the adjective varies anomalously to suit 
the gender and number of the noun, when the adjec- 
tive is followed by que, that^ with the verb to be, or its 
equivalents. The adjective must then be rendered by 
a substantive: — 



lo sabios que son estos consejos, 
lo bonita que es la iglesia, 



the wisdom of these counsels (the 

wise that are these counsels) • 
the beauty of the church. 



Formation of the FlnraL 



114. Adjectives form their plural in either gender by 
adding s to unaccented vowel-terminals, and es to con- 
sonant and accented vowel-endings, always changing 
z Xo c before es\ — 



•^^■b 



SINGULAR. 



Blaso. 



fresco, 
espafiol, 



Fein. 



fresca, 
espafiola, 



feliz, 

comun, 

baladi, 



FLUBAIm 



frescos, 
espafioles, 



FenoL. 



frescas, 
espafiolas, 



felices, 

comunes, 

baladies, 



fresh, cool. 

Spanish. 

happy. 

common. 

of no account. 



The A^eetiv€. 



53 



Formation of the Feminine. 

115. The feminine of adjectives is, in general, formed 
by changing final o into a^ or by adding a to certain 
consonant terminations. Many adjectives have but 
one ending for both genders. 

The variation of adjectives (72) may be reduced to 
two general classes. The first class embraces common 
and proper adjectives of two terminations in each num*- 
ber, one for each gender; the second embraces com- 
mon and proper adjectives of one termination for both 
genders. 

Remark. — Proper adjectives are those which are derived from 
the names of geographical divisions, countries, provinces, places, 
and persons. 

116. First ClaM.~Two Terminations. 



£nd- 
Incs. 


SIKtiULAR. 


PTCJMAIm 















IlbMC. 


Fenu 


]tIaso. 


Fenu 




bianco, 


blanca. 


blancos, 


blancaa. 


white. 


_ — 


gaditano, 


gaditaiia, 


gaditanoa, 


gaditanaa, 


of Cadiz. 


an 


holgazan, 


holgazana, 


holgazanes, 


holgazanas, 


lazy. 


— 


alemao, 


alemana, 


alems^nea, 


alemanas. 


German. 


ol 


espafiol, 


espafiola, 


espafiolea, 


espafiolaa, 


Spanish. 


on 


burlon, 


bttrlona, 


burlonea, 


burlonas. 


roguish. 


or 


traidor, 


traidora, 


traidorea, 


traidoraa, 


treacherous. 


uz 


andaluz, 


andaluia, 


andaluces, 


andaliizaa, 


Andalmsian. 



una rosa blanca, a white rose, 
cerveza alemana, German beer, 
ojos burlones, roguish eyes, 
la sal andaluza, Andaliisian wit 
and hufnor. 



las sefioras gaditanas, ladies of 

Cadiz, 
una ley espafiola, a Spanish law, 
miradas traidoras, treacherous 

glawes^ 



54 



Form and Inflection, 



117. To this class belong also : — 

a. Diminutives in ete and augmentatives in ote^ 
which change the final e into a\ — 



regordete, regordeta, 
grandote, grandota, 



regordetes, regordetas, 
grandotes, grandotas, 



chubby, 
biggish. 



All others in e belong to the second class ; that is, 
they are unchangeable for gender. 

b. Diminutives and proper adjectives in in\ — 



chiquitin, chiquitina, 
mallorquin, xnallorquina, 



chiquitines, chiquitinas, 
mallorquines, mallorquinas. 



wee. 

of Majorca. 



All others in /// belong to the second class. 



r. Proper adjectives in is : 



franco, francesa, 
ingles, inglesa, 
leonds, leonesa, 
montafi^s,' montafiesa, 



franceses, francesas, 
ingleses, inglesas, 
leoneses, leonesas, 
montafieses, montafiesas, 



French. 
English, 
of Leon (Spain), 
highland, Astu- 
rian. 



Common adjectives in es belong to the second class. 

lia A few adjectives in tor may also change that 
ending into triz-trices for the feminine : — 



fuerza motora or motriz, 
causas motoras or motrices, 



motive power, 
impelling causes. 



Remark. — For comparatives in or and ior {yor)^ see 120, b» 



1 Montafi^s, of or belonging to the hill country about Saniandir, S^ain, which 
district is called La Montana (not la montafia), the Mountain; and hence the 
adjective has the variation of proper adjectives in ^s. 



The Adjective. 



55 



119. S«<MHid daM.— One Termination* 



End- 
ings. 


8INOULAR. 


PliUKAL. 


• 


Maeo. and Fern. 


Maec. and Fein. 


a 

e 

i 
al, el 
11, ul 
en. In 
linear 
az,ez 
Iz, oz 


agricola, belga, 
grande, ateniense, 
baladi, marroqui, 
nacional, fiel, 
facll, azul, 
j6ven, ruin,' 
comun, familiar, 
capaz, soez, 
fellz, atroz. 


agricolas, belgas, 
grandes, atenienses, 
baladieSyinarroquieSt 
nacionales, Beles, 
faclles, azalea, 
j6vene8, rulnes. 


agricultural, Belgian, 
great, Athenian, 
vile, Morocco, 
national, faithful, 
easy, blue, 
young ; low, mean, 
common, familiar, 
capable, low. 
happy, shocking. 


capaces, soeces, 
fellces, atroces. 



un pueblo agricola, an agricuUu" 

ral people, 
la cultura ateniense, Athenian 

culture. 
una cinta azul, a blue ribbon, 
la vida comun, common life, 
el gobierno persa, tfie Persian 

government. 



una casa grande, a large house. 
las fiestas nacionales, the nation^ 

al holidays, 
las muchachas jdvenes, young 

girls, 
una muerte feliz, a happy death. 
los pueblos belgas, the Belgian 

towns. 



120. To this class belong also : — 

tf. All common adjectives in /j: — 
cort^, pi. corteses, polite, \ months, //. monteses, mountair^. 



una advertencia cortds, 
palabras corteses, 
puercos monteses,' 



a courteous remark. 

polite language. 

wild (or mountain) boars. 



1 Latin, Latin, is a noun ; latino, latiua, an adjective : saber el Latin, to 
know Latin; un libro latino, a LxUin book; la literatura latina. Latin literature, 

^JabaU also means wHd boar. It is the Arabic adjective from djebal, 
mowttain; therefore puerco mantis is the Castilian synonym oi j'abali. So, 
Arab, alfayate. Cast, sastre, tailor; Arab, alari/e. Cast arquitecto, architect: 
Arab. albHtar, Cast. veterinario,y2irrt^, etc., eta 



56 Form and Inflection. 

b. All comparatives in or^ tor (^yor) : — 

mejor, pL mejores, better. \ interior, pi* interiores, interior, 

peor, //. peores, worse, \ superior, pi, superiores, superior, 

c. All adjectives in ista^ indicating social, political, 
moral, and scientific affiliations: — 



un principio socialista, 
una idea oscurantista, 
el partido carlista, 
los prohombres progresistas, 



a socialistic principle, 
an old-fogy notion, 
the Carlist party, 
the advanced leaders 



(leaders of the late Progresista or advance party, 1836-1871). 
d. All adjectives in e (except 1 17, «) : — 



una almendra dulce» 
una herida grave* 
una tiple eminente, 
graves inconvenientes» 



a sweet almond. 

a serious wound. 

a distinguished soprano-singer. 

serious objections. 



e. The ending -ense is the learned or modern journal- 
istic and literary form of proper adjectives, against the 
popular ones in o and is (ensis); thus, matritense and 
madrileilo, of Madrid ; tudense and tudes, of Tuy; 
conquense and conqu^s, of Cuenca; abulense and aviles, 
ofAvila; escurialense and tscondX^fio, of tke Escorial, 
A few, however, possess no other form than the learn* 
ed or classical one : as, ateniense, Athenian; parisiense 
(popular, /^m/^), of Paris, Parisian, 

121. All proper adjectives, then, are variable in gen- 
der, except those in a, e^ and /: — 



Catalan, a, Catalonian, 
castellano, a, Castilian, 
vallisoletano, a, of VaUadoHd, 
asturiano, a, Asturian. 



valenciano, a, VaUncian, 
extremeAo, a» of Extremadura. 
europ^o, a, European, 
aragonds, a, Aragonese, 



The Adjective. 



s; 



inglds, a, EngNsh. 
mahon^s, a, of Fuerto Mahon, 
gallego, a, Gaikian. 
manchego, 2^ of La Mancha* 
griego, a, Greeks Grecian, 
alicantino, a, of Alicante. 
bilbafDo, a, of BUbdo* 
fndio, a, Indian, 



judfo, s^ Jiwisk, 
britinico, a, British. 
alcalaino, a, > 1^ A!cal4 di He* 
complutense^ \ ndr4S. 
celta, Celtic. 
drabe, Arabian. 
marroqui, of Morrocco^ 
berberi, of Barbary* 



122. Any adjective may be employed as a substan* 
tive in either gender or number, assuming in that case 
all the laws that govern the noun : — 



el Espafiol, the Spaniard. 
el sabio, the wise man. 



los Espafioles, Spaniards. 
los fieles, thcfaUhfuL 



a. On the other hand, nouns are occasionally associ- 
ated as adjectives with other nouns, thus forming com- 
pouiid expressions as in the Teutonic languages : — 



la tierra virgen, virgin soil. 

la madre patriae* mother country. 

la espuela-modelo, model school. 



una carta-pr61ogo, an epistolary 

preface. 
una carta-puebla» local privilege 



ol cura pirrocot the parish priest, | {law) . 

Apocopntiosu 

12a Eight adjectives lose their final o when they 
stand as attributes immediately before a noun in the 
masculine singular: — 

bueno.^i^^. tercero,' third. 

malo, bad, poor {of things). uno, one. 

postrero, latter ^ last. alguno, some, any (neg« no), 

primero, frst. ninguno (necunus),*«^?, not any^ 

none. 



1 Tercero remains unabridged in the formula of the Creed, " cl tercero (Jia," 
and, in general, in the sacred style. 

S The n is inserted, as in cemeiiterio, cemetery. 



58 



Form and Inflection. 



buen tiempo, good weather. 
mal dxito, itt^success. 
el postrer duelo, the last pang. 
el primer tomo, thi first volume. 



el tercer dia, the third daf. 
un soldado, one soldier. 
algun motivo, some cause. 
ningun libro, no book. 



but 



^tiene usted un buen vecino? 

tango uno muy bueno, 

un hombre malo y perverso, 

el afio primero y ultimo, 

el libro tercero del tomo quinto, 

uno y otro dia, 

no hay remedio alguno, 

ninguno de los dos, 

el bueno de mi amigo» 

alguno que otro dia. 



have you a good neighbor? 

1 have a very good one. 

a bad, vicious man. 

the first and last year. 

book third of volume fifth. 

both days (one and the other day) . 

there is no help for it at all. 

neither of the two. 

my good friend (idiom). 

one day or another (idiom). 



a. In the language of common life this law is fre- 
quently extended to the feminine singular, especially 
before a and ha: — 



buen alhaja, fine jewel, pretty 

felhw (in irony*), 
algun ave, some bird. 



un alma, one soul. 

en mal hora, inopportunely. 

de primer ^jqxsl^ first water {rede). 



b. The numeral adjective uno, one^ when associated 
or combined with other numbers, is contracted before 
nouns of either number or gender which it serves to 
multiply : — 

treinta y un dias, thirty-one days, | veintiun casas, twenty-one houses. 

124. The adjective grande, greats in the sense of 
eminence, loses its final syllable de before a singular 
noun beginning with a consonant not h : — 



^ Of course, in this secondary sense, alkaja is masculine, according to 93. 



Tlu Adjective. 



59 



una gran casa, a great family, 
un gran peligro, a great peril. 



un gran dia,' a great occasion* 
el Gran Capitan,* the Greed Caf^ 

tain. 



but 



un grande amigo, a great friend 
{intimate) . 



un grande hombre, a great man 
{distinguished) . 



una grande iglesia, a great (famous) church. 

a. The full form is, however, used, even before con- 
sonants, when grande has an intensive or emphatic sig- 
nification. In this sense it was formerly much more 
common than at present: — 

tSLng^2ndessmcto,sagreatasaint. \ el grande dafio, the great harm.* 

b. When grande refers to dimensions^ or order^ it 
regularly stands after the noun it qualifies : — 



una casa grande» a large house. 
el premio grande, the first prize. 



un hombre grande, a large man. 
un caballo grande, a large horse. 



Remark. — Jn the sense of tallness, grande is now rather re- 
placed hy alto ^ alto de cuerpo, alto de estatura; or by buen mozo 
(fern, buena moza)^ applied to any age, to mean a fne, taU person^ 
and a fiiu-looking person y with reference to form and size. 

125. Cnalqiiiera, //. cnalesqniera, whatever^ any — 
you please^ usually, but not uniformly, loses the final a 
before a noun of either gender or number : — 



1 When Isla wrote " Dia grande de Navarra/' he meant, it is true, a great 
civic occasion, but with the hnmoroos idea of dimensions, — a big day^ a high 

> Gonzalo de Cordova, so called ibr his conquest of Naples and Sicily. 

*From Fray Luis de Granada: Sermon dt las Caydas Puhlicas, Lisbon, 
1588; Bladrid, 1589: and Antwerp. 1590; 8vo. The modem editions all have 
in these passages £^an santo, groH dafio; for no Spanish author has been so 
corrected and spoiled in text by the Inquisition as the Friar Lewis. 






60 



Form and InJUcUon, 



cualquier (tr cualqviera libro, 

cualquier or cualquiera cosa, 

cualesquier or cualesquiera moti- 

vos, 

but always 



any book (whatever). 
any thing (whateTer). 
any causes (whatever). 



cualquiera de los libros, 
un libro cualquiera, 
cualesquiera que sean los moti- 
vos, 



any of the books, 
any book you please, 
whatever be the causes or mo- 
tives. 



126. Olento, one hundred (never un ciento), loses its 
final syllable to when it stands before the word it multi- 
plies, whichever be the gender : — 



cien soldados, cien almas, 
cien mil pesos, cien millones. 



cien to veinte, 
ciento y diez, 
ciento contra uno, 
mil y ciento, 



one hundred soldiers, souls. 
100,000 dollars, 100,000,000. 



but 



one hundred (and) twenty, 
one hundred and ten. 
one hundred against one. 
one thousand (and) one hundred. 



127. The word santo, saiut, loses its final syllable to 
only before the names of the calendar saints, arch- 
angels, and Old-Testament worthies : — 



San Pedro (S. Pedro), Si. Peter, 
San Miguel (S. Miguel), St. 

Michael. 
San Daniel (S. Daniel), St, 

Daniel. 



San Juan (S. Juan), St, yokn. 
San Pablo, St. Paul. 
San Agustin, St. Augustine, 
San Gabriel, St. Gabriel, 
San Josu^, St. yoshua. 



Except : Santo Tomds or Tomd (S. Tom^s), St. Thomas \ 
Santo Domingo (S. Domingo), St. Dominic '^ Santo Toribio, St, 
Toribius ; and Santo Job, St. yob. St. Thomas, as the name of 
one of the West-India islands, is now accented and writteu Saa 
Tdmas and San Th6mas» in conformity with foreign usage* 



The Adfective^ 6t 

a. The fern. Santa remains always unabridged : «-* 



Santa Marfa, St, Mary* 
Santa Isabel, St, Elizabeth, 
Santa Barbara, St, Barbara, 



Santa Ines, St. Agnes, 
Santa Agueda, St, Agatha, 
Santa Rita,' St, Margaret. 



b. The adjective sauto^ a, holy^ is never contract- 
ed : — 

el santo dngel, the holy angel, \ el santo varon, that saintly man, 

una santa mujer, a saintly ttwman* 

Remark. — In giving a series of two or more saints^ names, it ia 
in better taste to prefix the title to each singly : — 

San Juan y San Jos6, St. yohn and St, Joseph^ not los Santos 
Juan y Jos^ (los SS. Juan y Josd), Sts, John and yoseph. 



POSITION or THB AIMBCnVE. 

12a The attributive adjective, as a rule, stands after 
the noun qualified, in ordinary unemphatic language ; 
notwithstanding, all elegant writers, poets, and orators, 
place it according to their own views of taste, harmony, 
and effect : — 



un cue n to divertido, 
un asunto grave, 
una noticia desgarradora, 
la lengua castellana, 
el continente europ^» 
el gobiemo espafiol, 
una acdon desalniada. 



an entertaining story, 
a serious matter, 
heart-rending intelligence, 
the Castilian language, 
the European continent, 
the Spanish government, 
a heartless acti<»i. 



1 This local saint is called in Spain, " la abogada de los imposibles," the 
patroness of impossibilities, St, Barbara is the advocate of Spanish gunpowder 
and coast defenses, while the chulo, the *'b*hoy" {puerum, plulo, chulo), swears 
vengeance "por via *e San AndrA" (63, 66), by the life of St, Andrew, as he 
rushes upon hfs adversary with the historic navaja {navatia) or **yacff** knife. 



62 



Form and Infliction. 



129. The following, therefore, are more especially 
found after the substantive limited by them, unless the 
language is poetic or expansive : — 

a. Participles and participial adjectives in ado^ ido, 
and those in ante^ ente, iente {yente), derived from Latin 
present participles ; — 



un sacerdote consagrado, 
la oveja perdida, 
banderas desplegadas, 
aguas abundaates, 
un espditu paciente, 
las Cdrtes constituyentes, 
Ids caballeros andantes, . 



a consecrated priest. 

the lost sheep. 

banners unfurled (flying banners). 

abundant water. 

a patient spirit. [sembly. 

the Constituent (National) As- 

the knights-errant. 



but, poetically or expansively : 



por dilatadas regiones, 
las engafiadas naciones, 
la naciente estrella, 
la andante caballerfa. 



over extensive regions, 
the deceived nations, 
the rising star, 
knight-errantry. 



b. Proper adjectives, or those derived from geo- 
graphical, personal, political, and scientific names : — 



las Escenas matritenses, 
los prados jerezanos, 
el idioma francos, 
un cabecilla carlista, 
la filosofla positivista, 
el partido unionista, 



])ictures of Madrid life. 

the grassy plains of Sherry. 

the French language. 

a Carlist (guerilla) chieftain. 

positive philosophy. 

the union party. 



but, poetically : 



los tart^ios campos, 



I the plains of Tartessus. 



The Adjective. 



63 



c. Common adjectives in «/, dor^ tor: — 



el despacho central, 
el puente internacional, 
un principio conservador, 
la sociedad protectora de ani- 
males, 



the Central office, 
the International Bridge, 
a conservative principle, 
the society for the protection of 
animals. 



la vencedora gente. 



but, in poetry : 

I the victorious people. 



d. All augmentatives and diminutives * : — 



el alcalde pregunton, 
un nifio chiquitin, 
un hombre grandecito, 
un aldeano ricote, 



the imperdnent busybody., 
a wee bit of a child, 
a tallish man. 
a well-to-do villager. 



e. In general, long adjectives, unless emphatic or in- 



tensive: — 

una cosa imposible, 
medidas preventivas. 



mi inolvidable amigo, 
con incansable afsin. 



an impossible thing, 
preventive measures. 



but 



my never-to-be-forgotten friend, 
with untiring zeal. 



f. When a plural substantive is limited by two or 
more adjectives in the singular, the latter must stand 
after the noun : — 



las lenguas griega y latina, 
los tomos primero y cuarto, 
las filas tercera y vig^sima, 
los siglos segundo, cuarto 
quinto. 



the Greek and Latin languages, 
the first and fourth volumes, 
the third and twentieth rows, 
the second, fourth, and fifth cen- 
turies. 



1 Of this difficult subject we shall treat in a chapter apart, because the for- 
eigner cannot be taught out of Spain to use them correctly. They are a part 
of the nalional type. See p. 383. 



64 



FofJH ami Infttction, 



130 A few adjectiveft r^ularly precede the noun in 
ordinary language : — 



mucho dincro, much money, 
demasiado juicio, too muck pru- 
dence, 
buenos consejos, good advice. 



poca gracia, little attractiveness. 
tantas virtudes, so many virtues, 
may ores fuerzas, greater strength, 
malas plumas, poor petis* 



131. Some adjectives have distinct significations, ac* 

cording to their position with respect of the noun : — 



un buen hombre, a good man, 
una buena noche, a good night, 
mal negocio, bad business (»xr- 

fortunate). 
mala pluma, poor pen. 
gran vicio, great defect, 
nuevo Ubro, new book {different), 
negra accion, dark deed. 
varies papeles, various papers ^ or 

documents, 
pobre muchacho,* poor boy, 
pobre autor, sorry author. 
cierta ^poca, a certain peri^^ 
santa Biblla, sacred Bible, 
santa tierra, sacred soil, 
santo p2kdxe.f father {of the church) 
santo campo, sacred field. 



un hombre bueno,* a ^^besf^ man. 
noche buena, Christmas Eve, 
un jdven malo, a bad youth 

{wicked), 
toro malo, vicious bull, 
pera grande, large pear, 
libro nuevo, new book (recent), 
vestido negro, black coed. 
papeles varios, miscellaneous pa-^ 

pers. 
el muchacho pobre, the poor boy, 
autor pobre, indigent author. 
noticia cierta, reliable news, 
semana santa, holy week {Easter)^ 
tierra santa. Holy Land, 
el padre santo, the pope. 
campo santa, cemetery. 



a. Some adjectives precede or follow the noun with 
little or no difference of signification : — 



i An early translatioii of the old Gothic " goodsman/' property man, and- 
hence responsible, a voucher. So the omes or hombres buenos of the medieeival 
Cdrtes were select men, from this property qualification. They represented the 
third estate in assembly with the prelates and nobles. 

2 In commiseration ; more or less depreciative, and often resented by per- 
sons, of spirit, from its side-meaning of infeliz, stupid; still, the natives say: 
** \ Pobre Espana ! digna de mejor suerte," poor Spain/ worthy ef a-Mier fiMie, 



un pequefio libi^» 
una bonita casa, 
un hermoso regalo, 
un breve discurso, 
un triste dia. 



The Adfe^ive. 

on libro pequefto, 
una ca&a bonita* 
un regalo hermoso, 
un discurso breve, 
un dia triste. 



65 

a small book, 
a pretty house, 
a handsome present, 
a short discourse. 
a sad day. 



GOMPABISON OF ADJ£CTIY£& 

132. Adjectives in Spanish have the three usual 
degrees of comparison ; namely, the Positive, Com- 
parative, and Superlative, each of which is varied 
according to gender and number: — 



Positive. 


Comparative. 


fn. bianco, blancos, "1 . 
/ blanca, blancas, / 


mas bianco, mis blancos, > . 
mas blanca, mas blancas, i 


Superlative Kelative. 


Superlative Absolute. 


el or lo mas bianco, 
la mas blanca, 
los mas blancos, 
las mas blancas, 


> ike whiiisi. 


blanquisimo (^13), 
blanquisima, 
blanquisimos, 
blanquisimas. 


• very white. 



So compare fresc-o, fresh ^ cool; trist-e, sadi prudent-e, pru* 
'it; viej-o, old; aplicad-o, diligent. 



deftt; viej 

el libro es vcii& pesado que el 

periddicOf 
la ventana es m^s alta que la 

puerta, 
estos sombreros son mds caroa 

que los mios, 
aquellos son los mis hermosoa 

de la fibrica, 
los de mi amigo son hermosfsimos, 



the book is duller than the news- 
paper. 

the window is higher than the 
door. 

these hats are dearer than mine. 

those yonder are the finest (ones) 

in the factory, 
those of my friend are very fine« 



GS 



Form and Inflection. 



133. Four adjectives have, besides their regular 

comparatives and superlatives, other preferred forms 
derived from the Latin, but popularly called irregular. 
They are: — 



PosltlTA. 



CompttmtlTe. 



bueno, a, 
malo, a, 
grande,^ 

pequello,a. 



good, 
bad, poor, 
great, large. 

small, little. 



mejor(iao,^), 
peor, es, 
mayor, es, 

menor, es, 



{rarely t mis bueno), 
{seldom, m&s malo), 
or^ m&s grande, 

0r, mas pequello. 



better. 

worse, poorer 

greater, larg- 
er, older. 

smaller, less, 
younger. 



SnperlatfTe BaUUiTe. 



o 



fmejor; 
peor; j 
mayor; "" 



menor; 



mejores, {rarely, el, etc, , mas bueno, a), 
peores, {seldom, el, elc, mis malo, a), 
mayores, or, el, la, lo mas grande, 

los, las mas grandes, 
menores, or, el, lo, la mas pequefio, a, 

los, las mas pequefios, as, 



the best. 

the worst, poorest. 

the greatest, larg- 
est, oldest. 

the smallest, least, 
youngest 



SaperlaAlve Abaolata. 



bonisimo, a, 
malisimo, a, 
grandisimo, a, 
pequellisimo, a. 



or, muy bueno, a, 
muy malo, a, 
muy grande, 
muy pequeflo, a. 



{rarely, 6ptimo, a), 
•* p^simo, a), 
{seldom, maximo, a), 
( ** mfnimo, a). 



very good, 
very bad, poor, 
very large, great 
very small, little.' 



1 The positive magno^ a (Lat. magnus), hitherto obsolete, save as an epi- 
thet of kings (Carlomagno, Charlemagne; Alfonso III. el lAzstiO^ Alpkonso III, 
the Greats t A.D. 910, eta), is of late considerably used in an intensive sense : 
as, una concurrencia magna, a big tum'out ; una sensacion maLgOA^ a greal seft'- 
sation ; la cuestion magna, lAe decisive quesHoH, the question ; una turba magna, 
a big crowd, 

> Mdximo and minttno may be used as relative superlatives with a few 
words like cosa, parte : la m^ma parte, the greatest part; la minima cosa, 
the slightest thing. Optimo and pisimo answer a question, thus : ^Qu6 tal ha 
sido la pieza? — P^sima. How was the play t — Very poor. 



The Adjective. 



67 



digno de mejor suerte, 

sus mejores proyectos, 

los mejores libros, 

la peor pluma» 

peor estd que estaba, 

la mayor parte, 

un peligro mayor, 

el premio mayor, 

buscaba mayor espacio d sus 

esperanzas, 
la menor imprudencia, 
los hermanos m^}'ores, 
los hijos menores, 



worthy of a better fate. 

his best-laid plans. 

the best books. 

the poorest pen. 

it is worse than it was. 

the greater part. 

a greater peril. 

the highest (first) prize. 

he sought a broader field for hia 

expectations, 
the slightest imprudence, 
the older brothers, 
the younger children. 



ComparatlTe Formulae- 

134. Most parts of speech may be placed in relations 
of comparison by the use of certain adverbs and adjec- 
tives constituting correlative formulae. Such are : — 



Equality. 


tan — como, 


as (so)—- as. 


•» 


tanto, a — como, or 1 
tanto, a — cuanto, a, J 


as (so) much — as, as (so) 


•( 


many — as. 


Superiority. 


m&i — que (de), 


more — than. 


Inferiority, 


ni^nos — que (de). 


less — than, fewer — than. 




cuanto mas — tanto mas. 


the more — the more. 




cuanto m^nos — tanto m^nos, 


the less — the less. 



tan bianco como la nieve, 
es tan buena como rica, 
tanto oro como plata, 
tanta prudencia como habilidad, 
tantos hombres como mujeres, 
tanto dinero cuanto usted diga, 
mis aho que una casa, 
m^ rico que el que mis, 
mis libros que dinero, 
m^nos sabio que dl, 



as white as snow. 

she is as good as (she is) rich. 

as much gold as silver. 

as much discretion as shrewdness. 

as many men as women. 

as much money as you say. 

higher than a house. 

richer than the richest. 

more books than money. 

less (not so) wise than (as) he.. 



68 



Form and InJUcHon. 



m^nos hoimdo qiM docho, 
m^nos Idpices que plumas, 
cuanto m^s habla Unto mds di* 

vaga, 
cuanto m^aos dinero gana tanto 

m^nos ahorra. 



less upright than able* 

fewer pencils than pens. 

the more he talks the more he 

rambles, 
the less money he earns the less 

he lays by. 



135. In the formula tan — cotno^ the first member 
may be suppressed ; — 



bianco como la nieve, 
manso como un cordero. 



white as snow, 
meek as a lamb. 



a. In the poetic style, the second member of the 
same formula may be replaced by cual^ but the noun 
following, in that case rejects the article: — 



bianco cual nieve, or^ better 
cual nieve bianco, 
manso cual cordero, or / 
cual cordero manso, > 



■\ 



white as snow* 
meek as a lamb. 



136. The correlative formulae may be expressed neg^ 
atively by placing no, not ; sin, without; tampoco, ttor 

^-either, etc., before the verb : — 



DO es m^nos bella que rica, 

no somos tan buenos como ellos, 

sin tener ellos tantos libros 

como yo, 
tampoco exlge ^I mds que tu, 
no soy mdnos cuerdo que dl, 



she is not less beautiful than rich, 
we are not so good as they, 
without their having so many 
books as I. [thou, 

neither does he require more than 
I am not less prudent than he. 



137. The comparative adverb que is replaced, — 

a. By de lo que (than what) when the second part of 
the comparison contains a verb : — 



:zd 



The Adjective. 



69 



(n<d discreto de k> que parece, 
parece mds docta de lo que es, 
es m^nos rico de lo que dice, 



more prudent than he seems, [is. 
she seems more learned than she 
he is not so wealthy as he says. 



Remark. — The original qjie may be resumed, however, if the 
Comparative consists of one of the organic forms in ^r : — 

peor estd que estaba, | it is worse than it was, 

or. Worse and Worse,, the title of one of Calderon's dramas. 

b. By dcy before numerals, provided the sentence be 
affirmative ; if it be negative, the resumption of que is 
quite general, but not universal : — 



tiene mds de diez casas, 
tendrd mdnos de veinte aflos de 

edad, 
no ha ido alld mis que dos 

veces, 
tampoco tengo yo mds que tres, 
sin tener m^nos que cuatro casas 

de campo. 



he has more than ten houses, 
he must be less than twenty years 

old. 
he has not been there more than 

twice. 
I haven't more than three either, 
without having fiewe^ than four 

country-seats. 



13a Mds and minos may be strengthened by the ad- 
verbs on poco, a little; poco, scarcely ; mncbo, miKh; 
harto or bastante, considerably; aim, even; todavia, 
yety still; and by the superlative muchisimo (never 
fnuy mtichoy in the modern language), very much: — 



poco mds ancho, 
mucho mds bianco, 
harto m^nos doloroso, 
aun mds favorable, 
muchisimo m^nos grave, 



scarcely any wider, 
much whiter, 
considerably less painfol, 
still (even) more favorable, 
very much less serious. 



13a From the above tables (132, 134) it appears : — 

a. That the comparative degree of adjectives is 
formed by placing the adverbs mte, more ; mtaos, less. 



JO Form and Inflection. 

before the positive, with que (de)» than^ to complete 
the comparison. 

b. That four adjectives have, in general use, organic 
comparative forms derived from the Latin melior, pejor^ 
major^ minor. 

c. That mayor and menor^ applied to persons, signify 
also older and younger; and to things, greater, less. 

Remark. — In some phrases mayor signifies greater^ with refer- 
ence to some other undefined object, and then should be rendered 
simply by greats grattd^ or chief: — 



la iglesia mayor, 
la plaza mayor, 
la calle mayor. 



the principal church (cathedral). 

the grand square. 

grand street (main street). 



Th« Supeiiatlve Pe cio c. 



140. As already seen (132), the superlative of adjec- 
tives is of two kinds, — relative and absolute.' 

a. The relative superlative is translated hy most or 
-esty and expresses not only superiority and inferiority 
to any other quality or object, but also to iall other 
qualities or objects, declared or implied. 

b. The absolute superlative, translated by very, and 
occasionally by most, -est, expresses quality or quantity 
in a very high degree, but without comparison. 

The KelaUve Superlative. 

141. The relative superlative is formed by associat- 
ing the definite article {el, la, lo; los, las) or a posses- 
sive adjective {my^ thy^ his, our, etc.) with the com- 
parative : — 



The Adjective. 



n 



el w&i jasto juicio, 

\q mis grave del asunto, 

los libros m^nos estimados, 

mi mds querido amigo, 

nuestro menor deseo, 

el mayor mdnstruo los zelos, 



the justest judgment. [matter, 
the most serious (thing) in tlie 
the least esteemed books, 
my dearest friend, 
our least (or smallest) desire, 
jealousy the greatest monster. 



142. When the noun is accompanied by the definite 
article or a possessive adjective, the superlative may 
follow it without an article. This is especially the case 
when the adjective preferably stands after the noun in 
the positive : — 



las casas m^ blancas, 

los nombres mis conocidos, 

los dias mis aciagos, or } 

los mis aciagos dias, > 

la necesidad mis apremiante, or 

la mis apremiante necesidad, 

los hombres mis leidos, 



the whitest houses. 

the best known names (146) 

the most ill-starred days. 

the most urgent necessity, 
the best read men. 



Except when the noun with which the adjective agrees is In 
apposition with some other term, or when the article is found with 
the noun in an indefinite sense ; in the latter case it is customary 
to use a partitive genitive or the absolute superlative : — 



los Ingleses, gente la mis despre- 

ocupada, 
un jdven de los mis despejados, 

or^ 
un jdven despejadfsimo, 



the English, a most unprejudiced 

people, 
one of the brightest of young men, 

or, 
a very bright young man. 



a. The relative superlative assumes the article when 
it stands in the predicate after the verb to be or its 
equivalents, and agrees with the subject of the verb : — 



la antigua provincia de Galicia es [ the ancient province of Galicia is 
la mis remota de Espafia, ' the most retired (one) in Spain. 



7a 



Farm and Inflection. 



143. The relative superlative is, from its very stnic* 

ture, a definite comparative as well. Thus, in the 
examples : — 



es el indivfduo mis instruido de 

la Academia, 
fud la sefiora m^nos amable de la 

tertulia, 



he is the most learned member 

in the Academy, 
she was the least amiable lady at 

the conversazione^ 



the logical interpretation would be : He is more 
learned than any other member of the Academy ; she 
was less amiable than any other lady at the conversa-^ 
stone. Hence, — 

144. The relative superlative is often expressed in 

Spanish by the formal comparative : — 



esta es cosa que me da mayor 
pena. 



this is a thing that gives me the 
greatest concern. 



(/.^., greater concern than any other thing.) 

lo que es mds caro al hombre, | what is dearest to man. 

(what is dearer than anything else.) 

145. When two objects, persons, or qualities are 
compared, the formal superlative is really a compara- 
tive, and must be so translated : — 



de estos dos albafiiles, Pedro es 

el mds hdbil, 
de las dos seftoras, la morena es 

la mdnos simpdtica. 



of these two masons, Peter is the 

more skilful, 
of the two ladies, the brunette is 

the less congenial. 



146. The comparative and the relative superlative, 
with ntds, are translated by better and best^ instead of 
more and most^ when participial adjectives, to which 
well may be joined in the positive, are compared in 
their proper sense as such: — 



Tlie Adjective, 



n 



xtii& conocido, better known^ 
mds leido, better read* 

mds amados, better loved. 



el mis conocido, the best known* 
el m«Cs leido, the best read* 
los m^ amados, the best laved. 



a. If the past participle has also the signification of 
a mere adjective, its comparative and superlative are 
rendered as usual : — 

querido, dear. \ mds querido, dearer. \ el m^ querido, dearest. 

Instruido may be translated by instructed or by learu' 
edj and its degrees of comparison would be rendered 
accordingly : — 

mds instruido, better instructed^ \ el m^s instruido, the best in'- 
mare learned. I structed^ the most learned. 

147. The prepositions /;/, at, of^ after a relative super- 
lative, are generally expressed in Spanish by de :. — 

el hombre mis ruin de la ciudad, 
el suelo mis feriz de la comarca, 
la conferencia mis concurrida de 
la s^rie. 



the vilest man in town, 
the most fertile soil in the district 
the best attended lecture of the 
course. 



Remark. — The use of en in this relation is very common/ but 
b, perhaps, to be classed with popular idioms or vulgarisms : — 



es el nifio mis despejado (de) en 
la escuela. 



he is the brightest lad in (the) 
school. 



14a The neuter article lo may be employed with any 
superlative to which in English the word thing, or some 
other word, may be supplied : — 



1 This construction with en, when used of persons, may generally be ex- 
plained as an ellipse : de los que hay en la e., of those who are in the s. Wiggers, 
Grammatik, p. 67, gives wrongly : La casa mds hermasa en la cuidad; a sentence 
no Spaniard would write. 



74 



Form and Inflection. 



\6 tnMs Uxal to M iiempre lo 

mejor, 
lo m^ acertado wri. el ii^;ar« 

selo. 



the easiest (way) is not always 

the best, 
the most appropriate (thing) will 

be to refuse him (it to him). 



Tli« AlMolttto Btt|pc»Uiltve. 



149l The absolute superlative is formed by affijcing to 
the stem of the positive the variable ending -isimo : — 



es darok daifsimo, 
tana cosa acertadfsima, 
un hombre prudentfsimo, 
esta sefiora es feisima, 
tengo muchlsimos iibros, 
una neoesidad i^M-emianttsima^ 



it is dear, very dear. 

a very approjMriaie thing. 

a very prudent man. 

this lady is very plain (" homely'^). 

I have a great many books. 

a most urgent necessity. 



a. The absolute superlative is also formed by asso- 
ciating with the simple adjective adverbs like mtty, 
bien, vfty; harto> iMStaate, tonsiderablyy quite; SBiaa- 
ttietita, exceedingly ; «JtowivBm8ilt#, extremely y etc. 



muy bianco, very white, 
harto sensible, very much to be 
regretted. 



sumamente rico, exceedin^y rich, 
excesivamente raro, extrenuly 
rare. 



R£BCARKi — The superlative in -isimuf assumes the same position 
with respect of the noun that the simple adjective would have : — 



poco fhito, poqufsimo fhito, 
un orador elocuente, un orador 
elocuentfsimo, 

un j6ven rico, un jdven riquisimo, 



{ 



little fruit, very little fruit. 

an eloquent orator, a very elo- 
quent orator. 

a wealthy young man, a very 
wealthy young man. 



150. The affix -isimo is applied to the pure stem of 
the adjective agreeably to the following laws : — 



The Adjective, 



75 



a. By rejecting a final vowel, or a true diphthong 
(§21):- 



doct-o, doct-fsimo, very learned. 
suav-e, suav-fsimo, very mild. 
grand-e, grand-fsimo, very large. 



hermos-o, hermos-fsimo, very 

beautiful. 
ampl-io, ampl-feimo, very full. 



but (according to §§ 20, 22) : 
impf-o, impi-{simo» very wicked. \ fri-o, fri-fsimo, very cold, 

b. By changing the final stem-consonants c into qu^ 
g into gu, and z into c (§§ 13 ; 15 ; 28, a) ; — 



blanc-O; Uanqu-fsimo, very white, 
larg-o, largu-fsimo, very long. 



feliz, felic-fsiino, very happy. 
atroz, atroc-fsimo, very shocking. 



c. By changing the termination -ble into -bil: — 
noble, nobil-fsimo, very noble. \ amable, amabil-fsimo, very kind. 



d. By restoring the movable diphthongs ie and ue 
to their primitive simple vowels e and o (§ 19) : — 



diestro, destrfsimo, very expert. 
valiente, valentisimo, very brave* 
ardiente, ardentfsimo, very zeal' 

ous^ very Rowing. 
cierto, certfsimo, very sure. 



tiemo, ternfsimo, very dear. 
lie to, letfsimo, very beaming. 
bueno, bonfsimo, very good. 
nuevo, novisimo, very recent.^ 
fuerte, fortfeimo, very strong. 



Remark. — This nile is hst yielding to the corrupting influences 
of the uneducated classes, and ciertisimo, tiernisimo^ ^v^ fitertisimo 
are frequently heard and found in literature, although the Academy 
recognizes only the flrst. Viejo, old, always maintains the diph- 
thong in the superlative (viejisimo) \ while the derivative vejez, old 
agCy rejects it. 

1 Ocaerally rendered Bud used as a relative superlative: La Novlsima 
Kecopilaeion, ihi ItOesi compilation; t>., the Revised StatuUs (of 1806), tliose 
of Philip 11. {1567) being la Nueva Reoopilacion, ike New DigeU. 



76 



Form and Inflection. 



e. By simply attaching -isimo to the unchanged 
adjective when it ends in any consonant except z: — 

iitil, utilisimo, very useful, \ liberal, libendisimo, very liderai. 

151. A few superlatives in -{simo are constructed on 
Latin stems: — 



• 1 



amigo," * amicfsimo, 

antfguo, antiqulsimo, 

bendfico, beneficentisimo, 

benevolo, benevolentisimo* 

cruel, cnidelfsimo, 

fiel, fidelisimo, 

magnffico, magnificentfsimo, 

sabio, sapientisimo, 

sacro, ) 

sagrado. jsa<^tisimo, 



very friendly, 
very ancient, 
very beneficent, 
very benevolent, 
very cruel, 
very £uthfid, 

very cold, 

very magnificent, 

very devoted, 
very wise, 

very sacred. 



from amic-us. 
antiquHis. 
beneficent(is). 
benevolent(is). 
crudel-is. 
fidel-is. 

frigid-US. 
magnificent(is). 

pient(is). 
sapient(is). 

sacrat-us. 



152. Some few adjectives form their absolute super- 
latives by attaching -rimo to the Latin base in er: — 



dspero,* 


asp^rrimo. 


very harsh, 


from asper. 


cdebre. 


celebdrrimo. 


very &mous. 




celeber. 


fntegrOy 


integdrrimo. 


very disinterested, 




integer. 


libre. 


lib^rrimo, 


very free. 




liber. 


mfsero. 


mis^rrimo, 


very wretched. 




miser. 


pobre,* 


paup^rrimo. 


very indigent. 




pauper. 


salubre. 


salub^rrimo. 


very healthfril. 




saluber. 



1 Those distinguished by an asterisk have also the regular superlative ; as, 
ami^isimo, friisitno^ piadosisimo, asperisimo, pobrisimo, 

2 The form pientisimo, although unknown to the Academy's Dictionary and 
Grammars, is in common use. The earliest record of it that I remember is in 
the Diferencias de libros q ay en el vniuerso, by Alexo Vanegas de Busto, 
Toledo, 1540, f. 240, where the author says : *' de la pietissima (pientfsima) 
virge maria." Vanegas is an " authority " recognized by the Academy {Diet, 
ed. Z726, p. buczvi, and Catdhgo de Autoridades, Madrid, 1874, p. xoo). 



The Adjective. 



77 



a. The superlative nbdrrimo, very prodtutive, wants 
the positive and comparative (Lat. uber, uberior), which, 
however, may be supplied hy ferdz, 

153. The adjectives fdcil, easy, probable ; dificil, dif- 
fictdty not probable, have the superlatives facilisimo, 
facilimo ; dificilisimo and dificilimo. 

154. The following comparatives and superlatives in 
form, derived from the Latin, have mostly lost their 
primitive force as such, and may be treated as adjec- 
tives, occasionally with special significations : — 



anterior, prei.'ious^ prior, 
citerior, hither. 
exterior, external^ outside. 
inferior, inferior^ lower, 
interior, iniertial^ inside. 
posterior, posterior, 
(mds cercano, nearer,) 
superior, superior ^ upper, 
ulterior, ulterior ^ ultimate, 

la carta anterior, the previotis 

letter. 
Ids puntos extremos, the extrenu 

points, 
un cuarto interior, an iftside 

apartment. 



(wanting.) 
(wanting. ) 
extremo, extrefne. 
fnfimo, lowest, 
fntimo, intimate. 
postremo, hindermost. 
prdximo, nearest^ next. 
supremo, sumo, highest ^ supreme, 
ultimo, last, final, 

la fnfima plebe, the lowest rab^ 

ble. 
un amigo intimo, an intimatt 

friend. 
un esfuerzo supremo, a supreme 

effort. 



a. These forms often serve as simple adjectives to 
build true comparatives and superlatives : — 



d precio tan fnfimo, 

la casa mds prdxima, 

las mds superiores ciencias,* 

mi mds fntimo amigo, 



at so low a price, 
the nearest house, 
the highest sciences, 
my most intimate friend. 



I Diet, of the Acad,, ed. 1736-39, vol. i. p. xlii. 3. 



78 Farm and Inflection, 

b. The same may be said of the superlative minima 
(§ I33»n^e2): — 

la cosa mis mfnima, | the smallest thing. 

155. The superlative absolute is often merely inten- 
sive : — 



este mismisimo asunto, 
ua case singulaiisimo. 



this identical subject, 
a signal case in point. 



156. Of the two forms comprised under the denomi- 
nation of superlative absolute, that in -isima is the 
stronger : — 

es un hombre doctisimo, > I . . 

es un hombre muy docto, \ \ ^^ « ^ ""^^ ^^^^^ ™^- 

157. The adverbs mte, more; mteos^ less; nmy, very; 
are often applied to nouns in the sense of " more of a," 
" less of a," and " very much of a," " a thorough " : — 

es mds niflo de lo que creia, 
es m^nos poHtico que esplotador. 



es muy hombre de mundo, 

es muy caballero, es muy Es* 

paftol. 
es muy seftorito, 
muy sefior mio. 



he is more of a child than I sup- 
posed. 

he is less of a politician than a 
•* carpet-bagger." 

he is a thorough man of the 
world. 

he is a thorough gendeman, a 
thorough Spaniard. 

he is quite a young gentleman.^ 

my dear sir. 



isa The formula may — para signifies too — to, too 
much of a — to^ with nouns, adjectives, and past parti* 
ciples : — 

1 He who replies to these observations, says, not muy^ but mucho, very, 
literally »f«^^; si tal, true; or, justo, of conrse. 



The Adjective. 



?9 



es muy grande para jugar tanto, 
es muy bobo para incomodar^e 

de eso, 
estaba muy asustada para arriea- 

gar preguntas. 



he is too large to play so much, 
he is too much of a simpleton to 

resent that. 
she was too much frightened to 

venti^re inquiries. 



159. The intensive prefix re (Lat. re and \ji] rae) was 
formerly much used to express a kind of absolute super- 
lative, with or without muy^ and was applied to adjec- 
tives, adverbs, and occasionally even to nouns. Its 
use is now popular or vulgar: — 



Ancient (1537). 



Cn las Cortes de los PHncipes 
son pocos, y muy pocos, y aun 
muy poquitos, y muy repo- 
quitos, los que se tienenentera 
amistad {Guevara), 



In the Courts of Princes, those 
who cherish towards one an- 
other genuine friendship are 
few, very few, even exceeding- 
ly few, and scarcely any at all. 



Modern, 



rebueno, or muy rebueno (usual), 
rebien, or muy rebien ( •• ), 
no me da la re-real gana (Joiv), 



very good indeed. 

very well indeed. [(do it) ; 

it does not suit my majesty to 



{literally, it does not give me the very royal mind to.*) 



1 In the following tragic nursery rhyme, reproducing the legend of *' Peter 
Peter, pumpkin eater," and which may be heard any bright morning among the 
nurse§ on the RecoUtos of Madrid, occurs the prefix re with a proper n^me : — 



Pepe, r*-Pepc 
mato k la mujer 
con siete cuchillos 
y un alfiler; 
la ineti6 en un cesto, 
la ll«v6 4 vender, 
le 9ac6 un doblon 
y lo meti6 en panchon. 



Jasy, my Joe, 
killed his wife 
with seven knives 
and one pin : 
put her in a panicr, 
txxA her to be sold, 
got a doubloon for her, 
and laid it out in bimsl 



80 



Farm and Inflectian, 



HVMKRAUB. 



16a The caitlinal numbers are those which answer 
the question, How many? 



GArdiMa Mmnten. 


I 


ano» a, {contract on). 


28 


veinte y ocho, or veinti- 


2 


dos. 




ocho. 


3 i tres. 


«9 


veinte y nueve, etc. 


4 cuatro. 


30 


treinta,(treintay udo, etc.) 


5 i cinco. 


40 


cuarenta. 


6 


sds. 


50 


cincuenta. 


7 1 siete. 


60 


sesenta. 


8 


ocho. 


70 


seteiita. 


9 


nueve. 


80 


ochenta. 


lO 


did. 


90 


noventa. 


i 


100 


ciento, {controit cien). 


II 


once. 






12 


doce. 


101 


ciento y uno, a. 


13 trece. 


102 


ciento y dos. 


14 1 catorce. 


103 


ciento y tres, etc. 


15 j quince. 


200 


doscientos, as. 


16 


diez y seis, or dieciseis. 


300 


trescientos, as. 


17 


diez y siete, or diecisiete. 


400 


cuatrocientos, as. 


18 


diez y ocho, or dieciocho. 


500 


quinientos, as. 


19 


diez y nueve, or diecinueve. 


600 


seiscientos, as. 


20 


veinte. 


700 


setecientos, as. 






800 


ochocientos, as. 


21 


veinte y uno, a, or veintiuno, 


900 


novecientos, as. 




a, {contract y^\Ti\\\xii), 


1,000 


mil, (mil y uno, etc^ 


22 


veinte y dos, or veintidos. 






23 


veinte y tres, or veintitres. 


10,000 


diez mil. 


24 


veinte y cuatro, or veinticua- 


100,000 


cien mil. 




tro. 


200,000 


doscientos, as, mil. 


25 


veinte y cmco, or veinticinco. 


500,000 


quinientos, as, mil. 


26 


veinte y seis, or veintiseis. 


1,000,000 


un millon, or un cuento. 


27 veinte y siete, or veintisiete. 


2,000,000 


dos millones. 



Numerals. 



8i 



Bemarlcfl on the Cardinal** 

161. Archaic forms are docientos and tredentos. 
They are heard, however, at the present day in current 
language, but are not met with in approved modern 
literature. Incorrect conversational forms are siete- 
cientOB and nuaveciontOB. See 150, d^ Remark. 

162. The cardinal numbers, although adjectives, are 
all invariable except uno, a, and ctentoSy aSy when multi- 
plied by two up to nine inclusive : — 



dos libros, tres plumas, 
cuatro cuartos, cinco onzas, 
diez dias, cuarenta almas, 
un amigo, una conocida, 
ciento y un soldados, 
veintiun casas, cien afios, 

cien mil duros, 

doscientos hombres, doscientas 

mujeres, 
quinientos bonos, quinientas car- 

petas, 
cuatrocientas mil personas. 



two books, three pens, [ounces, 
four cuartos (coppers), five 
ten days, forty souls, 
one friend, one acquaintance, 
one hundred and one soldiers, 
twenty-one houses, one hundred 

years, 
one hundred thousand dollars, 
two hundred men, two hundred 

women, 
five hundred bonds, five hundred 

(government) securities, 
four hundred thousand persons. 



For the contractions of una and ciento , see 123, n, ^ ; 126. 



163. As numeral adjectives, ciento and mil cannot 
assume un like the substantives millon and cuanto : — 



cien vecinos,' one hundred citi- 
zens, 
mil duros, one thousand dollars. 



un millon de gracias, a thousand 
thanks (literally, one milUon 
of thanks). 



1 Vecino means (i) a neighbor ; (a) the head of a &mily ; (3) a legal or offi- 
cially inscribed resident, a householder; (4) a citizen. Native estimates of 
population are made in rural districts by vecinos, heads of families; in towns, 
by almas, souls; and by government, for foreign convenience, by habitantes, 
inhaiitants. The traditional method is, however, by vetinos. 



S2 



Form and Inflection, 



me 6x6 mds de mU oniaa. 
recibi6 hasta cien azotes. 



be gave me more than one thou- 
sand ounces. [dred lashes, 
h^ received as many as one hun- 



a. Ciento used as a substantive assumes the form 
4:entenar^ unless employed to express rate. Mil^ as a 
substantive, may retain that form, or appear as miliar; 
but to express rate, only the latter is usual : — 



centenares de hombres, 
d doce reales el ciento, 
millares or miles de vidas, 
i velaticinco pesetas el miliar. 



hundreds of men. 
at twelve reals per hundred, 
thousands of lives. [sand, 

at twenty-five irancs ^^ thou- 



Remark. — In mercantile language, it is usual to omit the article 
with the number.^ 



^ doce reales ciento. 



d veinticinco pesetas miliar. 



164. Tens of hundreds cannot be used in Spanish for 
counting from one thousand upwards, but mil must 
always introduce the denomination : — 



mil y seis, 

mil y ciento, 

mil ciento y diez, 

mil cuatrocientos noventa y dos, 

dos mil trescientas personas. 



ten hundred and six. 
eleven hundred, 
eleven hundred and ten. 
fourteen hundred and ninety-two. 
twenty-three hundred persons. 



U5. The conjunction y, and (archaic /), is now only 
used to connect the last of a series with the foregoing 
number : — 



Fifteenth Century : 

myll e quatro^ientos e nouenta 
e nueue, 1499. 



Ninteenth Century: 

mil cuatrocientos noventa y 
nueve, 1499. 



^ So the Madrid hawkers say, for 'example : i real, or A real uno, om real 
each. 



Numerals. 



83 



166. The ordinal numbers, as their name indicates, 
j&how tb« crder ai a series ; as, firsts second^ etc. : — 



Ordinal Nnmben. 


1st 


primero, a, {contract-^Tixa^x). 


28th 


vig^simo octavo. 


2d 


segundo, a. 


29th 


vigesimo nono. 


3d 


tercero, a, {cotUract tcroer). 


30th 


trig^simo, a. 


4th 


cuarto, a. 


31st 


trig^simo primo, etc. 


5th 


quinto, a. 


40th 


cuadrag^simo, a. 


6th 


sexto, a, (tfif^sesto). 


50th 


quincuag^simo, a. 


7th 


s^ptimo, a, (aM^s^timo). 


60th 


sexagdsimo, a. 


8th 


octavo, a. 


70th 


septuag^simo, a. 


9th 


nono, a, or noveno, a. 


80th 


octog^simo, a. 


loth 


d^cimo, a. 


90th 


nonag^simo, a. 


nth 


und^cimo, a. 


1 00th 


cent^simo, a. 


1 2th 


duodecimo, a. 


loist 


cent^siiDO pdmo. 


13th 


d^cimo t^rcio. 


200th 


ducent^simo, a. 


. 14th 


d^cimo cuarto. 


300th 


trecent^simo, a. 


15th 


d^cimo quinto. 


400th 


cuadragent^simo, a.i 


l6th 


d^cimo sexto. 


500th 


quingent^simo, a. 


17th 


d^cimo s^ptimo. 


600th 


sexcent^simo, a.^ 


1 8th 


d^cimo octavo. 


700th 


septengent^simo, a.^ 


19th 


d6cimo nono. 


Sooth 


octogent&simo, a. 


20th 


vig^simo, a. 


900th 


nonagent^simo, a. 


2ist 


vigfeimo primo. 


i,oooth 


miUsimo, a. 


22(1 


vig^simo segundo. 


2,000th 


dos mildsimo, a. 


23d 


vig^simo tercio. 


io,oooth 


diez mil^simo, a. 


24th 


vig^imo cuarto. 


100,000th 


cien mil^simo, a. 


25th 


vig^simo quinto. 


200,000th 


doscientos mil^simo, a. 


26th 


vig^imo sexto (sesto). 


500,000th 


quinientos mil^simo, a. 


27th 


vig6simo s^ptimo (s^timo). 


1, 000,000th 


millonesimo, a. 



1 Some write euadr'mgentisimo^ sesceniislmo, septlngentiiimo^ but as the 
Academy does not give these numerals in the Dictionary or Grammar, the deci* 
•ion of that body is not accessible. 



84 



Form and Inflection, 



lei. Archaic forms are : — 



8th 


ochavo, a. 


30th 


treinteno, a. 


9th 


noveno, a. 


40th 


cuarenteno, a. 


loth 


deceno, a. 


50th 


cincuenteno, a. 


nth 


onceno, a. 


60th 


sesenteno, a. 


1 2th 


doceno, a. 


70th 


setenteno, a. 


13th 


treceno, a. 


80th 


ochenteno, a. 


14th 


catorceno, a. 


90th 


noventeno, a. 


15th 


quinceno, a. 


1 00th 


centeno, a. 


20th 


veinteno, a. 


i,oooth 


mileno, a. 



el ochavo dia, 
Alfonso once no, 
el doceno trabajo. 



the eighth day. — Crdnica General^ a.d. 1260. 
Alphonso XI. -^Fourteenth century, and still used, 
the twelfth labor — Villena, Labors of Hercules. 



But 2 1st, etc., would be vighimo prima ^ not veinteno prima. 

16a The ordinals, both simple and compound, vary 
regularly like all adjectives in o, agreeing in gender 
and number with their nouns : — 



la primera estacion, 
leccion d^cima nona, 
la fila vigdsima prima. 



the first station, 
lesson nineteenth, 
the twenty-first row. 



Remark. — The Academy writes the compound forms in one 
word: as, trig^simotercio (^fem. trig^simatercia) , thirty-third; but 
this innovation is not generally adopted by Spanish printers, nor 
should it be, since each member varies in ending like independent 
adjectives. 

For the contracts of primero and tercero^ see 123. 



169. Fractional numbers used in mathematical calcu- 
lations, though substantives, belong here. They do not 
generally correspond with the ordinals, as in English ; 



Numerals. 



85 



but from ten upwards assume the ending avo^ pi. 



avos: 



FnusUonal Mniiii1>er8> 




la mitad (un medio). 


A 


un diez y seis avo (dieciseis avo). 


l\ 


uno y medio, una y media. 


if 


un diez y siete avo. 




un tercio. 


A 


un diez y ocho avo. 




dos tercios. 


A 


un diez y nueve avo. 




un cuarto. 


A 


nn veintavo (veinte avo). 




tres cuartos. 


A 


un veintiun avo, etc. 




un quinto. 


A 


tres veintavos. 




cuatro quintos. 


A 


un treintavo. 




un sexto. 


A 


un cuarentavo. 




cinco sextos. 


A 


un cincuentavo. 




un s^ptimo. 


A 


un sesentavo. 




un octavo and ochavo. 


A 


un setentavo. 




un noveno. 


A 


un ochentavo. 


A 


un d^cimo. 


A 


un noventavo. 


^ 


un onzavo (or^ once avo). 


A 


tres noventavos. 


A 


un dozavo (doce avo). 


tJjt 


un centavo and cent^simo. 


A 


un trezavo (trece avo). 


IrfffT 


un mil^simo. 


A 


un catorzavo (catorce avo). 


m 


trescientos veinticinco, novecien- 


A 


un quinzavo (quince avo). 




tos setenta y dos avos. 



170. Fractional numbers, from i to ^ inclusive, may 
also be expressed by the ordinals with the feminine 
noun parte, part, especially when a genitive follows or 
is understood. From ^ onward this construction is 
preferable, except in mathematical calculations : — 



one-third, 

two-thirds, 

one-fourth, 

^ee-fburthS) 

one-twentieth, 

one-hundredth. 



un tercio, or la tercera parte. 

dos tercios, or las dos terceras partes. 

un cuarto, or la cuarta parte. 

tres cuartos, or las tres cuartas partes. 

un vigdsimo, or la vig^sima parte. 

un cent^simo, or la cent^sima parte. 



$6 Form and Inflection. 

a. As substantives, una torcia (formeriy una tercia 
parte) signifies a third of a yard; ima cuarta, a fourth 
or quarter of a yard ; im cuarteron, a quarter of a 
pound; irna arroba (from the Arabic for one-quarter), 
twenty five pounds or a quarter of a hundred^ applied to 
liquid as well as dry measure in Spain. Ua diasmo, 
meaning a civil or ecclesiastic ten per cent tax^ is cor- 
rupted from ddcimo^ as the English tithe is from tenth: 
as, las aleavalaa dal diaamo, in ancient law, the ten 
per cent peculium regis on all purchases and sales, TTa 
quinto, is a fifths and a fifth man^ hence a conscript 
soldier; la qai&ta, the military conscription, 

b. Fractionals are also employed in Spanish to spec- 
ify the number of leaves in a signature or folded 
sheet {cuademillo^), that is, the size {tamafto) of a 
volume : — 



un tomo en folio (f°), 

un tomo en cuarto (4°), 

un tomo en octavo (8^), 

un tomo en dozavo (I2*^)f 

un tomo en cliezyscisavo(i6°), 

un t. en veinte y cuatro avo (24") , 



a volume in folio, 
a volume in 4to. 
a volume in 8vo. 
a volume in i2mo. 
a volume in i6mo. 
a volume in 24010. 



ReMARic. -* In this connection, ** large ^^ is expressed by mayors 
and •• small " by menor or pequeho : — 



un tomo en f ^ mayor, or de mar- 

ca mayor, 
un tomo en cuarto menor, 
un Ubro de mano en octavo mar- 

quilla, 



a volume in large fg^o. 

a volume in small 4to. 

a manuscript in medium octavo. 



■."'■>'» 



1 So fiatned (from guafro) because in the origins of typography most books 
were issued in "fours/* whether the external form was quarto or folfo. 



Numerais. 



87 



on libvo de mokk en octaTo pe* 

quefio, or *' espafiol,^' 



a prittfaKl book in amall octMro, 
**SpaiUfthsize/'' 



171. The arithmetical signs +, x ,—,-»-, =, are read 
respectively mte, por, iu6no6, dividido por, ignal: — 

5 times 8 are 40, 



cinco mis tres igual ocfao ; w^ cinco y tres, oclio. 
cinco octavos por ocho igua] dnco. 
cinco por ocho, cuarenta. 



178. Half (a half or one-half), as a noun, is expressed 
by la mltad (in calculations only, by nn medio) ; as 
an adjective, by medio> m, without an or a \ — 



la mitad de mis bienes, 
le df la mitad, 
media hora, medio dia, 
una hora y media, 
un dia y medio, 



one^-half of my goods. 
I gave him one-half, 
half an hour, half a day* 
an hour and a half, 
a day and a half. 



173. Mnltiplicatives answer the question. How many 
foldf as. 

Adjectives* 

simple, simple. \ doble, double. \ triple, triple. 

Substantives* 

el duplo, twofold, twice as muck, many, 

el triplo, threefold, three times as much, 

el cuidruplo, fourfold, four times as much, 

el qufntuplo, fivefold, five times as many, 

el c^ntuplo, an hundred fold, etc. 

1 Technical book terms are : una foja, a folio (leaf numbered on the first 
-side only, — recto, verso or vuelta) ; una hoja, a /m/ (without foliation or pagi- 
nation) ; una p^ina, a ttumbertd fa^, Un " juego ** de libros, means a ** set '* 
of volumes, whether of two, or three hundred ; una biblioteca de tres mil tomes 
6 de mil novecientos juegos de libros, a library consisting of three thousand 
'volumes or of nineteen hundred sets, BibTioteca is a public or private library; 
ftmnerly, lihrerla signified /Wva/^ library^ but its use is now limited to the poets 
«nd old-«fiuhtoned people, while librtria nniversaliy designates a hook-shof or 
the book trade* 



88 



Form and Inflection. 



a. With the number of a street are used dnplicado, 
"bis/' repeated; triplicado, triple number; cuadrnpli^ 
cado, quadruple number, when it is not convenient or 
feasible to increase the cardinal number: — 



calle del Arenal, ndmero veinte 
duplicado, Strand^No. 20 "^>." 



calle del Sauco, num. 6 trip®., 
AUUr Street, No, 6 triple. 



Remark. — The Latin bis, twice^ appears in Spanish in the 
words bizco (bisojo, double eye), cross-eyed; bizcocfao (bis-coctus), 
biscuit^ cracker^ and teacake; bisabuelo* a, greeU-groitdftUher, 
great-grandfnother ; and biznieto, a, great-grandson, great-grand- 
daughter. The Spaniards use also the Greek reropTos, fourth, 
corrupted into tdtara, with a few words : as, tatarabuelo, a, great- 
great-grandfather or mother', tataranieto, a, great-great-grandson 
or daughter; tataradeudo, a, a remote kindred. 

174. Collectives or numeral substantives are : — 



un par, a couple, 
una docena, a dozen, 
una quincena,y^^^if. 
una veintena, a score, 

un par de dias, de huevos, 
una quincena (de dias) , 
una treintena de afios, 



una treintena, a score and a half. 
una cuarentena, two score. 
una ctnXtnz, five score. 
una gruesa, a gross. 

a couple of days, — of eggs. 

a fortnight. 

a score and a half of years. 



a. The term " or so " after numerals is expressed by 
poco mte 6 m6no8, or by cosa de, a matter of: — 

una veintena de libras poco mds 6 m^nos, or cosa de una veintena 
de libras, twenty pounds or so, some twenty pounds. 



1 That is, English biscuit, the American " cracker," also the teacake called 
" lady-fingers,** and the like. Sea-biscuit in Spanish is gaJUta^ " hard-tack," 
kneaded with rancid olive-oil, and used in the marine as well as the merchant 
service. 



Numerals. 



89 



179. Numeral Adverbs answer the questions, How 
many times? How often? and are formed by the asso- 
ciation of a cardinal number or adjective with the femi- 
nine noun voz, a time (Lat. vice-m) : — 



una vez, once. 
dos veces, twke. 
tres veces, tkree timse. 
veinte veces, twenty times. 
cien veces, one hundred times. 



muchas veces, often. 
pocas veces , few times, seldom. 
rara vez, or raras veces, seldom. 
otras veces, other times. 
algunas veces, sometimes. 



alguna que otra vez, one time and another* 



a. Distributives which answer likewise the ques- 
tion, How often f are expressed by todo or cada : — 



todos los dias, meses, afios, 
todas las horas, veces, 
cada dia, mes y afio, 
cada hora, cada vez, 
cada dos siglos, 
cada tres meses. 



every day, month, year, 
every hour, each time, 
every day, month, and year, 
every hour, each time, 
every two centuries, 
every three months. 



Remark. — ** Time " is expressed in Spanish in a variety of ways : 
by vez, as above, when it means an occasion, an instance ; by tiemfio, 
as a limited portion of duration ; hy hora, when it means ♦• o'clock " ; 
by rato, as to the quality of an occasion ; by piazOt as a fixed pe- 
riod ; German, Frist : — 



esta vez te lo perdono, 

el tiempo es corto, 

no tengo tiempo, 

I qu^ hora es ? 

^ estas horas estard en Paris, 

ha Uevado mal rato, 

; qu6 rato mds delicioso ! 

el plazo convenido, 

pagard en el plazo sefLalado, 

i. plazos cortos, 



ril forgive you this time. 

time is short. 

I have no time. 

what time is it? 

by this time he is at Paris. 

he had a poor time. 

what a delightful time ! 

the time agreed on. [the time. 

I shall pay at the expiration of 

in short instalments. 



90 



Form and Inflection, 



The Ftonoun^ 



PEB80KAI. PBONOUIfS. 



176. The personal pronouns in the nominative are: — 



81IfOUI.AB. 


Persoii. 


]IIlMCUliu«« 


W^wUdvm, 


Neuter, 


First. 

Second. 
« 

Third. 


yo, /. 

tu, thou. 

vos, you. 

^1, ke {it). 

ust^d, you {your grace). 


yo, /. 

l<i, thou, 

vos, you. 

ella, j>4^ {it). 

usted, you {your gra^e). 


ello, tV. 


PI^UKATm 


First. 

Second. 

Third. 

M 


nosotros, we, 

vosotros, you, 

ellos, they. 

ust^des, you {your graces). 


nosotras, w^. 

vosotras, you, 

cUas, ///<?j'. 

ustedes, you {your graces). 





a. To these may be added ea as the reflexive and 
reciprocal substitute of pronouns of the third person, 
in all cases except the nominative. As direct object, 
se means one*s self, himself^ herself ^ itself yourself; 
pL, themselves^ yourselves ^ each other ^ one another. 

Remark. — Names of things and abstract qualities (except those 
made so by the neuter article lo) are masci^line or feminine in Span- 
ish, whatever be the English gen(}er. Hence, el libro, the hook — ^, 
le, lo, it; los libros, the books — ellos, los, they^ them; U pluma, the 
pen — ella, la, /*/; las pluma$, the pens — ellas, las, they^ them, 
Ello relates only to a thought, or a phrase to which gender cannot be 
attributed : ello, lo, // — lo creo, / believe it, /think so. See § 84. 



Personal Pronouns. 91 

177. NoBOtros and voBOtros are compounds of nos 
and vos with the plural indefinite pronoun otroB, ^as, 
others; and hence the variation of gender, unknown to 
the other European languages, in the first and second 
persons. The appendix otros served originally to ex- 
pand or amplify the force of we and you^ but it added 
nothing to the signification, as the French autres in 
vous autres does. The compound first appeared in the 
latter half of the fifteenth century. 1 

17a Nob is still used officially in a representative 
sense by sovereigns, prelates, and magistrates. It is 
also met with in certain quaint devotional formulae: — 



cos los Inquisidores, 
nos el cabildo de ta], 
venga d nos el tu reino, 
ruega por nos, Sefiora, 



we the Inquisitors, 
we the Chapter of so and so. 
let thy kingdom come to us. 
intercede for us« Lady. 



Pronoim* off Address* 

179. The pronouns regularly employed in popular 
address are tti, vos, vosotrosy -as, and usted; besides 
titles such as vueceUncia, sefioria, usia, etc. 

Remark. — At an early period of the vernacular Castilian, as 
fixed by King Alfonso X., called El Sabio, or the Wise (a.d. 1252- 
84), and till far down in the fifteenth century, the only pronouns of 
address, aside from titles, were tu and vos^ the latter being then 
applicable to one or more persons. T^ was employed in sacred 
^■« ■ I .III i.ii. ^ii. I III «■« 

1 The compound forms do not ai^>ear in the early Castilian Potm of the Cut, 
written prior to the thirteenth century; nor in the Chronicle of the Cid, first 
printed in 1512, but older by several centuries ; nor in the Chronicle of Spain 
{a.d. ia6o), published in 1541; nor in the works of the Marquis of Santillana 
in the early pa^t of the fifteenth century. They abound, however, in the Royal 
Edicts from 1476, and in the Chronicle of Spain, by Diego de Valera (Seville, 
2483), though generally written throughout in two words, nos otrot, vos oiros. 



92 Form and Inflection, 

invocation, in poetry, in the £unily» and to Moors (against the 
Arabic dnta, thou) ; while vos was the formal medium between man 
and man, like the English ^^«. In the sixteenth century, under the 
expansive influences of the reigns of the Catholic sovereigns and the 
Emperor Charles V., vuestra xatx^tA^ y&ur fy'tue^ pi. vuestras mer- 
ct^^^, yotir graces, came to be the courtly address between gentle- 
men ; and vos, with its new plural vosotros, was reserved for a lofty 
formula appropriate to persons of superior and inferior rank, to 
the Deity, and to court poetry, while tu maintained its position in 
the family and in informal rhyme. The relative situation of such 
words at the present day is as follows : — 

180. T6, tkou (nearly always translated yoti)^ is em- 
ployed : (fi) in the sacred and hortative styles and in 
poetry; (p) between husband and wife, parents and 
children, relatives, and betrothed persons ; if) between 
intimate friends ; {d) by the native master and mistress 
to their domestics; (e) by everybody in speaking to 
brutes, pet animals, or even to inanimate objects. 

181. Vos, you^ is now always limited to one person, 
male or female, although joined to the second person 
plural of verbs. It is at present employed ; {a) inter- 
changeably with tu for sacred invocation by Catholics, 
as more distant and formal than tu; (J?) in modern 
literature, representing ancient manners ; (c) in the 
family, when the younger members wish to show great 
respect to the elders ; (rf) in anger and scorn, to infe- 
riors or to those whom we wish to address harshly; 
(e) in translations from the English and French, to 
represent the **you " and " vous " of those nations. 

182. Vosotros, -88, youy is the plural of tu and of vos^ 
and must be used when there are two or more persons 
or objects to whom singly td or vos would apply. 



J 



Personal Pronouns. 



93 



Beyond this, it is also employed by public speakers be- 
fore religious, literary, political, and other assemblies. 
It is, therefore, heard at public sessions of the Acade- 
mies, at the Athenaeum, the churches, and the theatre^ 
by the accustomed or authorized speakers. But if, at 
the play, the manager come forth to make an announce- 
ment or offer an apology, he would use ustedes. Vosotros 
supposes the confidence and, to a certain degree, the 
sympathy of the audience. 



183. XTstdd (pi, usUdes)y you, is descended from the 
now obsolete vuestra merced, your grace; vuestras 
mercedes, your graces (abbreviated Vmd,, Vmds.}^ and 
represents the conventional **you " in all conditions of 
life ; even in malice, anger, and satire. It is the uni- 
versal address of society, and the only one the foreigner 
need ever employ. Being considered to be of the third 
person, it requires the verb, pronoun-object, and pos- 
sessive adjective, to be likewise in that person, although 
translated into English by the second person. 

At the present day in Spain it is either written out 
in full, or abbreviated into V. or Vd, pi. W, or Vds. 
These signs are always to be read usledy ustedes^ 
precisely as Mr. in English is read Mister^ and M. in 
French, Monsieur: — 



usted {or V.) tiene, 
ustedes {or VV.) tienen, 
^trae V. su hijo consigo? 
^no conoce V. d sus amigos? 



you have, /.^. your grace has. 
you have, i.e. your graces have, 
do you bring your son with you? 
do you not know your friends? 



Remark. — Official titles of address at court or in government 
circles are likewise joined with the third person of the verb. The 
principal are: vuestra {or su) majestad (V.M.), your majesty \ 
vuestra {or su) alteza {y.h,)tyour highness, to a prince or prince- 



94 Fi^rm and Inflection. 

regent ; vaecelencia or vueeencia (V.E.), /<wr exciUeruy^ to a crowa 
minister, an ambassador, or ?i ^ande of Spain; usfa (y.S')^ymir 
honor^ to a judge or an alcalde.' In the Chambers the mutual ad- 
dress of the members is su sefk>r(a (S.S.), his lordship. The Re* 
gents of the kingdom in royal minorities have the corporate title of 
Majestad^ like the king whom they represent ; and the municipal 
councUs that of seHor/a, or lordship. 

Title of address is ^/ tratantiento ; as, el tratamiento de alteza, ihi 
eiddress of highness. To **thee and thou" anyone is tutearU^ or 
UamarU de H ; the latter may be applied to any pronoun of address, 
— Uamar d uno de vos, de usted^ to use vos^ asted^ to any one. 

Inltocttoa* 

104b The personal pronoun admits of a fuller inflec- 
tion than any other part of speech, save the verb. The 
dative and accusative cases have two forms : the first of 
which is called the conjunctive^ because governed by 
the verb ; and the second, disjunctive^ because governed 
by a preposition, and thus disjoined from the verb : — 

ConJiiBOtiTe* lHtJiiiiethr«» 

me da, he gives (to) me, I acude d mf , he applies to me* 

te busca, he seeks thee. | d tf busco, /seek thee. 

185. The association of both the conjunctive and 
disjunctive forms to the same verb constitutes the 
redundant or pleonastic construction, very common in 
Spanish : — 



me da i. mf, or A mf me da, 
te busca Ail, or i, tf te busca, 
le digo d v., <?r il V. le digo, 
les estimo d VV., or i. VV. les 
«stiino. 



he gives (to) me. 

he seeks thee. 

I say to you (to him to you). 

I esteem you (them your graces). 



1 Fonnerly also much uaed by the lower orders to any fontleiiiftp, but ivtiier 
provincial aow« 



Personal Pronouns. 



95 



186 The personal pronouns are inflected as follows :— 



SINGULAR. 



PLURAIm 



First Person. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
P. 



dc mf, ofme^ of myself, 

mc — a mi, to me^ to myself, 
me — a mi, me, myself. 
mf, me, myself. 



nosotros-as, we, 

tie nosotros-as, of us, of ourselves 
nos — a nosotros-as, to us, to ourselves, 
nos — a nosotros-as, tu, ourselves, 
nosotros-as, us, ourselves. 



S««ond Person. 



N. 

G. 
D. 
A. 
P. 



G. 
D. 
A. 
P. 



de ti, 
te — & ti, 
te — a ti. 



tkou, 

of thee, of thyself, 
to thee, to thyself, 
thee, thyself, 
thee, thyself. 



dc vos, of you, of yourself 
OS — a vos, to y<m, to younelf. 
OS — a VOS, you, yourself, 
VOS, you, yoursetf 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
P. 



vosotros-as, 



you. 



de Tosotros-as, if yon, 

of yourselves. 
OS ^ & vosotios-as, to you, 

to yourselves. 
OS — & TOBCtros^as, yitu, 

yourselves, 
voeotroft-as^ you, 

yourselves. 



Third Person -^ Masoollne. 



N. 

G. 
D. 
A. 
P. 



^1, he, it, 

de ^1, ff him, of it. 

le — & fl, to him, to it, 

le, lo — a €\, him, it, 

i\, him, it. 



ellos, they, 

de ellos, of them. 

les — a ellos, to them, 

los, Ics — a ellos, them, 

ellos, tliem. 



Third Person — Feminine. 



K. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
P. 



ella, 
de etla, 
le — 4 eUa, 
la — a ella, 
ella, 



she^ it. 
of her, of it, 
to her, to it, 
her, it. 
her, it. 



ellas, they. 

de elUs, of ihem, 

les — a ellas, to them. 
las — i. ellas, them. 
ellas, them. 



96 



Form and InfiecHcn. 



81KGULAR. 


PL€ItAI» 


Third Person — Menter. 


N. 


ello, lo, r'A that^ so. 




G. 


dc cllo, of it. 




D. 


a ello, to U. 


(Wanting.) 


A. 


lo, t'A that^ so. 




P. 


ello, it. 




Keflexive Snbstttato of Thitd Person. 


G. 


dc si, of himself of herself 
of itself 


de s(, of themselves, of each other. 


D. 


se — i.d,to himself to herself 
to itself 


se — i.s{,to themselves, to each other. 


A. 


se — £ s{, himself herself it- 
self one's self 


se — a s(, themsehfes, eaeh other. 


P. 


sf, himself herself it- 
self 


SI, themselves, each other. 



KKMAKKS our THB CASES. 



Noinlnntlve. 



187. The subject nominatix^e of the personal pronoun 
is usually suppressed, unless required on account of 
emphasis, contrast, ambiguity, or distinctness : — 



voy d casa, 

volverd pronto, 

^qu^ escribes? estAn locos, 

^qud he de hacer yo? 

^1 se va, ella se queda, 

no sabe lo que yo quisiera. 



I am going home. 

he will return soon. [crazy. 

what are you writing? they are 

what am /to do? 

he goes, she stays. 

he does not know what I want. 



a. Sometimes its use is merely rhetorical : — 



yo soy la loz verdadera, 

yo he dicho en mis discuisos. 



I am the true light. 

I have said in my speeches. 



Personal Pronouns. 



97 



The subject of an impersonal verb is not ex- 
pressed : — 



conviene ; me parece, 
basta ; se sigue, 
llueve; hay. 



it is fitting ; it seems to me. 
it is enough ; it follows. 
it rains ; there is, there are. 



a. But when it points with emphasis to an idea or to 
a following que^ the subject ello is employed : — 



^qu^ es ello? 

ello es que hay animales muy 
cientfficos (JriarU)^ 



what is it? 

the fact is that there are some 
very scientific animals. 



Remark. — In es que^ the iasX is that, there is an ellipse. The 
fiill form es el caso que, or el caSo es que, is often met with. 



189. When, in English, the pronoun-subject has a 
substantive in apposition with it that limits or defines 
it, in Spanish the substantive, accompanied by the 
definite article, replaces the pronoun as the subject of 
the verb, and the latter is put in the person and number 
appropriate to the suppressed pronoun : — 



los Espafioles estamos muy atra- 

sados, 
tenemos el gusto los liberales de 

ver el cambio, 
la mayor ofensa que los prin- 

cipes podeis hacer i Dios, es 

no osar nadie avisaros. 

{^Guevara, 1537.) 



we Spaniards are very backward. 

we liberals have the satisfaction 

of seeing the change, 
the greatest offence that ye 

princes can commit against 

God, is that none dare warn 

you. 



a. If the pronoun and apposition are both expressed, 
the latter must always retain the definite article : — 



nosotros los Espafioles, 
vosotras las sefioras. 



we Spaniards, 
you ladies. 



98 



Form and Inflection. 



190i The position of the pronoun-subject is subser- 
vient to the general laws of taste ; but emphasis, enthu- 
siasm, and often elegance, are exhibited by placing it 
after the verb, as in the interrogative state: — 



no file €\ en verdad el tinico in- 
tolerante de su siglo, 

hombre del cual pienso yo que 
no le hay superior en la hia- 
toria. 



indeed be was not the only in- 
tolerant man of his time. 

a man who I think has no su- 
perior in history. (^Cdncvas 
del Castillo^ 1S77.) 



Genitive. 



191. The genitive has all the meanings of the prepo- 
sition da, of, fronts by, with, at, to, and often it is not 
translated at all : — 



habla de tf, de nosotros, 
se rie de mf, de ellos, 
esta casa es de ella, 
se olvida de sf, de ello, 



he speaks of thee, of us. 
he laughs at me, at them, 
this house belongs to her (is of), 
he forgets (of) himself (of) it. 



Dative. 

192. The dative is not only translated by to, but also 
by for, from (with the idea of taking away), and very 
often it imparts to a following definite article the 
meaning of a possessive adjective: — 

he speaks to me, he gives thee, 
he gets for us. 
he cut his (another's) arm. 
he wounded his (own) hand, 
he takes away their sleep. 



me habla, te da, 
nos procura, 
le cortd el brazo, 
se hirid la mano, 
les quita el suefio. 



a. In English, the signs of the dative (to, for, from) 
are often suppressed : — 



me da, le dice, 

nos procura destinos. 



he gives me, he tells him. 
he gets us places (positions) • 



Personal Pronouns, 



99 



19a In Spanish, the diative, with another pronoun- 
object, is very frequently superfluous, and may be 
considered as an expletive: — 



U^vatelo {of a fiurchase) , 
se lo coini<5, 

quitatemelo {of removal) ^ 
^chatemela (la pluma), 



take it (for thyself), 
he ate it up (for himself), 
take it away from me, 
toss it to me (the pen). 



194. Since the datives la and les are common to both 
genders, some writers improperly employ the accusa- 
tives la and las for these f eminines : — 



le digo, la digo, 
les presto el libro, 
las presto la pluma, 



I say to him, I tell her. 

I lend them (men) the book. 

I lend them (women) the pen. 



AccvsatlTe. 



195. The accusative case is governed directly by the 
verb : — 



me ve, te llama, 
nos aman, os engafian, 
le conoce, la sigue, 
los odia, las recibe, 
el libro — \tor\o tomo, 
la pluma — la veo, 
los libros — los tomo, 
las plumas — las veo, 



he sees me, he calls thee. , 
they love us, they deceive you. 
he knows him, he follows her. 
he hates them, he receives them, 
the book — I take it (him), 
the pen — I see it (her), 
the books — I take them, 
the pens — I see them. 



Remark. — Many modern writers use lo of persons as well as of 
things, but the student should follow the dominant practice which 
makes le refer to persons and masculine words, while lo is limited to 
things to which gender cannot be assigned. 

196. The use of les for los is frequently met with, 
but is discouraged by the Academy. In the pleonastic 
construction with ustades, however, it is admissible: — 



100 



Farm and Inflection. 



les busqu^ d ustedes, 
los conocf en seguida, 
les mand6 que no saliesen, 



I looked for you, I sought you. 

I knew them at once. 

he ordered them not to go out. 



Remark. — In the ancient language, from which the last example 
is taken, many verbs seem to have governed the dative which are 
now usually found with the accusative. 

197. The pronouns la or lo, la, los, las, have an 
indefinite signification of one, some, any, such^ negative 
none, when they stand in the predicate with the 
impersonal verb hay, there is, there are, and relate to 
a substantive taken in an indeterminate sense : — 



cree que no hay dia de juicio, y 

le (or lo) hay, 
trae una silla si la hay por ahf, 

comprar^ billetes si los hay, 
si hubiese alguna sociedad patri- 
6dca como las hay polfdcas. 



he believes that there is no judg- 
ment day, and there is one. 

bring a chair if there is one 
thereabouts. [smy. 

I shall buy tickets if there are 

if there were some patriotic so- 
ciety as there are political ones. 



19a The same pronouns signify some, one, ones, when 
they are used with personal verbs relating to a substan- 
tive taken in a partitive sense : — 



^tiene V. pan? le or lo tengo, 
^quidn quiere agua? la quiero yo, 
\ felices pdscuas tenga usted ! — 

las tenga usted muy felices, 
^tiene V. ganas de comer? las 

tengo y urgentes. 



have you bread? I have (some), 
who wants water? I want some, 
a merry Christmas to you ! — may 

you have very merry ones, 
have you an appetite ? I have, 

and a pressing one. 



199. Lo, accusative of ello, represents a phrase, an 
idea, to which gender cannot be assigned : — 

^cree usted lo que dice? do you believe what he says? 

no lo creo, I do not believe it. 

^conviene hacerlo 6 no? is it worth while to do it or not? 



Personal Pronouns, 



lOl 



200. Lo is equivalent to one^ stichy when it stands in 
the predicate with the verb to be, referring to a fore- 
going substantive : — 



^es ella hudrfana? lo es, 
^son ellas hu^rfanas? lo son, 
I es usted caballero ? lo soy, 
sea cristiano 6 no lo sea, 
afirmaba el autor que lo era tarn- 

bien de un Viaje, 
vf que deda ** carta"; dralo en 

efecto. 



is she an orphan? she is (one), 
are they orphans ? they are. 
are you a gentleman? I am. 
whether he be a Christian or not 
the author affirmed that he was 

one of some Travels too. 
I saw that it said ** Episde" ; in 

&ct it was one. 



201. When lo stands in the predicate of the verb to be, 
and relates to an adjective, it is equivalent to so: — 



si ^1 estd contento, yo no lo estoy, 
l&eri. ocioso emprenderlo? 
sf que lo serd, 
Jos ladrones son muy honrados, 

pero tambien lo son los ver- 

dugos. 



if he is satisfied, I am not (so), 
will it be vain to undertake it? 
yes, it will be. 

robbers are very honest people, 
but so are hangmen likewise* 



Remark. — The idiomatic formulae. Is it I? is it thou? it is I, 
it is thou, etc., are expressed in Spanish by the simple verb to be (I 
am, thou art ; am I ? art thou ? etc.) : — 



^qui^n es? yo soy, 
^sonustedes? nosotros somos, 
^soy yo, Sefior? td eres. 



who is it? it is I. 
is it you ? it is we. 
Lord, is it I ? it is thou. 



Prepositionftl. 

202. The prepositional case is that form of the pronoun 
before which all prepositions must stand. It is the same 
as the nominative in form, save in mi, ti, and si : — 



sin mf , para tf , 

con ^, por usted, 

i. nosotros, de vosotros. 



without me, for thee, 
with him, by you. 
to us, of ^r from you. 



I02 



Form and Infiectiofu 



I. By exception, the preposition con, with^ unites 
as one word to the forms -niigo, -tigo, -sigo — the ^^go'^ 
being a forgotten remnant of the Latin cum in mecufn, 
tecum, secum : — 



conmigo, contigo, 
consigo, 

con ^1, con eHa, 

con ello, con nosotros. 



with me, with thee, 
with himself, herself, etc. 



but 



with him (it), with her (it), 
with it, with us. 



204. The adverb alii, there, in it, is often used instead 
of a pronoun in the prepositional case : — 



Itstk en la cajita? allf estd, 
la pintura — clava allf los ojos. 



is it in the box? it is in it [it. 
the painting — fix your eyes on 



Position of the Object. 



20ak The conjunctive forms of the dative and accusa- 
tive cases regularly stand before the finite verb ; but 
to infinitives, gerunds, and imperatives conjugated 
affirmatively, they are appended as one word : — 



me oye, oirme, 
oy^ndome, dyeme 
te digo, decirte, 
dici^ndote, dfme, 
no le escuches, 
no me digas eso. 



he hears me, to hear me. 

« 

hearing me, hear (thou) me. 
I tell thee, to tell thee, 
telling thee, tell (thou) me. 
do not listen to him. 
do not tell me that. 



206. Objective pronouns may, however, be appended 
to the finite verb when it begins a sentence, unless 
negative: — 



rdstanos decir (no nos resta), 
neg(Sles el cielo este gozo, 
s^ale la tierra leve, 
pliceme, dijo el cura. 



it remains for us to say. 
heaven denied them this boon, 
light be the dust above him ! 
it pleases me, said the curate. 



Personal Prvttouns, 



J03 



207. If an infinitive depend on a verb or on another 
infinitive, the pronoun may stand before the verb or be 
attached to either infinitive : — 



no quiso decirme, or no me 

quiso decir, [buscar, 

voy d buscarlos, or los voy d 

sin volver d preguntarles, or sin 

volverles d preguntar. 



he did not care to tell me. 

I am going to look for them, 
without asking them again (re- 
turning to ask them). 



a. If the verb or infinitive do not admit an object, 
the pronoun attaches to the word that governs it ac- 
cording to the primary rule : — 



los vi<5 venir, 

vino d verme, 

al oimos discurrir asf. 



he saw them come, 
he came to see me. 
on hearing us discourse thus. 



206. When the gerund is in the progressive form of 
the verb with estar, to be ; ir, to go ; venir, to come ; 
andar, to go, the object-pronoun may attach to it, or 
stand before the verb ; but the latter disposition is 
preferable : — 



io estamos viendo todos los dias, 
los voy buscando, 
OS vamos comprendiendo, 
nos iba siguiendo. 



we are seeing it every day. 
I am looking for them, 
we are getting to understand you. 
he went on following us. 



209. The first and second persons plural of the im- 
perative mode lose the s and the d of the respective 
endings when the reflexives nos and OB are attached 
to them: — 



am^monos (far am^mosnos), 
vdmonos {for vaydmosnos) , 
amdos (J'or amados), 
deten^os {for detenedos), 
rendfos {for rendidos), 



let us love one another, 
let us go. 

love (ye) one another, 
stop (yourselves), 
surrender (yourselves). 



I04 



Form and Inflection, 



Remark. — The above constitute the natural and regular laws for 
the position of the conjunctive pronouns. There are some devia- 
tions in practice from them which the student is advised not to imi- 
tate, since their application would be more or less quaint and 
inelegant, or dependent on a wide experience of the language at all 
epochs. 

Disjunctive Form. 

210. The disjunctive or prepositional form of the 
dative and accusative cases is used when the verb, from 
its intransitive nature or signification, does not (in 
Spanish) admit an object without a preposition: — 



acudid i. mf, d XU & vos, 
viene i. nosotros y nos dice, 
nos acercamos *l vosotros, 
se dirijid d ellos, d ellas. 



he applied to me, to thee, to you. 
he comes to us and says (to us), 
we draw near to you. 
he addressed (himself to) them. 



It is likewise used with all kinds of verbs in 
emphatic, intensive, and antithetic utterances, in excla- 
mations, and in answer to a question without the verb : — 



I a ti Ilamo, Sefior ! 

los lazos que d m( le unen, 

1^61 buscas ahora? 

nadie osa avisar i, vosotros y re- 

prender d vuestros cortesanos, 
la candela alumbra d los otros y 

quema d sf misma, 
el prfncipe nos puede avisar y 

nosotros d 61 j 
li. quidn busca fulano? 
i.V,t^ mf, d ellos, 
jd 6\ eso! 



I Lord, to Thee I call ! 
the bonds that unite him to me. 
are you looking for h'm now? 
no one ventures to warn^^w and 

rebuke your courtiers, 
the lamp gives light to otiiers 

and consumes itself, 
the prince may warn us and we 

•him. 
whom is such a one looking for? 
for you, for me, for them, 
(do you say) that to him! 



212. When there are two verbs, the one of which is 
intransitive and the other transitive, directly or indi- 
rectly, each may have its appropriate regimen: — 



Uego d ellos y les digo, 



I come up to them and say (to 
them) . 



Personal Pronouns, 



los 



213. Some verbs require the disjunctive with one 
signification and the conjunctive with another: — 



no vuelvas mis d dl, 
me vuelve la cara, 
cedo d ella, 
le cedo el paso, 



do not return to him again, 
he turns his face to me. 
I give way to her. 
I allow her to pass. 



Fleonastlo Construction. 

214. The conjunctive and disjunctive pronouns may 
be associated to the same verb, not merely to give 
emphasis, but also to amplify the phrase. Either 
pronoun may come first, but greater intensity is often 
secured when precedence is given to the disjunctive: — 



ii tf te conviene eso, 
d ^1 le aprecian mucho, 
ikxni qu^ me importa? 
quiso engaflamos d nosotros, 
ik vosotros OS gusta eso? 



that is for your interest, 
they regard him highly, 
what do / care ? 
he wanted to deceive us. 
do you like that? (does 
please you?) 



that 



Any substantive or appositive may replace the 
disjunctive pronoun, preserving the redundant con- 
struction with the conjunctive: — 

le aseguro al ministro, [bajar, 
d los Indios les obligaron d tra- 
d los caballeros les parecid bien, 
al hombre no le es permitido 

obrar con libertad, [ficio, 

d todos nos reportard un bene- 
d los Espafioles nos gusta char- 

lar (iTT parlar), 



I assure the minister. [work, 
they compelled the Indians to 
it seemed good to the gentlemen, 
man is not allowed to act with 

freedom. 
it will bring us all a benefit, 
we Spaniards like to gossip (it 

pleases us S. to gossip). 



216. A similar redundant construction obtains with 
the conjimctive pronoun and a substantive in the 
accusative: — 



io6 



Form and Inflection, 



eso no lo hago, 

es amigo de apuntarlo todo, 

todo me lo enviaba mi dama, 

casa no la tenfan, 

cosa que no le fud posible el cum- 

plirla, 
hombres como Cdrlos quinto 

nadie los volverd ya mds d ver, 



ril not do that. [thing. 

he is fond of jotting down every- 
my lady sent me everything, 
house they had none, 
a thing that it was not possible 

for him to fulfil, 
no one will ever again see men 

like Charles the Fifth. 



Infleotioa of Usted. 

217. Usted is inflected like any personal substantive ; 
as, hombre, mujer. To avoid its unpleasant repetition, 
it has for pronominal substitutes the datives and accu- 
satives of ^l and ella, together with the common reflexive 
and reciprocal substitute of the third person : — 





Sinsrular. 


Flaral. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
P. 


usted, you, 

de usted, of you. 

a usted, suhs. le, to you. 

d usted, subs. le, la, you. 

usted, you. 


ustedes, you. 

de ustedes, of you. 

a ustedes, les, to you. 

a ustedes, los, las (les), you. 

ustedes, you. 


G. 
D. 
A. 
P. 


de siy of yourself 

se — i. SI, to yourself. 

se — a SI, yourself. 

SI, yourself 


de SI, of yourselves. 

se — a SI, to yourselves. 

se — a SI, yourselves. 

SI, yourselves. 



2ia To avoid the disagreeable repetition of a formal 
address, tisted as subject may be given once, and left 
understood afterward : — 

usted no sabe lo que quiere, | you do not know what you want. 

219. As object, usted may be represented by its 

pronominal substitutes: — 



Personal Proftauns, 



107 



devui^vo ^ V. d libro j le pido 

otro, . 
vengo ii ver k VV. y d decirles, 
oigo d v., mas no le veo, 
busqud d VV., mas no les en- 

cootr^. 



I return you the book and ask 
you for another. [you. 

I come to see you and to say to 

I hear you, but I do not see you. 

I looked for you, but I did not 
find you. 



220. In short sentences, usted^ as subject, may be 
suppressed ; and, as object, may be replaced by one of 
its substitutes, provided no ambiguity would arise : — 



me hace un gran favor, 

es cuanto le tengo que decir, 

les digo y lo repito. 



you do me a great favor, 
that is all I have to tell you. 
I tell you and I repeat it. 



221. The oblique cases of usted may replace the 
possessive adjective: — 

d los pi^s de v., sefiora, at your feet, lady {at presenta- 

tion or exit). {salutation. 

beso k V. la mano, caballero, I kiss your hand, sir {formal 

222. Usted, as subject, may stand before or after the 
verb to which it is nominative. In the compound tenses 
it can never separate the auxiliary and participle, but 
takes its place before or after both : — 



usted no sabe, or no sabe V., 

lo hallardn ustedes, 

espero que nos hard V. el favor 

de quedar con nosotros, 
^ha recibido V. el libro? 



you do not know. 

you will find it. 

I hope you will do us the favor 

of remaining with us. 
have you received the book? 



a. The substitutes of usted follow the general law of 
position laid down for conjunctive pronouns : — 

le digo, les digo, 
dicidndole, dicidndoles, 
decirle, buscarles. 



retfrese V., no se retire V., 



I tell you (sing, and pi.) . 
telling you. 

to tell you, to look for you. 
retire, do not retire. 



io8 



Form and Inflection. 



22a listed and its substitutes form the pleonastic 
construction when joined to the same verb: — 



le dir^ d V., 

le busco i, V., 

^qu^ le pasa i. V. (sing,) ? 

^qu^ les pasa i. VV. (//.) ? 



I shall tell you. 

I look for you. 

what is the matter with you ? 

what is the matter with you ? 



224. All adjectives, past participles, and variable words 
agree in gender and number with usted wh^n they qualify 
or relate to it : — 



es usted hu^rfana, 
estd V. engafiado, sefior, 
estd V. engafiada, sefiora, 
W. mismos son los traidores, 
W. mismas son las traidoras, 



you are an orphan, 
you are deceived, sir. 
you are deceived, madam, 
you yourselves are the traitors, 
you yourselves are the traitor- 
esses. 



The Reflexive Pronoun* 



225. The pronouns of the first and second persons 
have, in the oblique cases, a reflexive meaning when 
they refer to the same person as the subject: — 



me hallo ocupado, 
te engafias, 
nos preguntamos, 
OS arrojais, 



(I find myself,) I am busy, 
thou deceivest thyself, 
we ask ourselves, 
you cast yourselves. 



226. Pronouns of the third person, including usted, 
refer, in the oblique cases, to a different person or thing 
from the subject. Hence, each gender employs the 
common substitute se to express reflexive or reciprocal 
action on the subject: — 



se olvida de ^, 
8e olvida de sf, 



he forgets him (another), 
he forgets himself. 



Personal Pronouns, 



109 



le engafia, 

se engafia^ 

lo abre ; se abre, 

los hieren, 

se hieren, 

V. la engafia ; V. se engafia, 

VV. las engaftan ; VV. se enga- 

fian, 
se toman alimento para ellos, 
se toman alimento para sf. 



he deceives him. 

he deceives himself. 

he opens it; it opens (itself). 

they strike them. 

they strike themselves, [yourself. 

you deceive her; you deceive 

you deceive them; you deceive 
yourselves. 

they take along food for them. 

they take along food for them- 
selves. 



227. When se represents a neuter or an impersonal 
subject, it may be translated by one^ they, we, you, 
people, taken in an indeterminate sense, or the verb 
with se may be rendered by the passive voice : — 



se dice (it says itself)^ 
se avisa, 

nada se saca con eso, 
aquf se come bien, 
se ha mandado, 
se ve, se conoce. 



they say, it is said. 

they give notice, notice is given. 

youll gain nothing by that. 

here you dine well. 

orders have been issued. 

it is clear, it is evident. 



22a A reflexive verb, as a rule, replaces the passive 
voice, which may often be translated by the indefinite 
they: — 



aqui se habla Espafiol, 
se equivocan mucho, 
se encuentra gente, 
se compran libros viejos, 
se entregan las armas. 



Spanish is spoken here. 

they are much mistaken. 

you find people. 

old books are bought. 

they give up their arms (the arms 

surrender themselves or are 

surrendered) . 



229. The reflexive se is very generally omitted in 
translation as superfluous in English: — 



no 



Form and Inflection. 



se digna protegerme, 
se marchan en seguida, 
se va haciendo cajista, 
se queda con ^1, 
se vuelve loco de gozo, 
se niega d complacerme, 



he deigns to aid me. 
they depart at once. [poser. 
he is getting to be a (type) corn- 
he keeps it (remains with it). 
he is overcome with joy. 
he refiises to accommodate me. 



230. Se Stands in the dative to replace a possessive 
adjective with a determinative object: — 

se pone la levita, 
se quita el abrigo, 
se ha cortado la mano. 



he puts on his coat. 

he takes off his overcoat. 

he has cut his hand. 



231. The dative of interest is frequently met with in 
Spanish, and sometimes has the force of an expletive ; — 

he proposes (to himself). 

he ate it up (for himself). 

pick it up — the coin. 

take it — the book. 

carry it up stairs — the trunk. 

toss it to me. [die to me). 

I lose fewer cases (fewer cases 



se propone, 
se lo comi6, 
cdjetela — la moneda, 
ll^veselo V. — el libro, 
sdbetelo — el baul, 
^chatemelo, [fermos, 

i. mi se me mueren m^nos en- 



232. Se has very often an adverbial force, or it receives 
the action of a transitive verb, leaving it practically 
intransitive : — 



se va, se vuelve, 
se cae, se Ueva, 
se sale, se muere, 
se rompe, se dobla, 
se abre, se cierra, 



he goes away, he turns around. 
he falls down, he carries off. 
it leaks, he is dying, 
it breaks, it folds, 
it opens, it shuts. 



Two Objective Pronouus. 

23a When a verb governs two conjunctive pronouns, 
the dative precedes the accusative, except only- the 
reflexive se, which always stands first, whichever be 
its case : — 



Personal Pronouns. 



Ill 



me lo da, me la da, 

te los busca, te las busca. 

nos lo presta, 

OS los ofrezco, 

te lo Uevas, 

se me olvida, 



he gives it to me. 

he seeks them for thee. 

he lends it to us. 

I offer them to you. 

thou takest it for thyself. 

(it forgets itself to me) I forget. 



234. When the conjunctive datives le, to hiin^ to her^ 
to ity to yoUf and les, to thenty to you^ meet a pronoun- 
object beginning with 1, they assume the common form 
86. This word was anciently written ge^ and is not to 
be confounded with the reflexive of the third person ^ : — 



se le doy — el libro, 
se lo presto — d ella, 
se lo digo — d usted, 
se les envia — i. ellos, 
se los presta — d ellas, 
se lo digo — d ustedes, 



I give it (the book) to him. 
I lend it to her. 

I say it to you (sing.), [them. 
he sends them (persons) to 
he lends them (books) to them. 
I say it to you (//«r.). 



a. The mutations of le, les into se appear, then, as 
follows : — 





lele 


ami 


lesle 


become 


se le; 


ancient^ 


gele. 




lela 




les la 




se la; 




ge la. 




lelo 




lesk> 




se lo; 




gelo. 




le les 




les les 




se les; 




ge les. 




le los 




les los 




se los; 




ge los. 




le las 




les las 




se las; 




ge las. 



1 Se^ substitute for le^ /«f, atid se^ reflexive, came to be identical in form by 
the early vitiated pronunciation of the primitive ge. The Latin ilU^ illis, first 
produced the Spanish datives It and lis^ later le, les^ which, before a pronoun- 
object in /, passed over into ge^ like muger from mulier^ and ageno from alienus. 
But ge and the reflexive se were anciently pronounced almost alike, — sM 
(Alsatian-French,/^), — and hence the graphic confusion of them near the 
close of the fifteenth century. Each should, therefore, be kept functionally 
distinct, although they are constantly interchanging with apparent identity : -— . 



se lo procura (se s le), 
se lo procura (ses«se), 
se los compran (sessles), 
se los compran (sesse), 



he gets it for him, 
he gets it for himself. 
they buy them for them, 
they buy them for themselves. 



112 



Form and Injleetion. 



235. The following table presents examples of two 
conjunctive pronouns, the first of which is in the dative 
case, and the second in the accusative. When these 
pronouns are attached to the verbal form, as represented 
in the second column, the verbal form must be accented ; 
thus, digotelo, / tell thee so : — 



FIBST PEBSON WITH THIRD.— ORDER, DAT. AND ACC 


Before the 
Verb, 


Attached to 
the Verb. 




ReflexiTe. 


me le, 
me la, 
me lo, 

me los (les), 
me las. 


-mele, 
-mela, 
-melo, 

-melos (les), 
-melas. 


him, 
her, it, 

it, 

them (/«.)» 

them (/), 


- to me. 


him, 
her, it, 

it, 

them, 

them, 


• to myself. 


nos le, 
nos la, 
nos lo, 
nos los (les), 
nos las. 


-nosle, 
-nosla, 
-noslo, 
-noslos (les) , 
-noslas. 


him, 
her, it, 

it, 

them, 

them. 


- to US. 


him, 
her, it, 

it, 

them, 

them. 


■ to ourselyes. 


SECOND PERSON WITH THIRD.— ORDER, DAT. AND ACC. 


tele, 

tela, 

telo, 

te los (les), 

te las. 


-tele, 
-tela, 
-telo, 

-telos (les), 
-telas, 


him, 
her, it, 

it, 

them, 

them. 


■ to thee. 


him, 
her, it, 

it, 

them, 

them. 


to thyself. 


OS le, 
OS la, 
OS lo, 

OS los (les), 
OS las. 


-osle, 
-osla, 
-Oslo, 

-oslos (les), 
•oslas. 


him, 
her, it, 

it, 

them, 

them. 


• to you. 


him, 1 
her, it, 

it, 

them, 

them. 


to yourself. 
■ to yourselves. 



- .^ 



Personal Proiumns. 



113 



THIRD P£KSON WITH THIRI>. — ORDER, DAT. AND ACC. 


Before the 
Verb. 


Attached to 
the Verb. 




ReflezlTe. 


se le, 
se la, 
se lo, 

se los (les), 
se las. 


-sele, 
•sela, 
-selo, 

-selos (les), 
-selas. 


him, 

her, it, 
it. 

them (».)» 
them (/), 


to him. 

- to her. 

to you. 


him, 
her, it, 

it, 

them, 

them. 


to himself, 
to herself, 
to itself, 
to yourself. 


se le, 
se la, 
se lo, 

se los (les), 
se las. 


-sele, 
-sela, 
•selo, 

-selos (les), 
-selas, 


him, 
her, it, 

it. 

them, 

them. 


to them, 
to you. 


him, 
her, it, 

it. 

them, 
them, 


to themselves, 
to yourselves. 



236. In the following table the first pronoun is the 
reflexive in the accusative case, and the second a con- 
junctive in the dative : — 



REF£«£XIYE WITH AI.I. PERSONS. — ORDER, ACC. AND DAT. 



se me, 
se te, 
se le, 
se (le) a V. 



se nos, 

se OS, 

se les, 

se (les) a W., 



>seme, 
-sete, 
-sele, 
-se(le) a V. 



-senos, 
-seos, 
-seles, 
-se(les) a VV., 



I* himself, 
I herself, 

itself, 

themselves, 



to me, 

to thee, 

to him, her, it. 

to you (your grace). 



' himself, 

herself, 

itself, 
. themselves. 



to us. 
to you. 
to them. 
. to you (your graces). 



237. The position of two objective pronouns, with 
respect qf the governing verb, follows the same laws 
as that of the simple objective: — 



114 



Form and Inflection. 



me lo da, 

ddmelo, 

no me lo d^s, 

ddrselo, 

ddndoselo, 

quieren quitdrmelo, > 

me lo quieren quitar, \ 

entrdguenseme las annas, 

habi^ndotclo dicho, 

se me iigura, 

figuratelo, 

no te lo figures, 



he gives it to me. 

give it to me {imperative^ . 

do not give it to me. 

to give it to him {or to them). 

giving it to him {or to them) . 

they wish to take it from me. 

let the arms be delivered to me 
having told thee so. 
I imagine, 
imagine or fancy it. 
do not imagine it. 



23a The pleonastic construction is the same for two 
objectives as for one : — 



se lo doy d usted, d ustedes, 
d ese caballero se lo he dicho, 
d m{ me lo han asegurado, 
nos hizo Dios merced d tf y d mf , 



I give it to you {5inf[, and plur. ) . 
I have told it to that gentleman, 
they assured me so. [me. 

God was gracious to you and to 



Mismo, Propio. 



239. Every pronoun-subject may be intensified by 
adding to it, in the proper gender and number, the 
adjective mismo, a, self; mismos, as, selves: — 



yo mismo, yo misma, 

tu mismo, tu misma, 

€\ mismo, ella misma, [mas, 

nosotros mismos, nosotras mis- 

usted mismo, usted misma, 

ustedes mismos or mismas, 



I myself {man or woman). 

thou thyself. 

he himself, she herself. 

we ourselves. 

you yourself. 

you yourselves. 



Remark. — Note the effect of the graphic accent on the signi- 
fication of tu and el: 



'^ mismo, he himself. 
tu mismo, thoii thyself. 



el mismo, the same, 

tu mismo padre, thy very father. 



Personal Prmiauns, 



"5 



24a In the oblique cases of the personal pronoun, 
fnismo or propio may be used, but only with the 
disjunctive or prepositional forms: — 



me retrdigo de mf mismo, 

te engaAas d tf propio, ^ 

se condena d sf misma, 

OS quereis d vosutros mismos, 

VV. se vuelven contra sf propios. 



I withdraw from myself, 
thou deceivest thyself, 
she condemns herself, 
you are fond of yourselves, 
you turn against your own selves. 



a, Mismo may be added to nouns with the reflexive 
meanings of the third person : — 



el hombre mismo, 
la mujer misma, 
el libro mismo, 
los derechos mismos, 
las casas mismas. 



the man himself, 
the woman herself, 
the book itself, 
the rights themselves, 
the houses themselves. 



Remark. — The English word self^ joined to nouns or adjectives 
without* a pronoun, may be generally rendered by propio y a, b^ a 
circumlocution, or by a single word : — 



el amor propio, self-love, 
la abnegacion propia, self -denied, 
el orgullo, self -consciousness , 
el egoismo, selfishness. 
automdtico, a, self-acting. 



el gobierno popular, self-govern- 
ment, 
orgulloso, self-conscious, 
egoista, selfish, \^press, 

prensa automdtica, self-acting 



una mdquina que se alimenta d sf misma, a self-feeding machine. 



241. After adverbs of time and place, mismo is inva- 
riable and signifies this or that very^ or its force may be 
rendered by the tone of voice : — 



mafiana mismo, hoy mismo, 
ahora mismo, ayer mismo, 
aquf (alK) mismo, 



to-morrow, this very day. 

this very moment, only yesterday. 

in this (that) very place. 



1 16 Farm and Infection, 

242. MismOf with the definite article, has the signifi- 
cations of selff very J even : — 

el mismo delo, the sky itself^ the very sky, e^ten the sky. 
las mismas mujeres, the women themselves, the very women^ even 
the women, 

a, EveUy in this sense, may also be expressed by 
hasta, with or without mismo: — 

hasta las mujeres, or hasta las mismas mujeres, even the women, 
or even the very women, 

b, Misino, a, as a common adjective, with an article, 
signifies the same: — 



el mismo dia, 
la misma noche. 
Ids mismos libros, 



the same day. 
the same night, 
the same books. 



Possessive Adjectives and I^onouns. 

24a Possessive adjectives and pronouns are varied 
and inflected like any adjective in o. Unlike the 
English usage, they agree in gender and number with 
the object possessed, and not with the person or thing 
possessing. 

POSS£S8IVi: ADOBOTITES. 

244. Possessive adjectives are conveniently classed as 
conjunctive and absolute^ according as they stand before 
the noun or after \t. The conjunctives lose their final 
syllable, and consequently their gender distinction, 
except in the first and second persons plural, in which 
both forms are identical. They are varied as fol- 
lows: — 



Possessive Adjectives. 



"7 



STNGUULB. 


PliURAT^ 




Conjanctive. 


Absolute. 


Conjanctlve. 


Abflolvte. 


Common. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


\,ontmoH, 


Miue, 


Ftm. 


mi, 
su, 


mio, 
tuyo, 

suyo. 


mia, 
tuya, 

suya. 


mis, 
tus, 

sus, 


mios, 
tuyos, 

suyos, 


mias, 
tuyas, 

suyas,- 


my. 

thy. 

his, 

her, 

its, 

your. 


nuestro-a, 
vuestro-a, 

su. 


nuestro, 
vuestro, 

suyo. 


nuestra, 
vuestra, 

suya. 


nuestros-as, 
vuestros-as, 

sus. 


nuestros, 
vuestros, 

suyos. 


nuestras, 
vuestras, 

suyas, < 


our. 
your, 
their, 
your. 



245. The conjunctive forms of the possessive adjec- 
tive regularly stand before the nouns they qualify when 
no particular emphasis is intended : — 



mi padre, mis padres, 

mi casa, mis casas, 

tu dinero, tus dias, 

su tio, sus tios (§ io6), 

su trabajo, sus trabajos, 

nuestro libro, nuestra pluma, 

nuestros libros, nuestras plumas, 



my father, my parents. 

my house, my houses. 

thy money, thy days.* 

his uncle, his uncle and aunt. 

their labor, their trials. 

our book, our pen. 

our books, our pens. 



246. Since su, sus, signify one's, his, her^ its^ tkeir^ 
your, and are therefore often equivocal, the genitive 
case of the appropriate personal pronoun which they 



1 Tus dias also means " thy saint's day," the anniversary of one's christening 
or baptism ; birthday is not celebrated in Spain. So they say, hoy es su santo» 
or el dia de su santo, or simply hoy son sus dias, to-day is his saint or saint* s day 
or to-d<^ are **Ais days " =his birthday, in English. 



Ii8 



Form and Inflection. 



represent may be added to the noun, or the definite 
article may replace j//, sus^ when the context would be 
indecisive, or when emphasis requires : — 



su libro de ^, de ella, 
su libro de ellost de ellas, 



los libros de ^, de ellos, 



his, her book (his book of him, 

of her), 
their book (their book of them, 

m, zxiAf.). [him, of them), 
his, their books (the books of 



247. Your is also expressed by suy sus, when the 
address is carried on by us ted; otherwise vuestro, a^ 
which corresponds to vos^ vosotroSy as. Instead of sUy 
de usted {de V.) alone may be used, or both su and de K, 
constituting the favorite pleonastic construction : — 



su libro, el libro de V., or 

su libro de V., 

su libro, el libro de VV., or 

su libro de VV., 

sus libros, los libros de V., or 

sus libros de V., 

sus libros, los libros de VV., or 

sus libros de VV., 

^ tenuis vuestros libros? 



your book (to one person), 

your book (to several persons), 

your books (to one person). 

your books (to several persons). 
have you your books? 



Remark. — The conjunctive possessive adjective may be 
strengthened by adding to it the word propio, a, own: — 



mi propio padre, 

mi propia casa, 

sus propios asuntos, 

tu propia i€ te ha salvado. 



my own fether. 

my own home (house). 

his own affairs. 

thine own faith hath saved thee. 



24a The absolute or uncontracted forms of the 
possessive adjective regularly stand after an impersonal 
noun, accompanied by the definite article, and are 
preferred when greater intensity is required, as in 



Possessive Adjectives. 



119 



spirited language, in contrast, and for rhetorical ef- 
fect : — 



la i6 tuya, el deseo mio, 
los achaques suyos, 
la edad nuestra. 



thy £uth, my desire. 

his (physical) infirmities.^ 

our age, or our times. 



Remark. — Except in the vocative case, the absolute forms are 
not used of persons in common prose with the definite article. See 
§250. 

249. The absolute possessive adjectives of the first 
person are regularly employed in direct address (the 
vocative case), but without the definite article : — 



amigo mio, amigos mios, 
padre nuestro, Dios mio, 
hijo mio, muy sefior mio, 
muy sefiores nuestros. 



my friend, my friends. 
Our Father, Heavens! (My God!) 
my son, my dear sir {in letters)* 
gentlemen (our dear sirs).* 



a. But if an ordinary adjective, or past participle used 
as an adjective, accompany the direct address, either 
the conjunctive or the absolute forms may be used : — 



mi querido hijo, or ? 
querido hijo mio, S 
mi inolvidable amigo, 
mis buenos sefiores, 
mi pobre muchacho, or 
pobre muchacho mio, 



my dear son.' 

my never-to-be-forgotten friend. 

my good sirs. 

my unfortunate boy, or 

my poor fellow. 



250. The definite article, with all absolute forms, is 
suppressed in certain phrases: — 



1 Moral infirmities would be debilidades, 

2 Used by one ^rm writing to another firm or roMon social. We would say 
simply " gentlemen." 

• The father would usually write to his son : mi querido hijo ; the mother^ 
querido hijo mio, which will serve as an example of the intensity of postposition. 



I20 



Form and Inflection, 



de parte taya* 
i. casa nuestra, 
A. i€ mia, suya, 
d instancias vucstras, 
d costa suya, 



on thy part, from thee. 

to our house. 

on my or his word. 

at your instance. 

at his or their expense. 



251. The absolute forms of the possessive adjective 
regularly stand after a personal or impersonal noun 
taken in an indeterminate sense (with a^ an^ somey 
expressed or implied). The adjective then assumes 
the idiomatic pronominal signification of mine, of thiney 
of his, etc. : — 



un amigo mio, nuestro, 

un pariente tuyo, vuestro, 

unos conocidos de V., de VV., 

unos criados suyos, 

le dar^ d V. uno viejo mio, 

habl^ con d de un asunto tuyo. 



a friend of mine, of ours, 
a relative of thine, of yours, 
some acquaintances of yours, 
some servants of his (of theirs). 
I shall give you an old one of mine. 
I spoke to him of a matter of yours. 



Remark. — We may also say, uno de mis amigos, one of my 
friends^ etc. ; but there is more definiteness in this style of phrase 
than in the other. 

a. The same rule obtains when the noun is in the 
predicate after the verb to be, or its equivalent : — 



es discfpulo mio, suyo, 
son paisanos nuestros. 



he is a pupil of mine, of his. 
they are from our province. 



b, A substantive grouped with one or more possessive 
adjectives, and denoting possession, is put in the 
genitive : — 



** es fntimo amigo mio, tuyo, y 
de toda nuestra casa," 



he is an intimate friend of mine, 
of yours, and of all our family. 



252. The conjunctive possessive adjectives have the 
same pronominal signification as the absolute ones do 



Possessive Adjectives. 



121 



with indeterminate expressions, when the former stand 
between a demonstrative and a noun : — 



este mi amigo, 
esa tu casa, 
aquel su jardin, 
estos nuestros amigos, 



this friend of mine.* 

that house of thine. 

yon garden of his, of theirs. 

these friends of ours. 



25a Instead of the possessive adjective, the dative 
of the personal pronoun, or of usted, must be used with 
the verb, and the definite article with the noun, when 
reference is made to parts of the body or articles of 
dress : — 



le tom6 la mano (i ella), 
beso d usted la mano,* 
me conmueve el alma, 
se herfa el pecho,. 
me duele la cabeza, 
te pisa el vestido, 
se quita los zapatos, 
les pone la ropa, 
me he cortado el dedo, 



he took her hand (the h. to her). 
I kiss your hand (the h. to you), 
it stirs my heart (to me the h.). 
he smote hb (own) breast, 
my head aches (the h. a. to me), 
he steps on thy dress, 
he takes off his (own) shoes, 
he puts on their clothes (to them) . 
I have cut my finger. 



a. If there can be no possible doubt as to the person 
referred to, the article will suffice without the dative: — 



recibid un golpe en el brazo, 
ella levant(5 los ojos, 
baj<$ la cabeza y callcSse, 



he received a blow in his arm. 
she raised her eyes. [lent, 

he bowed his head and was si- 



254. Possessive pronouns are regularly accompanied 
by the definite article, both agreeing in gender and 
number with the object possessed, and not with the 
person or thing possessing: — 

1 In Biblical language, este tu hermano, this thy brother; aquellos tus 
acusadores, those thine accusers; but not in modern common English. 

s The lady says this to the gentleman (adding caballero, J{>), on a formal 
presentation, or when she or he leaves the room ; his term is : 4 los pi^ de V^ 
seiiora, at yourfeet^ lady^ on presentation or leave-taking. 



122 



Farm and Inflection, 



8u padre de V. y el mio, 
8U casa y la tuya, 
mis amigos y los vuestros, 
nuestros hermanos y los de V., 
enjugdron nuestras ligrimas, las 
de mi hija y mias, 



yoar father and mine, 
his house and thine, 
my friends and yours, 
our brothers and yours, 
they wiped away my daughter's 
tears and mine. 



2551 The possessive pronouns are varied as follows : — 



SINQUUUt. 


FLURATm 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Ma«o. 


Fein. 


. el mio. 


la mia. 


lo mio, 


los mios, 


las mias. 


mine. 


el tuyo. 


la tuya. 


lo tuyo. 


los tuyos, 


las tuyas. 


thine, 
rhis. 


el suyoy 


lasuya. 


lo tuyo. 


los suyos. 


las suyasy 


< hers. 
I its. 

> yours. 


el de V. or 
el suyo. 


la de V. or 
la suya. 


lo de V. or 
lo suyo, 


los de V. or 
los suyos. 


las de V. ^TT 
las suyas, 


el nuestro. 


la nuestra, 


lo nuestro, 


los nuestros, 


las nuestras, 


ours. 


el vuestro, 


la vuestra. 


lo vuestro, 


los vuestros. 


las vuestras, 


yours. 


el suyo, 


la suya. 


lo suyo, 


los suyos, 


las suyas, 


theirs. 


eldeVV.i^ 
el suyo. 


ladeW.<;r 

la suya. 


lodeW.<>r 

lo suyo. 


losdeW.tfr 

los suyos, 


lasdeW.<»r 

las suyas. 


> yours. 



256. Each one of these forms is inflected like any 
adjective with the definite article: — 





ftlNGULAR. 


PI^UBAIo 




Masc. 


Fein. 


Nent. 


Maso. 


Fein. 


N.A.P. 
G. 
D. 


el mio, 

del mio, 

almio. 


la mia, 

delamia, 

a la mia. 


lomio, 

delomio, 

£ lomio, 


losmios, 

delosmios, 

£ losmios. 


las mias, 

de las mias, 

i las mias. 


mine. 
of mine, 
to mine. 



Possessive Pronouns. 



"3 



su libro es semejante al mio, 
tus costumbres son distintas de 

las nuestra^, 
mi heredad linda con la de usted, 



his boc^ is similar to mine, 
thy habits are different from 

ours, 
my property joins yours. 



257. The possessive pronoun loses the article when 
it stands in the predicate with the verb to b£^ and is 
used in a general sense : — 

el" triunfo es iraestro, 
esta casa es mia, 
este libro es su3ro, or de dl, 
los premios son vuestros, 
tuya es la culpa, 



the triumph is ours, 
this house is mine, 
this book is his. 
the prizes are yours, 
thine is the fault. 



Remark. — But if the possessive in the predicate has a specific 
meaning, the article is regularly employed : — 



este sombrero es el mio, 
esta casa es la mia, 



Uhis hat is mine (/.^., the one 
\ that belongs to me). 
this house is mine. 



a. In the predicate suyo may be replaced by the 
genitive of the personal pronoun when ambiguity re- 
quires it : — 



este libro es de 61, de etla, 
esta pluma es de usted, 
los drboles son de ellos, 
estos papeles son mios y no de 
ustedes, 



this book is his, hers, 
this pen is yours, 
the trees are theirs, 
these papers are mine and not 
yours (//.). 



25a The possessive may be employed substantively; 
la is always so used : — 



los mios, 
los nuestros, 
lo mio y lo suyo, 

i lo suyo vino, y los suyos no le 
recibieron, 



my people, my party (mine). 

our friends, our adherents (ours), 

what is mine and his. 

' he came to his own (estate), 
and his own (people) re- 
ceived him not. 



124 



Form and Inflection. 



DEMOlfSTRATITlSS. 



259. The demonstratives are determinative adjectives 
with substantive and pronominal functions. They ag^ee 
in gender and number with the noun they limit, except 
the neuter forms which are substantives by nature. 
They are inflected by the aid of the case prepositions, 
and varied as follows : — 



SINGUUkB. 


PLURAI*. 


Mase. 


Fein. 


Kent. 




Mamn 


Fein. 




este, 


esta, 


esto, 


this 

(by me). 


estos, 


estas. 


these 

(by me). 


ese, 


esa, 


eso, 


that 

(by you). 


esos, 


esas. 


those 

(by you). 


aquely 


aquella. 


aqnello, 


that 

(yonder). 


aquellos, 


aquellas, 


those 

(yonder). 


d. 


la. 


lo. 


that 
(of). 


los. 


las. 


those 
(of). 



260. To these may be added: astotro, a, — estotroo, as, this 
other J these other; esotro, a, — esotros, as, that other ^ those other; 
aquel otro, aquella otra, etc., thai other ^ those other. Likewise 
the archaic forms aqueste, aquese, for este, ase, this, that. 

261. The demonstratives este, ese, and aquel naturally 
stand before the noun which they limit : — 



este niffo, esta casa, 
ese precio, aquel dia, 
estos libros, esas calles, 



this child, this house. [day. 

that price (you mention), that 
these books, those streets. 



262. In lively or intensive language, the demonstra- 
tives este, ese, aquel, may follow a noun accompanied by 
the definite article : — 



el hombre este, la casa esta, 
las mujeres esas, los dias aque- 
llos. 



this man (here), this house, 
those women, those days. 



Demonstrutives. 



125 



263. In general, este signifies that which is near the 
speaker, where he is, or of which he is speaking ; ese^ 
that which is near the person addressed, where he is, 
or of which he is speaking ; aquel, that which is remote 
from both : — 



este librp, esta pluma, 
ese libro, esa pluma, 
aquel libro, aquella pluma, 

este pais, esta ciudad, 
ese pais, esa ciudad, 

aquel pais, aquella ciudad. 



this book, this pen (near me), 
that book, that pen (near you), 
that book, that pen (yonder). 

this country, city (where I am). 

that country, city (where you 

are). [both). 

that country, city (distant from 



Remark. — Observe that ese means ihat^ where our correspondent 
is, no matter how many thousand miles away ; if we are in New York, 
and he in Valparaiso, we write to him of his town, and he to us of 
ours, as esa ciudad; while Montevideo and Quebec would be 
aquella ciudad to both. To each, respectively, the United States 
and Chili would be ese pais, thai country (where you are) ; while 
Canada or Buenos Ayres would be aquel pais to both. 



a. In correspondence, the words ciadad, city, and 
plaza, market, are usually suppressed with esta and esa 
after the preposition en, in; en esta is therefore ren- 
dered Aere, and en esa, tAere or wit A you : — 



there is nothing new here, 
how is business with you? 



en esta no hay novedad, 
lQ6mo van los negocios en esa? 



i. When speaking of the same place, city, etc., relative 
distances therein are expressed by este, ese, and aquel: — 



esta calle, este barrio, 

esa calle, ese barrio, 

aquellas calles, aqueilos barnos, 



this street, this district (where 
we are), [which you speak), 
that street (where you live, or of 
those (remote) streets. 



126 



Form and Injection, 



264. With reference to time hiatorically considered, 
este denotes the present day, or the time of which wc 
are speaking represented as present ; ese^ a period or 
circumstance occurring within our personal memory; 
aquel, any period or circumstance occurring previous to 
our day : — 

these da3rs (this epoch). 

that event (which I remember). 

those events (before my time). 



esta^poca, 
ese suceso, 
aquellos sucesos. 



This law is seldom violated by correct writers. 

a. Within the limit of personal experience, relative 
distances or events are expressed the same way : — 

esta semana, este afto, this week, thfe year. 

ese sucesot ese alio, that event, that year (spoken of). 

aquel dia, aquel afio, that day, that year (long ago) . 



265. Ese has often the contemptuous sense of the 



Latin iste: — 

los pillos esos, 

esos esplotadores, 

esas tias, or las tias esas. 



those rascals. 

those (political) harpies. 

those women (in contempt).* 



Remark. *^^£j^ is also found with, many popular Idioms asso- 
ciated with de Dios, of God, in the sense of "blessed"; as, por 
esos trigos, campos, barrios **de Dios," in those bUssed fields, tUs^ 
tricts, etc., to indicate vaguely, wittily, or satirically indefinite loca- 



tion: — 



i« 



v^ngase un par de horas por 
esas calles de Dios, y veri 
cdmo todos piensan de ese 
modo" {Escenas Matritenses\ 



come along for an hour or two and 
take a stroll about the streets, 
and you'll see if everybody is 
of your way of thinking. 



1 Literally, "aunts"; popularly used of the supposed grasping nodilify,oi 
well as of lewd women. 



Demonstratives, 



127 



£1 Camaval e$ una licenda para 
que toda persona decente pue* 
da correr como un loco por 
esas calles de Dios^ con un rabo 
mds largo que el de Luzbel, 
y un pedazo de carton en la 
cara, haciendo el oso delante 
de todo el mundo. 



Carnival is a general privilege 

permitted to any respectable 
person to run madly about the 
blessed streets with a tail long- 
er than Lucifer's, and a piece 
of pasteboard attached to his 
face, playing his pranks be- 
fore everybody. 



266. The neuter forms esto^ eso^ aquello^ mean this 
thing, that thing; thus: asto, what I say; aso, what 
you say; aqnello, that (remote thing), in narration : — 



£sto es cuanto tengo que decir, 
eso no es nada, 
eso es ya otra cosa, 
eso es ; eso sf , 
aquello fu^ una listima, 



this is ail I have to say, 
that is nothing, 
that makes a difference, 
that's a fact ; that indeed, 
that was a pity (to see). 



267. The definite article is used as a demonstrative 
pronoun, assuming the gender and number of the noun 
it replaces : — 



mi libro y el de mi hermano, 
estos libros y los de mi hermano, 
su casa y la de su padre, 
sus casas y las de su padre, 
los relojes de oro y los de plata, 



my book and that of my brother, 
these books and my brother's, 
his house and that of his father, 
his houses and those of his father* 
the gold and silver watches. 



Remark. — The genitive after the demonstrative pronoun may 
often be embraced in the English possessive case : My book and 
my brother's, his house and his father's, etc. 

a. Lo, aquello, and la, las, are used elliptically in 
certain phrases : — 



lo de Castro, 

lo de ayer, 

aquello del fildsofo griego. 



the (affair) of Castro. 

the affair of yesterday, [losopher. 

that (thought) of the Greek phi- 



128 



Form af$d Inflection. 



ii la de Dios es Cristo,' 
tomar las de Villadiego, 



like a good fellow, 
to take French leave. 



As substantives, iste refers to the last mentioned 
of two persons or things, and aqud to the first : — 



^ste, this^ 
^sta, this^ 
^stos, these^ 
^stas, these^ 



> the latter. 



aqu^lla, tAaf, 
aqudllos, tAose, 
aqu^Ias, those, 



the f<Mnner. 



divkiidos estaban caballeros y 
escuderos, ^stos contdndose 
sus vidas, y aqu^os sus 
amores. 



parted sat knights and esquires ; 
the latter reviewing their lives, 
and the former their gallan- 
tries. 



Observe that the order in Spanish is regularly the reverse of the 
English, although Mesonero Romanos writes : — 



Sacrificando aqu^llas» y ponien- 
do ^stas sobre las niflas de 
mis ojos. 



reluctantly parting with the for- 
mer, and warmly cherishing 
the latter. 



^ A la or it lo de Dios es Crista^ seems to derive from, after the (fashion) of 
[him whose] God is Christ, and to suggest a reference by the Moors and Jews 
to the dominant Christian Spaniard, by whom it was handed do¥m in the lower 
signification of a "gay fellow," — in Spanish, a valenton. In the La*ariUo de 
Tdrmes (1552) we find : puesto k lo de Dios es Cristo, dressed up like a dandy; 
and in the Guzman de Alfarache^ gente de lo de Dios es Cristo, boon companions. 
Phrases like these and such as tomar las de Villadiego, averigikelo Vargas, etc^ 
come from local circumstances soon forgotten, while the term remained. Tomar 
las calf as de Villadiego, to catch up Villadiego* s small clothes, redolent of some 
whilom scandal from which Villadiego escaped without stopping to arrange his 
toilet, is first given in the Celestina (1499-1500), then in Blasco de Garay (1545), 
in Perez del Castillo (1560), in Cipriano de Valera (1588), in Percivale's Spanish- 
English Dictionary (London, 1592), in that of Minsheu (1599), in Cervdntes 
(1605), Covarrubias (1611), Quevedo (1627), and the Spanish Academy's Dic- 
tionary (1729), with the ellipse caltas supplied. After that date, the " breeches ** 
disappear, and few Spaniards to-day understand the original reference. Averi- 
gkelo Vargas means, literally, let Vargas ferret it out, or, more generally, find it 
out ifyom can, — a variation of Horace's credat ludaeus Apella^ 



Relative Pronouns. 



129 



269. Este, ese, and aqnel are also used as substantives, 
in the signification of this^ this one, he; tliat, that one^ 
he, preserving their gender variation as adjectives, and 
assuming the graphic accent : — 



este no es mi libro. 

^es este el tuyo? 

aquel que esti sobre el armario 

es mio, 
entdnces dijo ^ste, 
£qu^ es lo que hace aqu^l? 



this is not my book. 

is this one thine? 

that one which is on the ward* 

robe is mine, 
then said he. 
what b that (fellow) doing? 



BEUiTITE FRONOUXS. 



27a The relative pronouns are : — 

quien, quienes, who; que (invariable), who, which, that. 

el cual, la oual ; Ice cuales, las cuales, > , , . . 
... , > who^ whuh, 

el que, la que; los que, las que, ^ 

lo oualp which (thing); lo que, that which^ what, 

cuyo, ouya; cuyos, ouyas, whose^ of which, which. 



aquel que, or el que, he who, } the one who, the one which 

aquella que, or la que, she who, S or thcU. 

aquellos que, or los que, } those who, or those which, the ones 

aquellas que, or las que, S who or which. 

qnien, he who, the one who ; quienes, those who, the ones who. 

aquello que, that (thing, saying or matter) which. 



Qnien. 

271. Qnien is now properly used idi persons only. Its 
nominative is que, when the antecedent is a word of 
either gender or number, and quien, el cual, or que when 
it connects a compound sentence of which each member 
makes complete sense by itself: — 



130 



Form and InflecHou. 



el hombre que, la mujer que^ 
ayer top^ con un amigo, qoien 

(el cual or qne) me contd 

todo lo sucedido, 
el duelo nos vino de los pueblos 

del Norte, quienes (los oua- 

las) decidfan sus pleitos por 

las armas, 



the man who, the woman who. 
yesterday I fell in with a frieiKl, 

who gave me an account of all 

that has happened, 
duelling came to us from the 

Northern peoples, who were 

accustomed to decide their 

differences by arms. 



Remark. — Although we cannot use quien when the antecedent 
is a mere term without independence, yet we may say, for example, 
hombre es quien viene, it is a man ivho comes; mujeres son 
quienes salen, they are women who are going out; when the ante- 
cedent is used indefinitely and stands in the predicate with the 
verb to be. 



Tl%, In the oblique cases, quien was formerly em- 
ployed for both numbers, arid applied to things as well 
as persons, echoing its Latin origin {quern); but at 
present such use must be regarded as archaic ; — 



\ siglos dichososaquellos & quien 
los antiguos pusieron nombre 
de dorados ! 

los Siete Sabios A quien tanto 
veneraba la Greda. 



happy ages those to which the 
ancients applied the epithet 
golden ! 

the Seven Wise Men whom 
Greece so much venerated. 



Remark. — Q^ien may, however, be used with proper names of 
cities, and applied to corporations and other collective terms denoting 
persons ; such as, pueblos, tkiciones, Academia^ consejo, etc. 

27a The accusative of quien is either & quien or quo 
(not & que), whomy 



^ Hence the sentence, este es el hombre ^ que V. debe la vida, is incorretL 
See Monsanto and Languellier's Danish Grammar, p. 133. We could say: 
esta es la circunstancia ^ que V, debe la vida; not el hombre d fue* 



Relative Pronoufts. 



131 



274. The inflection tA quien is as follows : — 





Singular. 


PluraL 




N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
P. 


que (quien), 
de quien, 
a quien, 
i quien, or que, 
con quien,' 


que (quienes), 
de quienes, 
a quienes, 
a quienes, or que, 
con quienes,* 


who. 
of whom, 
to whom. 

whom, 
with whom. 



el hombre que escribe, 
las muchachas qne cosen, 
el amigo de quien hablamos, 
las personas A quienes acudo, 
el vecino que {ark quien) busco, 
las sefioras que (A quienes) 

visito, 
los oficiales oon quienes comf. 



the man who writes. 

the girls who sew. 

the friend of whom we speak. 

the persons to whom I apply. 

the neighbor whom I seek. 

the ladies whom I visit. 

the oificers with whom I dined. 



Que. 

275. Qne relates to persons or things in the nominative 
or accusative cases only; in the other cases its use is 
limited to things. Being invariable in number and 
gender, its inflection is indicated by prepositions, as 
follows : — 



• 


SinipiUiT. 


PlniaL 




N. 

G. 
D. 
A. 
P. 


que, 

deque, 

i que, 

que, 

con que. 


que, 

de que, 

ique, 

que, 

con que, 


who, which, that, 
of which, 
to which. 

whom, which, that.* 
with which. 



1 Any preposition may, of -course, supplant am in the prepositional .case ; 
as, por quien, by whom ; para quien. for whom^ etc. 



132 



Farm and InfiecHan. 



el libro que esti endma de la 



las plumas que no hacen sefial, 

la huelga de que se habla, 

el gobiemo A que estamos suje- 

tos, 
los estudios A que me aplico, 
las manzanas que V. me did, 
la £&cilidad con que se hace, 
la casa en que vivo, 



the book which (that) is on the 
table. [mark. 

the pens which do not make a 

the strike of which they speak. 

the government to which we are 
subject. [myself. 

the branches to which I apply 

the apples which you gave me. 

the ease with which it is done. 

the house in which I live. 



Remark. — In Spanish, the preposition must always stand before 
the word it governs. Hence the vulgar English constructions, the 
strike they speak of^ the government we are subject to, the house Hive 
in, must first be restored to the literary form before rendering into 
Spanish. 



276. The accusative case of the relatives quien and 
que must never be omitted in Spanish : — 



la persona que vf , 
las casas que compr^. 



the person (whom) I saw. 
the houses (which) I bought. 



Remark. — The conjunction que, that, must not be confounded 
with the relative pronoun. The former is frequently left out in 
Spanish after certain verbs, although the Academy very properly 
censures the omission : — 



te ruego encarecidamente (que) 
no te marches hasta que yo 
vuelva, 

supliquemos al etemo Padre 
(que) quiera reconocer las 
palabras que le decimos {Gra" 
nadcC)^ 



I earnestly request you not to go 
away until I come back. 

let us implore the Eternal Father 
to be pleased to acknowledge 
the words that we address to 
him. 



Liter ally: I request that you may not go, etc.; let us implore 
that the Father may be pleased, etc. 



Relative Pronouns. 



133 



Bl cval, el que. 

277. El cnal and el qne are the substitutes of quien 
and quey and therefore relate to persons or things. They 
are, in general, preferred when an inflected relative is 
desirable to avoid ambiguity^ or the unpleasant recur- 
rence of the word que, as connectives between compound 
sentences, and especially after short prepositions when 
the antecedent substantive is accompanied by the in- 
definite article, or is used partitively: — 



los Moros se dejaron maniatar de 

]os Cristianos, los cuales con 

mucha presteza lo hicieron, 
llamd i, un mozo de cordel/ al 

que le entregd una carta, 
seguimos al ama del candnigo, 

el cual vivia en un cuarto 

bajo, 
se dedicd al cuidado de su hija, 

en la coal veia el retrato de su 

mujer, 
una real drden en la cnal se 

decfa que, 
un incidente con el que no se 

hab(a contado, 
hay injurias de las que no se 

debe hacer caso, 



the Moors suffered their hands 

to be tied by the Christians, 

who were not slow to do it. 
he summoned a messenger, to 

whom he delivered a letter, 
we followed the housekeeper of 

the canon, who lived on the 

ground floor, 
he devoted himself to the care 

of his daughter, in whom he 

beheld the image of his wife, 
a royal order in which it was said 

that, etc. 
an incident on which he had not 

counted, 
there are wrongs of which no 

notice should be taken. 



27a The inflection of el cual is as follows (that of el 
que varies the article in the same manner, but que does 
not change) : — 



1 A moto de cordel is a public " porter/* who carries a coil of rope 
{cordel) on his shoulder, and serves to transport heavy burdens, or to run 
of errands. Lately ^ errand-boys " have been introduced into Madrid, called 
mand ad t ros^ 



134 



Form and InjUction. 





SIKGULAR. . 


PUTRAI.. 


. 


Mm«. 


Fern. 


MaM. 


Pmb. 


N. 

G. 

D. 
P. A. 
l.A. 

P. 


elcual, 
del cttal, 

al cual, 

alcual, 

el cual, 

con el cual, 


lacual, 
de la cual, 

& la cual, 

i la cual, 

llLCual* 

con la cual, 


loscnales^ 

de los cuales, 

a los cuales, 

a los cuales, 

kMcaaks, 

con los cuales, 


las cuales, 

de las cuales, 

k las cuales, 

& las cuales, 

las cuales, 

con las cuales, 


who, which. 

of whom, of 

which, 
to whom, to 

which, 
whom 

(persons) . 
which 

(things), 
with whom, 

with which. 



279. The substitutes must be used when the relative 
is governed by compound prepositions, or such as are 
not monosyllables : — 



un medico ante el que huyen 

las dolendas, 
un velador encima del oual hay 

un juego de caff, 
las noticias segun laa cuales 

quiso obrar, 
la torre desde la oual se domina 

la vega entera, 



a physician before whom aches 

and pains disappear, 
a stand on which ther^ is a coffee 

set. 
the infonnation according to 

which he saw fit to act. 
the tower from which you can 

take in the whole. plain. 



280. The adverb donde, where^ is frequently used as 
a relative : — 

la calle por donde ha ido, | the street by which he went. 

281. Lo cnal, which^ refers always to an idea, a 
thought, or a preceding sentence : — 



le aconsej^ que tomase un cria- 

do, lo oual no quiso hacer, 
dicho lo oual, salid, 



I advised him to engage a ser- 
vant, which he would not do. 
saying which, he went oat. 



Relative Pronouns, 



I3S 



282. Lo qne» that which, w/iat, todo lo que, all that, 
likewise relate to an idea, and not to a word : — 



me dijo lo que habfa sucedido, 
V. me dard lo que le parece, 
d lo que veo, no consta, 
todo lo que dice es verdad. 



he told me what had passed, 
you may give me what you like, 
by what I see, it is not proven. 
all that he says is the truth. 



a, Lo que occasionally signifies hoWy how tnuch^ 
especially in exclamations : — 



2 si ^ supiera lo que yo los de- 

seaba ! {Cervantes.) 
\\o que debe V. saber ! 



if he only knew how much I 

longed for them ! 
how much you must know \ 



Remark. — In popular language one often hears lo que employed 
in the sense oiasfar^ probably an ellipse iov por lo que toca d: — 

lo que es este seQor, no alcanzo I as for this gentleman, I do not 
comprenderle, I succeed in understanding him. 

283. Cuanto and todo cuanto, as much, as many^ 
quite as much — many, often replace the relative 
expression todoB loB que, todo lo qne, all who^ all 
whichy all that^ the que being absorbed : — 



A la mds duke 
De cuantas niiias 
Del feliz Turia 
La margen pisan. 

es el mds divertido de cuantos 

libros he leido, 
le ofrecid todo cuanto posefa, 

recibieron con gozo cuanto los 
Espafioles les daban, 



To the sweetest 
Of all the maidens 
That tread the borders 
Of the pleasant Turia.' 

it is the most amusing of ai7 the 
books that I ever read. 

he offered him aU that he pos- 
sessed. 

they joyfully received all that 
the Spaniards gave them. 



1 The Turia is the ancient Roman, and modern poetical, name of the river 
Guadalmdar, that flows through the city of Valencia. 



136 



Farm and Inflection. 



284. CayOy a, whose^ of which, which, relates to 
persons and things, and agrees in gender and number 
with the object possessed : — 

el jdven ouyo padre conozco, 
la hija cuya madre estd enferma, 
un oficial cuyos m^ritos soa 

imponderables, 
por oaya causa, 
la muerte, debajo de ouyo yugo 

hemes de pasar todos, 
en un lugar de La Mancha, de 

ouyo nombre no quiero acor- 

darme, 
una musica misteriosa, ouyas 

notas se perdfan en el silencio. 



the youth whose father I know, 
the daughter whose mother is ill. 
an officer whose merits cannot 

be exaggerated, 
for which cause, 
death, under whose yoke we 

must ail pass, 
in a village of La Mancha, the 

name of which I do not care to 

call to mind, 
mysterious music, whose strains 

died away in silence. 



a, A qnien is often employed in the signification of 
cuyo, on the same principle that requires the dative of 
the personal pronoun with a definite substantive to 
render the possessive adjective (§ 253), usually com- 
bined with the redundant construction : — 



como individuo, A quien em- 

piezan i, faltarle las fuerzas, 
or, 
ouyas fuerzas empiezan d ^- 

tarle, 
un hombre, & quien su empleo 

(or, ouyo empleo) ap^nas le 

daba para comer. 



like an individual whose powers 
begin to fail him. 



a man whose occupation scarcely 
yielded him a subsistence. 



285. El qne, with its variations la qne, I08 qne, las 
qne, is used in the sense of he who, she who, the one or 
one who; they who, those who, the ones who (gen. el da 
quien, etc.), when it relates to persons. Relating to 
things, it signifies the one which or that, those which or 
that, the ones which or that (gen. el de qne, etc.) : — 



Relative Pronouns. 



137 



el que habia, 

V. es el que me ofende, 

el aturdimiento del que no se da 

cuenta de su mobilidad, 
loe que salen son amigos mios, 

no es la que buscaba, 

estos libros son loe que mds 

aprecio, 
aquel de qulen hablo, 

al que se va, se le olvida. 



he who speaks. 

you are the one who oifends me. 

the stupe&ction of one who can- 
not account for his movements. 

those who are going out are 
friends of mine. [for. 

she is not the one I was looking 

these books are the ones I prize 
most. 

he of whom I speak, 
him who goes away they forget, 

or, 
. out of sight, out of mind. 



Each member of the relative may be inflected, 
— the antecedent like the definite article, and the 
relative proper like quien or que, according to whether 
persons or things are referred to. In the oblique cases, 
however, the antecedent aquel is more common than 
el, when reference is made to persons ; otherwise, 
either is employed according to the demonstrative 
meaning : — 



aquel de quien lo of, 
aquella i. quien visito, 
aquellos con quienes anda, 
echa de m^nos aquella ruidosa 
alegrfa que Uenaba la casa. 



he from whom I heard it. 
she whom I visit, 
those with whom he goes, 
he misses that boisterous glee 
that used to pervade the house. 



Remark. — iS7, as the antecedent of que, is the definite article 
with a demonstrative application, and hence it can never assume 
the accent (//), which is the characteristic of the personal pronoun. 



287. Instead of el que and aquel que, quien is employed 
in the same senses, including in itself both the antece- 
dent and the relative : — 



138 



Form and^ InfiecHon, 



quien calla, otorga, 

quien se hacc de miel, se lecomen 

las moscas, 
dl es quien lo dijo, 
ii quien Dios quiere guardar 

^ quien lo destruir^? 
obr<$ como quien es (es decir, 

conforme i su condidon <5 

cardcter), 
como quien se dirige d . . . 
como quien dice (como si se 

dijera), 
lo que es el aire, no hay quien lo 

detenga, 



he who is silent, consents. 

he who makes himself honey. 

will be devoured by the flies, 
he is the one who said so. 
who can destroy him whom God 

wishes to preserve ? 
he acted like the one that he is 

(/./., like one of his station or 

character) . 
as you go towards . . . 
as one who says (as if one should 

say), 
as for the wind, there b none that 

can detain it. 



nmsBBOOATins pbokovns. 



The interrogative pronouns are chiefly distin- 
guishable from the relatives by the use of the graphic 
iucent^ applied alike in direct and indirect questions. 
They are : — 



qui^n, pi. qnitfnes, who? 
ciiyo, a, pi. ctiyos, **» ) z^ ? 
de qui^n, pi . de qui^nes, ) 



qu4 (invariable), whatf 
cuiU, pi. ou^ea, which ? what f 



289. Quito is declined like any substantive : — 



I qui^n es ? ^ quidnes son ? 
^de quidn habla V. ? 
li. quidn visitamos? 
^para quidn lo hizo? 
^con quidnes comen hoy? 
dfme con quidn andas, y te dird 
quidn eres, 



who is it? who are they? 
of whom do you speak? 
whom do we visit? 
for whom did he do it? 
with whom do they dine to-day? 
tell me with whom you go, and I 
will tell you who you are. 



29a Whoscy used interrogatively, is expressed by 
ciiyo, a, or by de qnita : — 



Interrogative Pronouns. 



139 



^cdyo es este libro? cdyo libro 

es este? or^ 
^de qui^n es este libro? 
^cuyas {oTy de qui^n, de qui^n- 1 

es) son las casas aquellas ? J 
^de cuyos proyectos habliis? 
^en beneficio de quidn lo hace V. ? 



whose book is this? 



whose houses are those (262) ? 

of whose plans do you speak? 
for whose benefit do you do it ? 



291. Qa6, what? is used as a substantive and as an 
adjective in both numbers and genders : — 



^qu^ dice? ^qu^ hora es? 
^de qu^ hablaV.? 
^qud rufdo es ese? 



what does he say ? what time is it ? 
of what are you speaking? 
what noise is that? 



a, Qa6 is also employed in exclamations to signify 
what I what a I and before an adjective alone, howl — 



I qu^ dia ! \ qud desgracia ? 
I qud buena y hermosa es ! 
j d qu^ alturas ha subido ! 
\ con qud aplomo lo dice ! 



what a day ! what a misfortune ! 
how good and beautiful she is ! 
to what heights has he risen ! 
with what coolness he says it ! 



Remark. — To add still greater emphasis, an adjective may be 
placed after the noun with tan or ntdsi — 

I qu^ dia tan hermoso ! 



2 qud libros nUUi pesados ! 



what a beautiful day! 
what dull books ! 



292. Cnti, which f is used when one or more objects 
of a certain number are specifically or vaguely referred 
to, and it also replaces qu6, what? when it stands in 
the predicate with the verb to be : — 



^cudl de los libros quiere V.? 
ik cudl de mis amigos has visto 

hoy? 
^cuil es la fecha de la carta? 
^cuiles son los motives? 
ignoro cudles sean, 



which of the books do you want? 
which of my friends have you 

seen to-day? 
what is the date of the letter? 
what are the grounds? 
I do not know what they are. 



I40 



Form and Infifction. 



iin>E]maTE pbonouns. 



293. Ajeno, a (Lat. alienus)^ of others^ another^s^ 
others*, other people's^ is an adjective in Spanish; the 
neuter, lo ajeno, signifies what belongs to another, or to 
others : — 



el dinero ajeno, la casa ajena, 

los bienes ajenos, 

no te metas en negocios ajenos 

ni en vidas ajenas, 
busca lo tuyo y no lo agenOi 



another^s money, house, 
property of others, 
do not meddle with other peo- 
ple's affairs or lives, [other's, 
seek thine own, and not an- 



a. Ajeno is also an adjective with the regimen de, 
and signifies foreign to, disconnected with : — 



esto es ajeno de mi cardcter, 
ajeno de los negocios pdblicos, 
ajeno de la conversacion, 



this is foreign to my character, 
disconnected with public aifairs. 
a stranger to the conversation. 



t. Al (Lat. alius, aliud), another person^ another 
thing, is now obsolete, or is occasionally used to give 
an antique flavor to modern discourse; it is replaced 
by otro, de otro modo, etc. : — 



so el sayal ay &l (Proverbs^ 

1556), 
€ los unos ni los otros non faga- 
des nin fagan ende Al {Law of 

1492), 
en ^ estuvo que en encantamen- 
tos (Cervdntes, Don Quijote), 



under the sackcloth there is an- 
other. 

and let none of you do or suffer 
aught else to be done (inde 
aliud), 

he was for something else than 
enchantments. 



295. Algnien (Lat. aliquem), somebody, some one, 
anybody^ any one, is an invariable substantive, used of 
persons only, and cannot be followed by a partitive 
genitive {de): — 



Indefinite Pronouns. 



141 



^Ognien ha estado aqui» 
^ ha venido ^Uguien ? 
si pregunta por mi ^Uguien, dHe 
que no estoy, 



some one has been here, 
has any one come ? 
if anybody asks for me, tell him 
that i am not in. 



296. Algnno, a (Lat. altc-unus), is employed both 
as a substantive and an adjective, and relates to persons 
or things. As related to persons, it means somebody^ 
some one^ anybody y any one ; some^ any^ a few. Unlike 
dlguien, it may be followed by the partitive genitive, 
expressed or implied, in both genders and numbers: — 

alguno de VV. me toed, 

esto lo hizo alg^nno de mLs 

enemigos, 
algunos no lo creen, otros sf, 
hay algiinos que no lo sienten, 
algtm hombre (§ 123), alg^nna 

mujer, [ras, 

algunos amigos, alg^nnas seAo- 



some one of you touched me. 
some one of my enemies did 

this, 
some do not credit it, others do. 
there are some who do not regret 

it. 
some man, some woman. 
a few friends, a few ladies. 



Remark. — If it be said absolutely, •* some one has touched me,'' 
dJguien would be preferred ; but if we mean some one of a specific 
number or group, alguno (fem. alguna) must be used. So, £lguien 
toca d la puerta, some one knocks at the door; vaya d ver si es alguno 
de los que esperamos, go and see if it is some one of those we are 
expecting; ^Ha llegado dlguien? has anybody comef ^Ha Uegado 
alguno? has any one come {that we looked for)? 

2Sn. Algimo, as related to things, signifies some^ any^ 
a few: — 

algun dia, alguna dpoca, 
alganos siglos, algunas veces, 
I tiene V. algun remedio ? 
posee algunas fincas, 
de estos libros, algunos no 

valen un ardite, 
algnnaa de estas pizarras no 

sirven ya, 



some day, some period, 
some centuries, sometimes, 
have you any help (for it) ? 
he owns some real estate, 
of these books, some are not 

worth a farthing, 
some of these slates will not 

answer any longer. 



142 






Remark. ^— '* Som«/^ in a vague sense, a$ some or otket^ cm 4ir 
anoiher^ is translated by the idiomatic adjective expcesston, algnno 
que otro if em. algnna que otra): — 



€i estaba al puesto hojeando 
algono que otro libro. 



he stood at the stall turning over 
the pages of some book. 



29a "Some" or "any/* in partitive questions, are 
not generally expressed in Spanish, but their answers 
are given by an objective personal pronoun (/^, &, los^ 
lai)y or by alguno with an adjective. AlgunoB and 
imo9 cuantOB very exactly render the English some in 
the emphatic sense of a few : — 



^tiene V. vino de Valdepefias? 
le tengo y de primera clase, 
I quidn vende libros viejos ? 
lo8 hay en aquella tienda, 
yo poseo unos cuantos raros 
en casa, 



have you any Valdepefias wine? 
I have some, and first-class, 
who sells old*books? 
there are some in yonder shop. 
I have a few rare ones at home. 



299. Algo (Lat alicum for aliquod) and algnna 
coBa, somethings any things are used interchangeably; 
the f ormer, however, is invariable and absolute : — 



halld 



{^«^ lenelcamino, 

lalg^onaoosaj 

falgo bueno? 1 

^ 'lalg;ana cosa buenaPj 



he found something in the road. 

have you anything good? [him. 
there is something malicious in 



a. Algo is often employed as an adverb in the signi- 
fication of sofnewhaty rather: — 



estoy algo malucho, 
ella est£ algo interesada, 
esta carne es algO cara, 



I am somewhat ailing. 

she is rather selfish. 

this meat is somewhat dear. 



ImUfinite Prwumns, 



U3 



Rbmask. — This '*! somewhat" is very often expressed by a 
diminutive termination, as illo^ applied to the adjecdve ; and when 
the remark is delicate, by ico^ with or without algo: — 



la came es cariUa, 
ella es algo bonitica, 



the meat is rather dear, 
she is somewhat pretty. 



300. AmboB, as, both^ is used either as a substantive 
or an adjective, and of persons or things. It may be 
replaced by los dos (f em. las dos) : — 



venfan ambos d caballo, 
tengo ambas manos heladas, 



both came on horseback, 
both of my hands are frozen. 



We could say with equal propriety : venian los dos k oaballo, 
tengo las dos manas heiadas. 

a. Instead of amboSy asy entramboB, as, is met with 
in the same sense, although originally signifying between 
two (entre ambos). An idiomatic variation is also 
ambos & dos, entrambos & dos, between the two; as, 
le mataron ambos & dos, they both slew hitn^ i.e., between 
them both, 

b. " Both," in the sense of each^ is rendered by mio 
7 otro, plur. wios j otros:— 



personas de uno y otro sexo, 
estudid hombres y cosas, escri- 

biendo despues sobre onos y 

otras, 



persons of both sexes. 

he studied men and things, sub- 
sequently writing on each (or 
both). 



301. Cada (Gr. fcara), each, every, is an invariable 
adjective employed only in the singular, and always 
stands before the substantive: — 



oada hombre ; oada mujer, 
oada afio ; cada semana, 
oada dia tiene su afon, 
i. cada posb; por oada tomo, 



each man ; each woman, 
every year ; every week, 
each day has its cares, 
at every, step ; for each volame. 



144 



Form and Inflection. 



a, Cada may stand with a plural substantive only 

when the latter is preceded by a numeral : — 



oada dos dias, 
oada tres afios, 
cada mil soldados, 



every two days, 
every three years, 
every thousand soldiers. 



302. When cada is employed substantively or dis- 
tributively, it associates itself with una (fern, unci) or 
cualy forming cada nno, cada cual: — 



cada unc tiene sus quehacdres, 
oada cual lleva lo suyo, 
cada uno de los jueces, 
cada una de las damas, 
cada uno segun sus obras, 



each has his occupations, [him. 
every one takes what belongs to 
each (one) of the judges, 
each (one) of the ladies, 
every one according to his deeds. 



303. Every may also be expressed by todoB loB (fern. 
todas las), agreeing with a plural noun including a 
period of time : — 



todos los afios, dias, 
todas las semanas, veces, 



every year, every day. 
every week, every time. 



304. Cierto, a, a certain — ^ is an adjective which 
is always followed by a noun without the indefinite 
article : — 



cierto hombre ; cierta se flora, 
ciertos libros ; ciertas cosas, 
bajo ciertas condiciones, 



a certain man ; a certain lady, 
certain books ; certain things, 
on certain conditions. 



Remark. — If by certain^ we wish to indicate authenticity, the 
above adjective ceases to be indefinite and always stands after the 
noun, or in the predicate alone : — 



noticias ciertas, 

la noticia es cierta, 

DO es cierto lo que V. dice. 



sure, authentic news, 
the intelligence is true, 
what you say is not so. 



IndifimU Pronouns. 



145 



I, a thing (fcm.), is often used in the signift- 
cation of somethings anything; and with a negative, 
9to thing: — 

it is soiAetluiig well worth seeing. 

is there anything more extra- 
ordinary? 

they journeyed 00 wWlfout any- 
thing occurring to them worthy 
of note. 

that is not worth an3rth]ng. 

that is nothing (important). 

I do not want anything else, or 
care for nothing else. 



cosa muy de ver, 
^ hay cosa mis chocante ? 

camindron Jsin que les acoote* 
ciese cosa que de contar 
fiiese, 

Tio vale cosa, 

no es cosa (que valga), 

no quiero otra oosa. 



{! 



306. Fnlano (fern, fnlaaa) (Span. -Arab, fuldn), means 
so and so^ such a one^ or it expresses an evasion not 
easily rendered. It is used only of persons in the sin- 
gular, to indicate any one whose name we do not know, 
or recall, or care to give. When used alone, it commonly 
assumes the form of fulano de tal ^ ; if two different 
persons are referred to in the same vague manner, 
fnlano and mengano are associated; and, if three^ 
fnlano, mengano 7 zntano represent the '' Tom, Dick, 
and Harry," of vulgar English ^ : — 



^qui^n seri fnlano ? 

I qui^n lo dijo ? i qu^ sd yo ? 

Fulano de tal. 
ayer me escrihid fulano de tal, 



who can so and so he ? 

who said so? I don^t know; 

such a one. 
yesterday so and so wrote me. 



1 " So and so of such a name,** fulano representing the Christian name 
{nombre), and tal the surname {apellidd); as, for example, Juan d* ValtUs, 

* Mengano and zutano are undoubtedly alliterative merely, made up of 
invented stems with the common ending ano, Zutano is explained unsatisfac- 
torily by Dietz and Mahn, each in his own way. Neither mentions mengano, 
which, in turn, may be connected with the obsolete Mengo or Mingo, familiar 
for Domingo, Dominic, or plain "Dick," although I incline to think them 
alliterations, corresponding in principle to rif-raf, ^ilmdll, )etc 



146 



Form and IhfiecAon. 



noles va en eHo mis que el gnsta 
de que los mande folano 6 
mengano, 

no conoKCo ni fidanb, id men* 
gano, ni satano, 



they have no other interest in 
it than the pleasure of being 
ordered about by this one and 
that. 

I know neither this one, tiiat 
one, nor the other. 



307. Mbnao, a (archaic, mesmo^ a, still used in rural 
districts; low Lat. metipsimus ; Ital. medesimo ; old 
Fr. mestne)^ is an adjective with occasional substantive 
functions. The neuter is lo misino, the same {fhin£), 

30a When mismo stands before a noun, it has the 
meaning of the same, if coupled with the definite article ; 
of same and very, with the demonstrative adjective ; of 
very, with a possesive adjective ; and the same {one and 
the same), with the indefinite article or its plural unos, 
unas: — 



el miamo dia ; la miama noche, 
loa miamoa pensamientos, 
este miamo' caso, 
eaaa miamaa casas; 
mia miaBioa amigos, enemigos, 
una miama suerte, patria, , 
unoa miamoa padres (§ 106), 
viene i. ser id miamo, 



the same day ; the same night. 

the same thoughts. [stance. 

this same (or this very) drcum- 

those same houses. 

wy very i&iends, enemies. 

the same £ate, country. 

the same father and mother. 

it amounts to the same (thinjg^). 



a. Before or after the noun, mismo with the definite 
article means also very or self: — 



el miamo dia ; el dia miamo, 
las miamaa mujeres, 

See also §§ 239-242. 



the very day ; the day itself. ' 
the very women; the women 
themselves. 



30a Nada (Lat. res nata, with a negative, not a 
living thing), nothing or not anything, stands before 



Indefinite Pfofumns, 



M7 



the verb without a negative, or after the verb with no, 
not. Hence, in the latter case, and generally in Spanish, 
t'wo negatives strengthen the negation : — 



tengo, or no tengo nada, 
veo» or no veo nada, 
vale, or no vale nada, 
me dijo, or no me dijo 



I have nothing — not anything. 
I see nothing — I do not see a. 
it is worth nothing — not worth a. 
he told me nothing — did not tell, 
me anything. 



aia Although etymologically feminine, nada is always 
associated with the absolute form of an adjective, and 
in that case, regularly follows the negative verb: — 



no hizo nada bneno ni malo, 
no exijo nada gravoso, 



he did nothing good or had. 
I require nothing onerous. 



311. Instead of nada^ the forms ningtina cosa or cosa 
alguna are constantly met with in the same signification. 
The former may stand before the verb, or after it with 
the additional negation, while the latter can only follow 
a negative verb ; with an adjective only the first form, 
ninguna cosa^ can be used, the adjective agreeing with 
the feminine cosa : — 



ninguna cosa tengo, 

no tengo ningnna ooaa, or 

no tengo ooaa algnna, 

no tengo ninguna cosa bnena, or 
no tengo nada bneno ; but not 
no tengo cosa algnna huena, 



I have nothing, or 
I have not anything. 



I have nothing good. 



312. Nada, ninguna coBa, or cosa algnna, may stand 
after a verb without no^ in the signification of anything 
ox aught: — 



148 



Farm and Inflection^ 



a. In exclamatory or interrogative sentences that 
involve a negative answer: — 



2c6mo negarle i, ^ nadal 
^qui^n habrd visto ni oido nada 
que iguale d ello? 



how can one refuse him anything ! 
who can have seen or beaM any- 
thing to equal that?. 



b. After verbs that contain in themselves a negative 
idea : — 

e^cUbrdese V. de decirle nada, | beware how you tell him any- 
i.e. , see that you do not teU him anyihii^. [tMflg ; 

c. After the prepositions Bin, without; totes de, 
before; the conjunctions Bin que, without (that) ; 
que, before (that) : — 



sin preguntarie nada, 
totes de decirles nada, 
sin qne me dijese nada, 
totes qne contestase nada,' 



without asking him anything, 
before telling them anything, 
without his telling me anything, 
before I answered anything. 



d. After comparativles and superlatives : — 



me] or que nada de todo cuanto 
le he oido, 



better than anything that I ever 
heard him say. 



313. Nada is often used elliptically as an exclamation 
designed to cut off farther remark or discussion, and 
may be variously rendered by say no more, never mind, 
welly there: — 

nada, nada, voy d verle en se- 

guida {forxio digas mis), 

pues nada, or\. ^ . . ^ 
'^ \ hasta la vista, 



con que, 






say no more ; lil go and see him 
at once. 

well ; until we meet again. 



•«Mi 



1 If nunca stands after the verb with nada, the verb is negative : no vale 
nunca nada, he never amounts to anything; nunca vale nada, he is never worth 
anything. 



Indefimte Pronouns. 



149 



314. Hada may be followed by 4e, with substantives^ 
to signify nothing ofy no: — 



que nada de esto transluzca, 
^I no tiene nada de juego ni 
licores (no tiene vicios) , 



let nothing of this leak out. 
he has no (propensity to) gaming 
or strong drink (no bad habits) . 



315. No — nada, also meana not — at all: — 



no importa nada, 
mo me gusta nada. 



that does not matter at all. 
I don't like that at all (JHeraify, 
it does not please loe at all). 



a, Nada is likewise employed without other nega- 
tives, in the same sense of not at all, in no respect: — 



yo nada temo la muerte, 
^ es nada perezoso. 



I do not at ail fear death, 
he is not at all indolent. 



316. Nadie,^ no one^ nobody y is the negative of iUguien^ 
and is subject to the same limitations (§ 295) ; that is, 
it is an invariable substantive, used of persons only, and 
cannot be followed by a partitive genitive. Like iia^, 
it requires another negative only when it comes after 
the verb:— 



nadie pase, or no pase nadie, 
nadie ha venido todavia, or 1 
no ha venido nadie todavia, J 
d nadie veo, or no veo d nadie, 
nadie vi6 jamds d Dios, 
I qui^n ha llamado ? — nadie, . 

no ha visto i nadie. 



let no one pass {or go in). 

nobody has come yet. 

I do not see s^ny one. [time, 
no man hath seen God at any 
who called {or knocked) ? — No 

one. 
I have not seen anybody. 



1 Nadie (ancient, nadi) is from the Latin nafus — with a negative, not a living 
soul; the form nadie seems to be an assimilation of nadi to the ending e in este, 
€se, ' In the sixteenth century, it is often replaoed -by the formula no-^ihoinbre 
t^no — nadie: Elno maravillarse iKMBlbre de nada, /or a. man to winder at 
notJking. See my edition of the Works tf AfendoM,-MB6tid, 1877, p. 106. 



ISO 



F&rm and InfiecHon. 



917. BTadie may stand after a verb without m>y in the 
signification of anybody^ under the same conditions that 
apply to nada (§ 312, a-^) : — 



^qui^n habrd visto nadie que 

sea mds comedido? 
^c6mo negard nada i nadie? 
gtUbrdese V. de descubrir el 

secreto i nadie, 
■in set oido de nadte, 
salid sin que nadie le viese» 

annoa quiso escuchar i nadie, 

or^ [nadie, 

no quiso escuchar nunoa d 
una de laa mia nnevaa historias 
que nadie pudo pensar, 



who can have seen anybody more 
civil. [thing? 

how can I refuse any one any- 

beware how you disclose the 
secret to anybody. 

without being heard by any one. 

he went out without anybody^s 
seeing him. 

he never would listen to any one. 

one of the strangest pieces of 
fiction that any one could 

conceive. 



3ia Ningnno, * a, nobody ^ no one, none^ no, the negative 
of alguno (§ 296), is employed both as a substantive 
and an adjective, and relates to persons or thing^s. 
Unlike nadie, it may be followed by the partitive 
genitive, expressed or implied, in both genders and 
numbers : — 



IcaiX de ellos sali6? — Nin- 

guno, 
ningono de los enemigos, 
ningona de las casas, 
ningun enemigo (§ 123), 
ningona casa, 
ninguno consinti6 en ello, 
no se fie V. en nadie, 



which one of them went out? — 

No one. 
none (not one) of the enemies, 
none (not one) of the houses, 
no enemy, 
no house. 

nobody agreed to it. [body, 
do not put confidence in any- 



1 Ninguno is from the Latin nec-unus for nulhu, with the intercalation of an 
m {nmcuHMs) after the analogy of reaglvn for region (augmentative of r^gla 
[regtUd]) and of cemetUerio for cewuUrio, 



Indefinite Pronouns. 



ISI 



oo se fie y. en 

ellos), 
^tiene V. libros? 



(de 
[ningimo, 

no tengo 



do DOl pot confidence in any (of 

them). [none, 

have you any books? — I have 



319. Like nada and nadie^ nlngnno requires an 
additional negative when it stands after the verb: — 



no quiere d ningono de !os dos, 
no consta en ningnna ley, 
no tengo ningnn libro; nin- 
fffOJML casa, [regale, 

nimca quiso aceptar ningun 



he likes neither of the two. 
it does not appear by any law. 
I have no book; no house. 

[present, 
he never would accept any 



320. Ningnno is translated by any one, any, when it 
stands after a verb without no, under the same conditions 
that apply to nada and nadie (§§ 312, 317) : — 



Bin que ningnno de ellos me lo 

diga. 
admirdronse todos, y nUUi los 

duques que ninguno (§ 106), 



without any of them telling me 

so. 
all were astonished, and the 

duke and duchess more than 

any one. 



321. After a negative verb, alguno, a, is more ele- 
gantly employed than ninguno, especially after sin; 
but it must be associated with a substantive expressed, 
and always stand after it : — 



no siente remordimiento algnno, 
■In trabajo ni £sitiga algnna, 
Bin duda algnna. 



he feels no compunction, 
without any toil or fatigue, 
without any doubt. 



a. If the noun be understood, ninguno alone can be 
used : — 



estaba colgadg de sus palabras 
sin haUar oingniia, 



he hung on his words without 
uttering (hijnflelf ) any. 



152 



Fi9rm and InfiectUn. 



The English ne^ not any^ as an adjective, when 
it is unemphatic, may be simply expressed by a verb 
made negative by no, followed by a noun without 
article : — 



BO teogo tiempo^ 

no tiene casa» 

no tenemos libroB, 

no tienen amigo&t 

no hay necesidad de ello, 

no hay contestacion. 



I have no time, 
he has no house, 
we have no books, 
they h^ve no friends., 
there is no necessity for it. 
*< no answer" (to a message). 



a. To make this construction emphatic, we have only 
to put ningunOy a, before the noun, or better, alguno^ a, 
after it : — 



no tengo tlempo Alfono, 

no hay ningima contestacion* or \ 

no hay eontestacion algwna. 



I have no time at all. 

there is no answer whatever. 



323. Otro, a (Lat. a/t^, alfro)y anothery other (pi, 
others) y is used both as an adjective and a substantive, 
embracing persons or things. It does not admit the 
indefinite article as in English {an-other), but requires 
the deftnite article when a distinct person or thing is 
to be specified : — 



otro indivfduo; el otro i., 
otra persona ; la otra persona, 
otro dia ; el otro dia, 
otra noche ; la otra noche, 
otros dicen ; loa otros creenf 
otras piensan de distinto modo, 
vei^ otro; trae el otro^ 
ddme otra; ddme la otra, 
tengo otros ; tengo los otros, 
busco otras, 
no quiero laa otraa, 



imotfaer individual ; the other i« 
another person ; the other p. 
another day ; the other day. . 
another night ; the other night. 
others say ; t\m others believe^ 
others {fern,) think differently, 
bring on another; bring the o. 
give me another ; give me the o. 
I have others ; I have the others. 
I look for others. 
I don^t want the others* 



Indefinite Pronouns, 



153 



384. The other party the others^ when the3r me^n the 
r^sty are expressed respectively by to demte and 1<mi 
or las demte: — 



lo ^•iM* me importa poco, 

no he visto i los dem^ 

en cuanto d las denUUi me callo, 



I care little for the other part. 
I have not seen the. others, 
as for the rest, I say nothing. 



Remark. — Al otro dia means on the next day. The genitive 
of possession is expressed by ajeno (§ 293) ; as, los bienes sjenofl, 
not los bienes de otron, ether Peefii^s property or goods. 

325. Propio, a (formerly /r^rr<7), self, own^ may stand 
after the personal pronouns like mismo, and after the 
possessive adjectives and pronouns to strengthen their 
meaning : — 



tu propio or propla, 

ta propio amigo, 

por sf propios, 

este dinero es suyo proptOt 



thou thyself. 

thy own friend. 

of themselves. 

this money is his own. 



Remark. — Propio de signifies adapted to, suitable for: — 
im juego propio da nillos, | a game suitable for children. 

32a Quiera, you wish, you please y subjunctive of the 
verb querer, is joined to or associated with pronouns, 
to form various indefinite expressions. 



327. Qaienqaiera, whoever^ any one zuhatever, relates 
only to persons, and in an absolute sense : — 



qnienqniera que sea, 
ek> lo diria d qnienqniera, 
serfa antipdtico, no tan solo en 
dl, sino en qnienqniera que 



whoever (that) it be. 

I would affirm that to any one. 

that would be repulsive, not only 
in him, but in anybody what- 
ever. 



154 



Farm and Inflection. 



a. Ontan alone, followed by a verb in the indicative 
or subjunctive* often admits the signification of any one 
whOf especially in the oblique cases : — 



lo digo d quiMi qoiera aceptar 
la apuesta, 



I say it to any one who may 
to acoqpt the wager. 



32a Cnalqiiiera, pi. cualoBqiiiera, any {whaUvei), 
any {you f lease), is both an adjective and a substantive, 
relating to persons or things: — 

a. As an adjective, it may precede or follow the noun ; 
but in the latter case, only in the singular: — 

oualquiar dia (§ 123) — noche, 
oualasquiar motivos — personas, 
un libro — una pluma cualquiara, 



any day ; any night. 

any reasons ; any persons. 

any book ; any pen. 



b. Followed by de^ enalqniera signifies likewise any^ 
and of two, either: — 



oualquiara da ]os bultos, 
oualquiera da los dos, 



any of the packages, 
either of the two. 



Remark. — Un onalquiara means ** a nobody/^ a person of no 

account, or of no pedigree. 

329. Cnalqniera, followed by que and a verb in the 
subjunctive, means whichever, whatever: — 



oualquiar cosa que V. diga, 
oualquiar motivo qua se pre* 
sente, [pren, 

cualasquiara cosas qua com* 
cualquiara qua V. guste, 



whatever you say. 

whatever motive be alleged, or 

assigned, 
whatever things they buy. 
whichever you like. 



330. Whatever may also be expressed by sea el qua, 
la qnOi pi. saan los que, las que, with a noun and a 
verb in the subjunctive : — 



Indefinite Pronouns. 



155 



« el que quiera el mod vo 'qtw 
se presente, 

a el que quiera el trabajo que 
nos cueste vivir. 



whatever reason be fttt^gned. 

whatever be the trouble that 
living .costs ua. 



331. Whatever^ as a neuter substantive^ is rendered 
by todo lo que and por mto que, with the subjunctive; 
ivhat^ in this relation, by lo que: — 



todo lo que V. me raandire 

eso hard, 
por nUka que diga, no lo creo, 
diga lo que quiera, 



whatever you order me, I will 
do. [him. 

whatever he say, I do not credit 
say what he may. 



332. Sendos, as (corrupted from the Latin singtdos 
-as)^ one for each, each one^ is used distributively and only 
in the plural: — 



tenfan las cuatro ninfas sendos 
vasos hechos k la romana, 

salieron de la nave seis enanos, 
tafiendo sendae harpas, 



the four nymphs had each a vase 
made in the Roman fashion. 

six dwarfs came forth from the 
vessel, each playing a harp. 



333. Tal (pi. tales), such^ such a (pi. sucJi)y is used as 
a substantive and an adjective of persons and things. 

a. Without an indefinite article, as an adjective:-^ 



tal hombre ; tal mujer, 
tal dia;,tal casa, 
tales hombies ; tales dias« 
tales vidas ; tales personas, 



such a man ; such a woman, 
such <» day ; ^ch a house, 
such men; such days, 
such lives ; such persons. 



Remark. — The same use extends to all the cases : — 



no diga V. tal cosa, 

la htstoria de tal dpoca, - 

no me fTo en tales hombres, 



do not say siich d thing, 
the history of such a period. 
I do not trust such men. . 



156 Farm and Infiectian. 

b. Without an indefinite article, as a neuter substaai* 
tive: — 



no hay til en este pais, 
no creo til, 



there is no sudi (thing) here. 
I don^t believe such a (things) 



334. Tal is preceded by the indefinite article onfy 
when used with names of persons, and in the sense of 
one, a certain. With common nouns, cierto, without 
the article, has the same meaning, a certain. Hence 
nn tal, nua tal, and cierto, cierta, are adjectives 
replacing fnlano or folan ode tal, which can only be 
employed as a substantive (§§ 304, 306): — 



me lo dijo fnlano de tal, 

se lo did un tal Perez, 

cierto sargentOt tUi tal Garcfa, 

se puso al frente de la suble- 

vacion, 



such a one told rae so. 

one Perez gave it to him. 

a certain sergeant, one Garcia, 

put himsehf at the head of the 

insurrection. 



Remark. — Tal often serves to strengthen an affirmation, denial, 
or interrogation : — 

sf tal; no tal ; ^qu^ tal? | yes ; no ; how are you? 

335. Idioms with tal are : tal cual, such as, and sa so, 
pretty well; tal y tal, such and such (J>1, tales y tales, 
etc.). 

336. Todo, a (Lat. totus), all, whole, ev^ry, anything'^ 
is employed as an adjective, a substantive, and an 
indefinite pronoun. 

337. As an adjective, it is followed by the definite 
article, or other determinative word if the noun requires 
one : — 



Indefinite Prenotms, 



H7 



todo •! dia; toda la noche, 
todoa loa hombres, 
todas las clases, 
esto fii^ toda su locura, 
por todo aquel dia, 
hizo un viaje por toda Espafia, 
todo Madrid coDcurri45 i, la 
fiesta, 



all day ; the whde niglit. 
all men. 

all classes. 

his whole folly consisted in this, 
throughout that whole' day. 
he made a journey over all Spain, 
all Madrid turned out at the 
festival. 



Remark. — In poetical or intensive prose language^ the adjec* 
live may follow the noun : — 

anndse de sus annas todaa (Ger- 
vanies)t 



he armed himself with all his 
arms. 



33a Instead of todo^ tntero, a» entire^ whole, ally may 
be used, placed always after the noun : — 



el pueUp •ntero, . . 

la noche entera, 

dias Mitoros ; la Espafia eatera. 



the whole village, 
the whole night, 
whole days ; all Spain. 



339. An idiomatic use of todo is found especially 
with expressions of time, in which is meant some 
indefinite point within the general period mentioned : — 



en todo el mes de setiembre, 
en todo el afio que viene, 



some time in September, [year, 
some time during the coming 



34a Todo, as an adjective, may be followed by the 
noun directly, in the sense of every in the singular, or 
all in the plural : — 



todo Espafiol que se respetai 

sf mismo, 
todo cofazon sensible, 
todo remedio es ya vano, 
en todo caso ; d toda hora, 
por todoft modos, 
en todaa partes, 



every Spaniard who respects 

himself, 
every heart that feels, 
every appliance b now vain. 
in every case ; at all hours, 
in every way (in all ways), 
evaywhere (in all direcdons). 



158 



Form and In, 



Reicaiul. — Alto j^Mr./tfdSer frequently means the nme as tfaiecHii. 
soUt amly^ with which it is freely exchanged : — . 



me di6 por toda respuesta 
<]ue • • • 



he gave me as his only answer 
that \ . . 



341. As a substantive, todo refers to persons ' and 
things, in all genders and in both numbers : — 

a. In the singular, mostly as a neuter — cUl^ every- 
thing: — 



todo se conduyd, 
todo era gritos y alboroto, 
hombre pobre todo es trazas, 
todo mani£esta su remordi* 

miento, 
en esta mesa hay de todo, 



all is over (is finished), 
all was shrieks and confusion, 
a poor man is all projects, 
everything proves his compunc- 
tion, 
on this table there is everything. 



Remark. — The neuter use of Udo is frequently associated widi 

a pleonastic lo : — 



lo ha confesado todo, 
todo lo gastas en vanidades, 



he has confessed everything, 
you spend your all on frivolities. 



b. In the plural in both genders : — 



todos estin ya presds, 
aprobdron la medida todos, 
no todott piensan del mismo 

modo, 
las he visto d todas (women) y 
todos estdn de venta {books) , 



all are now in prison. 

all favored the measure. 

not ail think the same way (have 

the same way of thinking). 
I have seen them all. 
all are for sale. 



342. Todo is often synonymous with cualquier cosa, 

anything {whatevet) in a good or bad sense : — 



ese hombre es capaz de todo, 
d todo me hallaris dispuesto* 



that man is capable of aaythii^. 
you willfindm^ie^y fora. .. 



Indefinite Pronouns. 



»59 



343. Finally, todo qualifies relative pronouns, neuter 
adjectives (substantives) and adverbs, in the sense of 
e^ery one, all, quite, thoroughly; as, todo el que, todo 
aquel que, every one who ; todos los que, all those who; 
todos cuantos, todo cuanto, all who or that; todo lo 
cualy all of which; todo lo que, all that; todo cansado, 
quite tired; todo lo demis> cM^ the rest (omne aeterum), 
etc 



344. TJno, a, is an adjective, a substantive, and a 
pronoun, signifying in the singular an or a, one, each 
other; and in the plural, some, each other, one another: — 



a. Singular : — 

mi hombre (§ 123) ; tma ventana, 
nn dia ; una semana, 
I tiene V. nn libro ? — tengo uno, 
^puede uno ver qud es? 
los dos hermanos se quieren tmo 
d otra (§ 106), [en otro, 
estos hombres se apoyan mio 

b. Plural: — 

unott boUos ; unas almendras, 
son nnos desconocidos, 
unos van y otros vienen, [otros, 
los obreros se ayudan oxios d 
estas planchas de metal se dan 

una contra otra, or unas 

contra otraa, 



a man ; a window. 

one day ; one week. 

have you a book ? — I have one. 

can one see what it is ? 

the brother and sister are fond 

of each other. 
these men sustain one another. 



(some) cakes ; almonds* 
they are unknown persons, 
some go and others come, 
the laborers help one another, 
these plates of metal strike 

against each other, or one 

another. 



M5. Una, as an indefinite numeral, may stand in 
contrasted clauses, but usually at the present day 
without the article: — 



^ 



i6o 



Farm and Inftection, 



de an momento i otro^ 

de una manera \i otra, 

nno fu^ justiciado y el otro 

soltado, 
«no y otro; imo il otro, 
ni nno ni otro» 



from one ninute to another. 

in one way or another, 

the one was executed and the 

other set free, 
both ; either, 
neither. 



SM. As an indefinite pronoun, nno may be followed 
by the partitive genitive : — 



abri6 una de las ventanas, 
me regald tmo de sus libros, 



he opened one of the windows, 
he gave me on6 of his books. 



a. The plural of nno in this construction is 
, some^ not unos : — 

algunos de sus amigos, | some of his friends. 

Remark.— We may say unos amigos suyos, some friends of 
his J but not unos de sus amigos. The singular of alguno may be 
used thus distributively, but it is vaguer than nno — som^ one or 
other of his friends. 



M7. Uno, ay replaces a substantive with or without 
an adjective, to avoid the repetition of the former: — 



tengo un reloj de oro y nno de 

plata, ambos preciosos, 
unas veces gastaba levita negra, 

y otras una de colores, 
hablando de carabinas, d tiene 

una £ cafton liso muy buena, 
careciehdo yo de abrigo, €\ me 

prestd nno viejo suyo, 



I have a gold watch and a silver 

one, both very fine ones, 
sometimes he wore a black frock 

coat, and others a colored one. 
speaking of rifles, he has a veiy 

good smooth-bore (one). 
I being without an overcoat, he 

lent me an old one of his. 



34a TJuo, one; se, they, you; gente, people; are used 
in the vague signification of some one, any one; or the 
verb may be put in the third person plural : — 



The Verb. 



i6i 



no sabe quo qu^ hacer, ) 
no nm sab^ qu^ hacer, j 
llama. £^ente, or llama dlguien, 
Uanxsui d la puerta, 
^qui^n es? — gente de paz.' 



one does not know what to do. 

somebody knocks. 

there is a rap at the door. 

who is it ? — a friend (peace-folk) . 



349* VaziOBy a8> several^ a good many, is used as an 
adjective and a substantive : — 

several friends came. [ral. 

of these diamonds, I have seve- 
I have seen several copies of this 
work. 



amigos vinieron, 
de estos brillantes tengo varies, 
he visto varies ejemplares de 
esta obra. 



Remark. — Instead of varies^ and parallel with it, the term una 
pordon de, a omsiderMe immber, of^ considerttdkt several^ is 
popularly used followed by a noun in the singular or plural, or by a 
ccdleptive word : — 



abon^ una porcion de dinero, 

una poroion de gente, 

he gastado una porcion de 

duros en ello, 
una porcion de veces, 
recibf una porcion de encargos. 



I paid considerable money. 

a considerable number of people. 

I have expended several dollars 

on that, 
several times, a number of times. 
I was entrusted with several 

messages. 



The Verb. 



^sa Before proceeding to the conjugation of verbd, 
it is indispensable to give the simple tenses of the 
auxiliary verb haber , , , to have . . , by the aid of which 
the compound tenses of all other verbs are formed. 



1 In every Spanish apartment-doer there is fixed a veniamlla or snnall 
opening, wkb a melal sUde, which the servant slips back on answering a knock 
or ling, and inquires, iQvUnf revising to open till the caller exclaims, /Gente 
dc.pasiJ or simply* iPa2l./^a^<; and ajnojigthe old-&shioned. iAv< Maria f 



l62 



Form, €m4 l^fiection. 



Remark. — To have^ as an auxiliary, then, is expressed in 
by haber ; but, as an independent verb, meaning to foaess^ by 
tener: — 



tango un libro, fwt he un libro, 
he tenido un libro, not } 
tango tenido un libro, ) 
tenerlo, but haberlo tenido, 



I have a book. 

I have had a book. 

to have it, to have had it. 



Still tener may be occasionally employed as an auxiliary, as well 
as other verbs : — 

la carta que tango {or Uevo) | the letter that I have written, 
escrita, 

Conjugation of the Aetlve Auxiliary Verb. 

« 

351. Haber, to have ; stems : liab, hnb, habr. 



TNFINITHnS. 


GKBUNI). 


PAST PARTICnnLB. 


hab-ery to have. 


hab-lendOy having. 


hab-ldOy had. 


INDICATIVE HODK. 


SUBJUNCTIVE HODE. 


Present. 

he^ J have* 
hasy thou hast* 
hay he has. 
hemosy we have,, 
hab-elSy ye have. 
haiiy they have. 


Present. 

•• 

hay-ay / tnay have. 
hay-asy thou mayst have. 
hay-ay he may have. 
hty-AmoSy we may have. 
hay-^USy ye may have. 
hay-any Muy may have. 


Zmperfecti 

■ » 

hab-iay I had. 
hab-iasy thou hadst. 
hab-fay he had. 
hab-iamosy we had. 
hab-ialsy ye had. 
hab-iaOy they had. 


* • 

Imperfect {first form). 

hub-leray / might have. 
hub-ieraSy thou mightst have. 
hub-leray he might have. 
hub-l^ramosy we might have. 
httb-l^ralSy yemighihave* 
httb-ierany they might have. 



The Vtrb.. 



163 





« 


1 


rNl>ICATlVJ£ HODC:. 


SUBJUNCTIYX: MODB. 


Past Definite. 


Imperfect i*ecctul/orm). 


hub-e, Ihiid. 


hub-iesey / mi^ have. 


hub-iste» thou kadst. 


hub-lMeSy thou tni^st have. 


bub-Oy he had* 


hub-lcM^ he might have. 


hub'ImoSy we had. 


hub-l^aemosy we might have. 


hub-istelsy ye had. 


bub-l^selSy ye might have. 


bub-ieron, they had. 


hub-leaeiiy they might have. 


Fiiiiire. 


WxAmf. 


habr-^ / shall have. 


hab-lere» I should have. 


habr-ASy thou wilt have. 


hub-ieresy thou shouldst have. 


babr-Ay he will have. 


hab-iere» he should have. 


habr-^]U08» we shall have. 


httb-i€remos, Vfe should have. 


babr-^iSy ye will have. 


hub-l^reis, ye should have. 


babr-An, they will have. 


hub-lereiiy they should have. 


Condltlonihl {apodasit). 


Conditional {protasis). 


babr-fa, / should have. 


hublera or hublese, 1 


/-N 


habr-faSy thou wouldst have. 


hubleras or hubieses. 




habr-i% he would have. 


hubiera or hubiesCy 


s 


habr-iamosy we should have. 


hubi^ramoB or hubi^semosy 


1 


habr-ialSy ye would have. 


hubi^ralfl or hubl^sels. 


habr-iaDy they would have. 


hubieran or hubiesen. 




• 



Bemarks on Haber* 

352. In nearly all the persons of the indicative present, the 
original Latin stem and endings have shrunken, while the vowels 
a and e of the first person singular have been aitractid and reduced 
to i {ai =■ $)t after the analogy of stf from sapio (jai-pd), and 
qnepo from capio (caipo) . Hence : — 

Latin hub^o, by ^ai-bo, becomes modern Spanish be. 



babes, 


ha3s 


bas* 


habet. 


ha-^/, 


ba. 


habemus, 


habemos (archaic)^ 


bemos. 


habetis, 


habedes (obsolete). 


babels. 


habent, 


ha^-/i 


baa. 



i«4 



Form and Inflection. 



a. The subjunctive present b from the Latin haheam = AaS-ya^m], 
hajm, so that the / here properly belongs to the ending. 

d. The past definite hnbe is formed from hahui, by the above 
law of voweUattraction» yielding Aaudi (old Span. hobe). From 
this preterit*stem hub^ are derived the imperfects and future 
subjunctive, by regular processes : Lat. habveram = kaubera^ 
kobiera (§ 19), hubleni; habinssem = kaubisse, hobitse^ hubiese; 
habnerim ^ kaubiri^ kobiere^ hubiere. 

c. The future and conditional indicative are properly compound 
tenses made up of the endings of the present and imperfect joined 
to the infinitive. In the case of haber^ the e falls away, leaving the 
stem habr to receive the endings e^ as, a ; ia, (as, ia, etc. 



353. Apart from its character as an auxiliary, kuber 
is not at present employed as an independent verb^ save 
in the following cases (§ 350, remark) : — 

a. In certain special significations : — 

el caco no pudo ser habido, the thief could not be taken. 

liabido consejo, 

se las habr^ conmigo, 

cuya dnima Dios haya, 



a council having been held, 
he will have to do with me. 
may God have his soul. 



b. In the simple tenses, when haber is followed by 
the preposition de and the infinitive of some other verb ; 
it then has the meaning of duty, or refers to future 
action — /^ be to, to have to, must: — 



I que habla de hacer yo ? [casa, 
hoy hemes de comer fiiera de 
maftana has de trabajar, 
ban de tenerlo en casa i la una, 



what was I to do? 
to-dav we are to dine out. 
to-morrow you are to work. 
they must have it home by one. 



c. In the simple and compound tenses, when'followed 
by gue and the infinitive of some other verb. Baber is 



The Verb. 



165 



then used impersonally, and denotes obligation or 
necessity^ and is translated by to be necessary: — 

it was necessary to lay out a 
couple of days on it. 

what is to be doa« ? [haste. 

it was necessary to get out in 

we must have patience. 

this policy is rather to be con- 
demned in the Catholic sove- 
reigns. 

there is no doubting it. 

it is not right to blame him for it. 



hnbo que emplear dos dias en 

ello, 
£qu^ YxB^ que hacer? 
lla habido qua salir i escape^ 
Ikay que tener padencia, 
^siTf ^ntes, que condenar esta 

polftica en los reyes Catdlicos, 

no hay que dudarlo, 

no hay que censorarlo en ^, 



Remark. — In the personal verb, the imperative singular he for 
haJbe^ and popularly the plural hed for habed, still survive with the 
adverbs aquf, here; aM and allt there; and regularly attach to 
th e m selv e s the pronoun objects me, te, ie, ia, to, not, ew, hs^hs. 
The radical meaning of he in tbose positions is not have^ but 
behold: — 



he aqui {behMhere)} 

% 

he mhiibehotd there), 
Mme aquf ; h^o ahf, 
hAos; htflae, 

h^dnoe aquf, S^or, ante vuestra 
presencia, 



this is {pointing to nvhai fol" 
lows), [cedes), 

tiiat is {pointif^ to what pre- 

here I am ; there it is. 

behold them, or there they are. 

behold us here, Lord, in thy 
presence. 



354. As an impersonal verb, haber regularly builds 
its own compound tenses : — 



SIMPIiE TENSES. 


Infinitive. 


vwmnd. 


Absolute Past Participle. 


haber, ikere . . to be. 


habiendOy there being. 


habidOy there having been. 



1 In Biblical language, simply h or behold: — 
I he aquf, OS lo he dicho Antes ! | behold, I have told you before I 



i66 



Form and Inflection. 



Indle»tlTe Mode. 


SabJanctlTe Mode. 




Prbsbmt. 


li»y» there is, there are. 


haya, there may be. 


iMPBKVBCr. 

kabfay there was, there were. 


Impbrfbct (JSrti ferm")* 
hwblera) there mighi be. 


Vast DnnmrK, 
hubOy there was, there were. 


Imperfect {second form), 
hubiese, there might be. 


FUTUSB. 


Future. 


habr^ there will be. 


hublerey there should be. 


CONDITIOHAL (tf/MiatXM), 

habrfa* there would be. 


CoMDmoHAL iprotant), \were. 
hublera or hublese, (if) th^e 


Imperattve Modei^liaya 


or que haya» let there be. 


COMFOITia 


i> xxaniEB. 


Infliiltiw PMt* 


0«nnd FMt. 


• 

Jiaber ]iabido» M/r^ . . ^ haife 
been. 


hablendo libido, there having 
been. 


ImdioatlTe Mode. 


SobJimctiTe Mode. 


Past Indbfinitb. 


Past Indbfinitb. 


ha iMbidOy there has,^^have^ been. 


haya babldOy Giere mayhaveieen. 


Plupbrfect. 
habla habldoy there had been. 


' PLunR^ECr i/irttjbrm). [been. 
lOLvMenklkSiXiiilOf there mighl have 


Vast Anterior. 
bubo babldOy there had been. 


Plufbrfbct {second form), [been. 
hnblese taabldOy there might have 


Future Perfect. 


Future Perfect. [been. 


habr& taabidoy there will have been. 


hubiere habldOy there should have 


Conditional Past (.apodasis). 

habrfa habldoy there would have 
been. 

e 


Conditional Past {protasis). 

hublera or hubiese habldOy-Cif ) 

there had been. 

' * ' . ... 



The Verb. 167 

Bemarlu on Haber ImpenonaL 

355. The infinitives are dependent on other verbs 
in some finite form: — 

paede haber — habef habido, | there may be — have been* 

356. Hay is a contraction of ha with the now obsolete 
y (Lat. ibi = I'l, y)^ there; ha-^y, it has there y there is^ 
there are (Fn il y a). The old Spanish original ha, 
negative non ha (still preserved in Portuguese), has 
been handed down in the legal phrase for denying a 
petition: no. ha Ingar, there is no occasion; or for 
dismissing a case —^ equivalent to nolle prosequi, 

357. A vidgar, but very common, form of the 
imperative and desiderative haya among the illiterate 
classes, is haiga, as if from faciat {faica, faiga^ 
haiga): — 



que haiga salud, 

que no baiga novedad, 



let there be health, 
let nothing befall you. 



Both these phrases are heard among the lowly in 
taking leave of one another. Likewise in the personal 
verb, in the respectful formula employed in an undertone 
when a deceased person is referred to. Thus, Ramon 
de la Cruz, in the " Sainete " entitled Las Castafteras 
Picculas, ^s humorously: — 

Felices, sefiora Paca 
Javiera, con muchos gostos, 
Y los aumentos de gracia 
Que yo la deseo en vida 
Del difbnto (que Dips iMlaa). 



1 68 Form and Inflection. 

ActlTe Conjui^tloii of the BegiilAr Terik 

35a The inflection of all regular verbs in the Active 
Voice proceeds after three models which are charac- 
terized by the ending of the infinitive, thus : — - 

Infinitives in -ar characterize the First Conj. : bablar» to speak. 
Infinitives in -ar characterize the Second Conj. : corner, to eat. 
Infinitives in -It characterize the Third Conj. : Tivirt to live. 

a. All verbs, whether iiegtilar, irregular, impersonal, 
or defective, belong to the conjugation indicated by their 
infinitive-ending, however much their inflection may 
differ in other respects from the models of regular verbs. 

359. In the regular verb the terminations are 
applied directly to the unchanged stem, found by 
suppressing the infinitive-endings: — 



habl'^ur; habl««uoSr 
com-er; - com-emos, 
viv-ir ; viv-imoa, 



to speak ; we speak, 
to eat ; we eat. 
to live ; we live. 



a. The indicatxire future and conditional are originally 
compound forms, consisting of the infinitive joined to 
the endings of the indicative present and imperfect of 
the auxiliary verb haber: — 

I shall — I should speak, 
they will — they would .five. 



hablar-^ ; hablar-la, 
vivir-to ; vivir-ian, 



Remark. — Hence the literal meaning of the Spanish future is 
'*! have to speak,^^ expressed likewise hy he de hablar;. and the 
literal meaning of the conditional is ** I had to speak/* or hMa de 
hablar. Anciently, the object-pronoun could stand#>etween the 
infinitive and the auxiliary; as, hablarouM^ hablarXw^kia^ and 
hablarXet^la ; modern : os hablariy les hablaria. Thus the proverb 
in its original form: — : 



dime con quien andas, deolrteh^ 
qui^n eres (for te Air^), 



tell me with whom you associate, 
I will tell you what you are. 



The Verb. 



i6g| 



360. In the irregular verb throughout, the gerund, 
past participle, present and imperfect indicative, present 
subjunctive, and imperative, are derived from the stem 
of the infinitive {present stem); the imperfect (both 
forms) and future subjunctive are derived from the 
stem of the past definite {preterit stem) ; the future and 
conditional of the indicative always follow the infinitive 
by adding to it the endings of haber (§ 352, <:) : — 



I. Present Stem: — 

Infinitive, 
Gerund {ustMlly), 
Past participle. 
Present indicative. 
Present subjunctive, 
Imperative, 
Imperfect indicative. 



H. Preterit Stem:— 

Pftst definite indicative. 
Imperfects subjunctive. 
Future subjunctive. 
Gerund {occasionally), 

III. Prom the IiillnltlTe to- 
Future indicative, 
Conditional of the indicative. 



361. Table of verb-endings : — 





INFiNinTE. 


GERUND. 


PAST PABTIOIPLE. 


1. 


-ar. 


-ando. 


-ado. 


s. 


-er. 


-iendo. 


-ido. 


3. 


-It, 


-iendo. 


-ido. 


INBICATIVB MODE. 


SUBJITKOTTVE MODS. 


Present.' 






Present. 


1. S. 


8. 


1. 


%, 8. 


-0, -0, 


0. 


-e. 


-a, -a. 


-as, -es. 


es. 


-es. 


-as, -as. 


-a, -<s - 


e. 


-e. 


-a, -a. 


-anHM, -emos, - 


lino8« 


•ein< 


OS, -amos, -amos* 


-ais, -els. 


is. 


-eis. 


-ai% -als* 


-an, -en. 


en. 


-en. 


-an, -an. 



I70 



Fcrm and Inflection. 



\ 



TKDICATIVK XODK. 




: 


BUBJUNCi'iVE MODE. 




DBpwfMt. 




Imperfect ijtrwi/orm). 




1. 


•> 


8. 


1. S. 8. 




••bi^ 


-la. 


•fa. 


^ur% -lera, -iera. 




-alMWy 


-la^ 


-fas. 


-aras, -leras, ->Ieras. 




-abtty 


-la. 


-fa. 


-ara, -iera, -iera. 




-Abamosy -iamoa. 


-famos. 


-Aramos, -l^ramos, -l^ramos. 


' 


-Abalsy 


-tal*. 


-falB. 


-Acals» •i^rals, -i^rafs. 


• 


-abaii» 


.Un, 


-fan. 


-aran^ -leran, -leran. 




PmI I>efliiitfl 


• 


Imperfect {juccmd for^. 




1. 


a. 


8. 


1. 8. 8. 




-<• 


-1, 


-f. 


-ase^ -lese, -iese. 




•aste* 


•tete^ 


-tote. 


-asesy -iesesy -leses. 




-4. 


-16, 


-16. 


-ase^ -lese, -iese. 




-amo«y 


-lmo«y 


-linos. 


-Asemos, -l^semos, -i^semos. 




-Asteis, 


-fstels, 


-4stelA. 


-AseU, -i^els, -t^seis. 




-aron. 


-leroiiy 


-leron. 


-asen, -iesen, -lesen. 






Fatare. 




Fatnre. 




1. 


s. 


3. 


1. 8. 3. 




-4 


-4 


-^. 


-are, -lere, -lere. 




-*«, 


-As, 


-As. 


-ares, -ieres, -leres. 




-A, 


-A, 


-A. 


-are^ -lere^ -lere. 




-^inos» 


^^tnosy 


-^inos. 


-Aremos, -i^remos, -i^remos. 




-^ 


-^iB, 


-^Is. 


-Arels, -l^rels, -i^r^. 


i 


..te. 


•Ally 


-An; 


-aren, -ieren, -leren. 






CondittoaaL 




IMPERATnnc MODE. 




1. 


8. 


3. 


1. 8. 3. 




-ia. 


-fa. 


-fa. 


— — — 




-la«. 


-fasy 


-fas. 


-a, -e, -e. 




-la. 


-ia. 


fa. 


-e(V.), -a(V.), -a(V.). 




-fomos, 


•lamoo. 


-Samos. 


-enuw, -amos, -ames. 




-iats. 


-iais, 


-ials. 


-ad, -ed, -Id. 




-lan» 


-iaa^ ' 


-fan% 


-en (W.), -an (W.), -«n (W.). 





The Verb. 



171 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 

Model verb — haUar, to speak. 



BIMFUB TENSKS. 



IsftfinltiTe. 



habl-ary to speak. 



0«rmid. 



habl-andOy speaking. 



PMt Pwtloiple. 



habl-ado, spokeH, 



Indicatiye Mode. 



habl-Oy 

liabl-a, 
V. habla, 
babl-amioSy 
habl-at8» 
babl-nn, 
W. hablan, 



PRBSBHT. 

/ Speak, 
thou speakest, 
he speaks. 
you speak, 
we speak, 
ye speak, 
they speak, 
you speak. 



SubJunctiTe Mode. 



habl-e^ 
habl-esy 
habl-e^ 
V. hable, 
habl-emofly 
habl-eisy 
habl-eiiy 
VV. hablen, 



PRSSBMT. 

I may 
thou mayst 
he may 
you may 
foe may 
ye may 
they may 
you may 



I 



iMrBRPBCT. 




iMmtFBCT {Jirsi form). 




habl-aba. 


I was 




habl-ara, I might 




babl-abasy 


thou wast 




habl-arasy thou mightest 




habl-abtty 


he was 


*^ 


habl-ara, he might 




V. hablaba, 


you were 


\ 


V. habUra, you might 


1 


habl-i&baino8, 


> we were 




habl-AramcMy we might 


•.s. 


habl-AbaiSy 


ye were 


^ 


habl-Aralft, ye might 




habl-abany 


they were 




habl-aran, they might 




W. hablaban. 


you were 




W. hablaran, you might 




Past DsriNiTS. 


Imfbrpect {ttcondform). | 


habl-^, 


I spoke. 


habl-ase, / might ^ 




habl-aste^ 


t/iou spokest. 


habl-asesy thou mi^test 




habl>«, 


he spoke. 


habl-flse^ he might 




V. habl6, 


you spoke. 


V. hablase, you might 


1 


habl-amosy 


we spoke. 


habl-dsemosy ^^ might 


Si. 

• 


habl-dst^lfl. 


ye spoke. 


habU^UelSy ye might 




habl-aron. 


they spoke. 


habl-aseiiy they might 




VV. hablaron. 


you spoke. 


W. hablasen, yowmighi 





Form and Inflection. 



I baber babUdo, la kavi spaktn. j bablendo hablado, kaving spoiin. \ 



174 



Form and InJUctum. 



IndlMUTa Mode. 


SubJnnettTe Kode. 


Conditional Past {ja^odaw). 


CoMDmoNAL Past {^^rotant). 


habcia hablado^ / 1 


\ 


Irablera ^hubleaa 


Ci 


habrfa« hablado» tkau 


1 


httbleraa . or hubieaea 




habria habladiH he 


hnblera ^rhablese 


3^ sr 


V. habrU h^blado, ym 


1 


V. hubiera ^rhabiese 


•i& 


habrfamos habkldo^ we 


•1 


hubl^ramoB or habi^acmoa 


■•^1 


habrialft hablado» ye 


} 


hubi^rala 4^hubi^0cii 


r* 


habrfan habladOy they 


hubleraa ^rhubleaan 


5 

A 


W. habHan hablado, you 


• 


W. httbieran or hobiesen 


tc. 



gBOOMO CONJUGATION. 



M3. Model verb — comer, to eat. 



SIMPLE TBN8£S. 


InllaitlTe. 


Gerund* 


FMt Partloiple. 


com-er, to eat. 


com-iendOy eating. 


com-ldoy eaten. 


Indlcattre Mode. 


SubJuiMtlT* ModA. 


c6m-Oy / eat. 
com-esy thou eatest. 
com-ey he eats, 
V. come, you eat, 
com-emosy we eat, 
com-elSy ye eat, 
com^n, they eat, 
W. comen, you eat. 


PaXSBNT. 

com-a, / may 1 
com-asy thou mayst 
com-a, he may 
V. coma, you may 
com-amo0y we may 
com-aifly ye may 
corn-any they may 
W. coman, you may 


R 



The Verb. 



i7S 



I 



Indicatire Mode. 


BubJimctlTe Mode. 1 


Imperfect. 


Imperfect (JirH form). 




cotn-fay / was ' 




com-leray / mighl 




com-ia8» /Aou wast 




com-ierasy thou nrightest 




cotti-iay he was 


• 


com-lera^ he might 




V, comia, yoit were 




V. comiera, you nsi^ 


s 


com-iamofty toe were 


■4' 


com-i^ramosy itfe might 


> 


coin-ial% ye were 


/• 


com4^ralB» ye mighl 




. coin-iaiit they were 




com-leraii9 they might 




W. comlan, you were 


• 
1 


W. comieraiiy you might 




Tast Dsfinitb. 






com-f, late. 


com-lMey /might 




com-istey thou atest. 


com-iesMy thou mighlest 




com-i6, Ju ate. 


com-iese^ he might 




V. comi6, you ate. 


V. comiese, you might 


S 


com-UiMMy v»e ate. 


com-i^enaosy toe might 


' > 


com-istels, ye ate. 


coin-i^9elSy ye might 


■ 


com-ieron, they ate. 


com-ieseny they might 




W. comieron, you ate. 


VV. comiesen, you might 




Fimmx. 


FUTURR, 




coiner-^9 I shall 




com*ier«y /should 




comer-Asy tkou wilt 




com-leresy tkou shouldst 




corner-^ he will. 




com-lere^ he should 




V. comeri, you tmU 


•R 


V. comiere, you should 


S 


comer-^moBy we shaU 


com-l^remo8y we should 


•> 


comer-^isy ye will . 




com-i^reisy ye should 




coiner-Any they will 




com-lereiiy they should 




W. comeran, you will 




W. coinieren« you should 




Conditional {t^odasis). 


Conditional {protasis). 




comer-iay /should 




comiera or comioiey 




comer-fasy ihouwouU&t 




comleras or comleMay 


o 


comer-iay he would- 




comiera or comlesfl^ 




V. comeria, you would 


g 


V. comiera or comieise, . 




comer-famoSy we -should 


■> 


comi^ramofl or comleaemoSy 


■> 


comer^faiSy ye would 




comi^rais or coml^elsy 


% 


comer-iaDy they wo^ld 




comieran or comieaeiiy 


• 


W. comerlan, you would . 




VV. comieran or comiesen, ■ J 





176 



Farm and Inflection. 



Impemttre Mode. 


SiNCULAIL 


PuntAL. 




com-amos, let us eat. 


com-c^ eai (Jhou), 


com-ed, eat {ye). 


com-ft» Ui him eat* 


com-an, let them eat^ 


coma V^ /a/. 


coman VV.^ eat. 




no com-amosy let us mot eai. 


no com-AS, eat (Jkou) not. 


no com-als, eat {ye) not. 


no com-a» /// him not eat. 


no com-aiiy let them not eat. 


no coma V., do mot eat. 


no coman W^ do not eat. 


coxrouv] 


[> TENSES. 


laJtadttre PMt. 


Qerund Past. 


haber comido, to kave eaten. 


habiendo comidOy hmnng- eaten. 


IndlcatlTe Mode. 


SubJunotlTe Mode. 


Past iNDBnNiTB. 


Past Indkhnitk. 


he comidO) / 




haya comldo^ / 


3 


has comldo, thou 




hayas comldo, thou 


<5 


ha comidOy he 


1 


haya comtdo, he 


s- 


V. ha comido, yon 


s 


V. haya comido, you 


s 


hemes comldo, we 




hay^bnos comido» we 




habeis comldOy ye 




hayAls comidOy ye 


V 

X 

« 


han comtdo^ they 


• 


hayan comtdo, they 


o 


VV. han comido^ you 




W. hayan comido, you 


9 


Vvanxnct, 


Plufbrtbct (jSrti/orm). | 


habia comidOy / 




hnbiera comldo, / 


3 


habias comldo^ thou 


>i 


hubleras comido> thou 


i 


habia comido> he 




hubiera oomido, he 




V. hab£a comido, you 


a 


V. hnbiera ooroido, you 


1 


hablamos comldoy we 


1 


hubi^ramos comldo^ we 




hablais comidOy ye 




hubi^rals comido, ye 


^ 


habfan conddOy they 


• 


hubleran comido, they 




W. habian comido, you 


^ 


W. hubieran comido, you 


• 



Remark. — The first penon singular present indicative is 
written otfmo, i tai, to distinguish it bom oomo, as. The graphic 
accent then here is merely tUsUnctme. 



178 



Form, and Inflection, 



THIRD COKJUOATIOK, 

Model verb — yivir, to live. 











1 


BOirxix: 


TEMBKS. 


I 


InflnltlTe. 


Oerwid. 


Pa«t Partlctple. 




vW-ir, to live. 


viv-lendOy living. 


viv-ldo, lived. 


IndlcAtiTe Mode. 


8iibJnnctiTe Mode. 


PXBSENT. 


Present. 


•?iv-o, / live. 


viv-a, / may live. 




viv-M» 01OU livesi. 


viy-asy tkou mayst live. 




viv-e, he Hves, 


viv-a, he may live. 




V. vhre, you live. 


V. viva, you may live. 




Tiv-lmosy we live. 


viv-amosy we may live. 




viv-isy ye live. 


viv-alsy ye may live. 




viv-en, they live. 


viv-aoy they may live. 




W. viven, you live. 


W. vivan, you may live. 




Impbrpbct. 


Impbrpbct {first form). 




viv-ia^ I was living. 


viv-iera, I might live. 




viv-fasy thou wast living. 


viv-lerasy thou mightest live. 




viv-ia^ he was living. 


viv-iera, he might live. 




V. vivfa, you were living. 


V. viviera, you might live. 




yiv-iamoSy we were living. 


viv-i^ran&<»y we might live. 




viv-iaiSy ye were living. 


viv-i^ralsy ye might live. 




Yiv-ian, they were living. 


viv-ieraiiy they might live. 




VV. vivian, you were living. 


W. vivieran, you might live. 




Past Definite. 


Imperfect {jsecond form) . 




viv-i, I lived. 


viv4eB<s I might live. 




viv-iste^ tJiou livedst. 


viv4eM8y thou mightest live. 




viv-16y he lived. 


viv-ieMy he might live. 




V, vivid, you lived. 


V. viviese, you might live. 




viv-imoSy we lived. 


viv-i^emosy we might live. 




viv>istel8y ye lived. 


viv-i^sels, ye might live. 




viv-ieroDy they lived. 


viv-lesen* they might live. 




VV. vivieron, you lived. 


W. viviesen, you might live. 





Tke Verb. 



179 





» ^l9BOVDsB0V^9 JBB^MW 


S«N«tt«ttin» HoAb. 




FunTRK. 


Vvrmm. 




vivir-^ / shall live* 


viv-ier«» / should Hve. 




vivir-^by thou will live. 


viv4eresy thou.shouldst live. 




vivir^ he will Hve. 


viv-iere» he shofstd livei 




V. vivki^ you will live. 


V. vivieice, you ihimld Hve. 




vtvir-^ino6y we shall live. 


viv-i^iemos, we should Hve, 




vivir-^Uy ye will live. 


viv-i^reiSy ye should live. 




vivir-^m they ndll live* 


viv^lfleeiiy they, shoodd Hoe, 




W. viviran, you will live. . 


VV. vivieren, you should live. 




CoNomoRAL («>mAmm). 


CoNDiixcniAi. (/tvAwm). 


vtvir-ifty / should imr. 


viviera or vivtttCy 




vivir-la0» i^u womkUt Hve. 


vivienw or vavlflMty 


Ci 


vivir-Sa» h^ tonUdlivt, 


viviera or vivlflM^ 




V. vivirfa, y&u would live. 


V. viviera or viviese, 




vivir*iamos» toe should live. 


vivt^ramos or vivl^seinoey 


1 




vivir-ialsv ye would live. 


vivi^ralfl or yvMfmhBf 






vivir-iaiiy ihey would live. 


vivteran or vivteeoy 


? 




W. vivirfan, you would live. 


W. vivieran or viviesen, 






JxapenAX 


ve Mode* 




Singular. 


Plurau 






viv-amoBy let us live. 




viv-e, live (thou). 


viv-id, live O'O* 




viv-a, let him live. 


viv-any let them live. 




viva v., live. 


vivan W., live. 

no vivamosy let us. not live* 




no viv-asy live {thou) not. 


no viv-aiSy live (ye) not. 




no viv-a, let him not live. 


no viv-aiiy let them not live. 




no viva V. do not live. 

t 


no vivan W., do not live* 

• • 




GOMPOITK] 


• 
TENSES. 

1 






• 

Ctorund FMt. 




haber vivldoy to have lived. 


habi«i4o vivldOy having lived. 



i8o 



Form and Inflection, 



IlkttMttT* M •d*. 


Sali|«MftiT« Mode. 


Past Indbrnitb. 




Past iNDsnNiTB. 




hevivldOy 


/ 




haya vivido^ / 


3 
^ 


h*s vivldOy 


thou 


^ 


hayas vivido, thou 


ha vivldoy 


he 


«9 


haya vivido, he 




V. ha vivido, 


you 




V, haya vivido, you 


♦J 


hemos vivldOy 


we 


hayAmos vivido, we 


■? 


habeii vivldOy 


y* 


n 


hay&ls vivido^ ye 


1. 


hMi vhrldOy 


they 


9 


hayam vivido, they 


5* 


W. han vivido, 


you 




W. hayan vivido, you 




PmFBmcT, 






PuTPBBncT {Jirtt f»rm). 




habfa viTMto, 


I 




hubiera vivido, / 


s 

-••- 


habiaa vividly 


thou 


^ 


habienui vivido, thou 




habia vivldOy 


he 


I 


hubiera vivido, he 




V. habfa vivido. 


you 


t- 


V. hubiera vivido, you 




hablamos vivido^ 


we 


-^ 


hubi^ramos vivido, we 




habials vivldOy 


y* 




hubi^rais vivido^ ye 




habian vivld<s 


they 


• 


hubieran vivido^ they 


W. habCan vivido, 


you 




W. hubieran vivido, you 


o 

• 


Past Ahtbrior. 




Pluperfect {second /orm). 




hube vivido, (when) / 




hubiese vivido, / ] 




hublste vivldOy 


thou 


;^ 


hubieses vivido, thou 


\ 


hubo vivldOy 


he 


Si 


hubiese vivido, he 




V. hubo vivido, 


you 


r 


V. hubiese vivido, you 




hublmos vivldoy 


we 


'A 


hubi^semos vivido, we 


.;:: 


hubistels vivido, 


y^ 




hubi^sels vivido, ye 


1. 


hubieron vivido. 


they 


• 


hublesen vivido, they 


W. hubieron vivido. 


you 




W. hubiesen vivido, you 


o 

• 


Futurb Pbrfbct. 




Future Perfect. 




habr^ vivido. 


I ' 


S. 


hublere vivido, / 


PS 


habrAs vivido. 


thou 




hubleres vivido, thou 


V 

K 
&• 


habr& vivido. 


he 




hublere vivido, he 


ft. 


V. habr£ vivido, 


you 


1 


V. hubiere vivido, you 


9 


habr^mos vivido. 


we 


> 


hnbl^remos vivido^ we 




habr^ls vivido, * 


y^ 


1. 


hubi^rels vivido, ye 


i: 


habr^n vivido^ 


they 


A 
S" 


hubleren vivido, they 


VV. habr&n vivido. 


you 


n 

• 


W. hubieren vivido, you 


• 



1 



365. The subject-pronouns are to be expressed with 
the verb, only when they are intensive, emphatic, or 
adversative, and when (by the identical endings of the 
first and third persons of certain tenses) obscurity would 
result from the omission (see §§ 187-190) : — 

Remark. — Identical endings of the first and third persons are 
fbuad in the present subjunctive, imperfect indicative and subjunc- 
tive, future subjunctive, and the conditionals : — 



■nay speak ; eat ; live, 
was spealdng; eating; living. 

might speak ; eat ; live. 

might speak; eat; live. 

should speak; eat; live. 

should ) , ,. 

would i'P^' ^'' ••'"=• 



366. The graphic accent (in the present century 
always acute, ') distinguishes otherwise homonymous or 
identical forms in verbs of the first conjugation ; — 



rhabie; coma; viva; 
hablaba; comfa; vivia; 
^ I hablEira ; comieia ; vivlera ; 
^ I hablaae ; comiese ; viviese ; 
hablare ; comieie ; vivier« ; 
(hablarla; cometla; viviiia; 



bdblo, 
hablon. 



bable. 



habliire, 

hablijreb. 



habU, 
hablanf. 



habi/, 
hablarrfs. 



hablar/. 
hablar^. 



i82 Form and Inflection. 

Except the fifst persons plural of the present indicative and the 
past definite in the first and third conjugations, wherein no writteti 
accent'is authorized : — 



habUimos ; viv/mos, 
habl^nnos ; viv/mos, 



we speak ; we live. 
we spoke ; we lived. 



Remark. — Much confusion often arises in reading Spanish 
books printed before aj>. 1550 when the graphic accent (usually 
grave ' ) began to be employed by the best printers. Martin Nuctb 
(or Nityts) of Antwerp, from 1556 gave a new impulse to this branch 
of orthography ; and in 1580 we find the use of accents g<enefalized, 
especially to mark the future tense.' 

367. Of the imperative mode, only the second person 
singular and. plural are original persons. All the others 
are simply persons of the subjunctive present with an 
optative, desiderative, or a hortative meaning. For 
example : — 

habla, speak (original form), to one to whom tu is used, 

hable V., speak (polite), subjunctive, ** may your grace speak.^ 
bablad, speak (original form), to two or more to whom voso- 

tros is used. 
habten W., speak (polite), subjunctive, ** may your graces speak.*^ 

hable (subjunctive), Ut kim 



speak. 



hablen (subjunctive), l^ them 
speak. 



hablemos (subjunctive) , let us speak, 

a. Observe that habla and hablad (and so coma, 
corned; vive, vivid, and all original imperatives) cannot 
be made negative. To render the imperative negative 
in Spanish, the corresponding subjunctive forms must 
always be used : — 

habla, speak {iihovi). no hables, eio not speak. 



hablad, speak (ye). 



no hablfiia, do not speak. 



1 See Obras de luan Boscan, Antwerp, Nucio, 1556, Editor's Prohgue 
(raprinted in my edition, Madrid, Z875, P* 5'i)i ai^<l Herrera's edition of 
GarcilassQ, Seville, 1580. 



Tke Verb: 183 

b. The other forms being akeady in tlie present 
subjunctive, merely assume the adverb no to render 
them negative : — 



liable, let him speak, 
liable v., speak (your grace). 
liablen, let them speak, 
hablen W., speak (your graces) . 
hablrimiw, let us spgak. 

** no 96 muera vuestra merced, 
sine tome mi coi»e|0, y viva 
machos afios,^^ . . 



no hable, let him not speak J 
no bable V., do not spea^. 
no liablen, let them not speak, 
no liablen W., tlo not speak, 
no hableinofl, let, ui Hot speak, 

do not die, your grace, but take 
my advice, and live maay 
years. 



{literally y ** let not your grace die ; but let him take my advice, and 

let him live many years." ) 

36& The terminations -aste, -iBta, and ^ksteis, ^-toteis, 

of the second person singular and plural of the past 
definite tense are now popularly assimilated, into astes^ 
istes: — 



td hablaBtes, for hablaste, 
td vivitftea, for viviste^ 
h9d>k»tM, for hablis tn sy 
comiates, for comisteis^ 



thou didst speak, 
thou didst live, 
ye did speak.^ 
ye did eat. 



369. The d of the participial ending ado is very 
generally omitted in pronunciation at the present day, 
not .only in Madrid, but throughout Spain, in familiar 
or social life, not in grave discourse : — 

habUio, for haBlado, \ regalA6, given (for regalado) . 

It is not convenient to call this a vice, since it is observed by nine- 
tenths of the Spanish people when speaking familiarly. Not so 
with idoj however, except among the admirers of the bull-baiting 
Baternity. 

370. . The compound tenses of all Spanish verbs, active 
and neiiter, transitive and intransitive, are at the present 
day formed by means of the verb Aaier only : — 



1 84 Form and Inflection, 



ba ido ; hemot venido, 
se lum ido ; he llegado, 



he has gone ; we have come, 
they have gone off; I have ar- 
rived. 



a. Anciently they said : es ido, is gone ; son venidos, are cofne ; 
but not at present. 

Begrnlar Enphonio Cluuiges« 

371. All verbs in ^ar, -gar, and -sar (that is, those 
having the stem-ending c, g, or z) change those letters 
into qa, gn, and c, respectively, as often as, by inflection, 
they meet the weak vowel e (see §§ 13 ; 15 ; and 28, a). 
These mutations occur in the following places only: 
In the first person singular of the past definite, in the 
present subjunctive throughout, and consequently in all 
those persons of the imperative that are not original 

(§367):- 

a. tocar, to touch. 

Past Def. toqu^ {but tocaste, toc6, tocamos, etc^, 

SuBj. Pres. toque, toques, toque, toquemos, toqnels, toqoen. 

Imperat. (toca), toque, toquemos, (tocad), toquen* 

b, llegar, to arrive. 

Past Def. llegu^ {bui Uegaste, lleg6, llegamos, etc^, 

SuBj. Pres. Uegue, Ueg^es, Uegue, lleguemos, Ueg^els, llegpnen. 

Imperat. (ilcga), llegue, Ueguemos, (llegad), U^^en. 

c. alcanzar, to reach. 

Past Def. alcanc^ {but alcanzaste, alcanzo, alcanzamos, etc^). 

SuBj. Pres. alcance, alcances, alcance, aleancemosy alcaneels, 

alcancen. 
Imperat. (alcanza), alcance, alcancemos, (alcanzad), al- 

cancen. 

372. Verbs in •guar assume in like positions the 
diaresis before e (§§ 17; 21 ; 32, a) : — 



The Verb. 185 

tf. avexigvar, to iivuesi^cUe^ to ascertain. 

Past Def. vrerifpA^ {but averiguaste, averigu^^ aTeriguamos, //r.}« 
SuBj- Pres. averiu^e» averlgiies, averlgUe^ aveiigUeinofl, avert- 

guelB, averignen. 
Imperat. (averigua), averigiiey averi^emo0» (averiguad), 

averti^en. 

37a Verbs in ..c«r and .dr, preceded by a consonant^ 

change the stem-ending c into z as often as, by inflection, 
it meets one of the strong vowels ^ or ^ (according to 
§ 14; see also § 28; 28, a). This mutation occurs in the 
following places only : In the first person singular of 
the indicative present, in all the persons of the present 
subjunctive, and consequently in those persons of the 
imperative that are not original (§ 367) : — 

a. ▼anoar, to ovtrcome. 

Indic. Pr£S. venzo {but vences, vence, vencemos, etc), 

SuBj. Pres. venza, venzas, Tenza, venzamofly venzalfly venzaD. 

Imperat. ' (vence), venza, venzamofty (venced), venzan. 

b, eapareir, to scatter, 

Indic. Pres. esparzo {but esparces, esparce, esparcimos, etc.), 

SuBj. Pres. esparza, esparzas, esparza, esparzamosy esparzate. 



Imperat. (esparce), esparza, eaparzamosy (espardd), ea*- 

parzan. 

374. Verbs in -cer and -cir, preceded by a vowel^ 
strengthen the stem-ending by inserting beforq it a -sr 
as often as the stem meets an a or an £?: — 

a, careoer, not to have^ to be without, 

Indic. Pres. earezco (^/careces, carece, carecemos, etc.), 

SuBj. Pres. carezca, carezoasy carezca, carezeamosy carezcala, 

carezcan. 
Imperat. (carece), carezoa, carezcamosy (careced), carez- 

can. 



i86 



Form and Inflection, 



b. iiadar, to be bam, 

Indic. Pres. naxco (Jmt naces, nace, nacemos, ete^, 

SuBj. pREs. nazca, nszcas, nazea, nazcamos, nazeals, 

Imperat. (nace), nazca, nazcamos, (naced), nazcan. 

r. conooer, to know (persons). 

Indic. Pres. conozco {but conoces, conoce, conooemos, etc^. 

SuBj. Pres. conozca, conozcaa, oonazoa, canozcamos, conoecais, 

conozcan. 

Imperat. (conoce), conozca, conozcamosy (conoced), co- 
nozcan. 

d, luoir, to shine, to display, 

Indic. Pres. luzco {but luces, luce, lucimos» etc^, 

SuBj. Pres. luzca» luzcas, luzca, luzcamosy luzcals, luzcan. 

Imperat. (luce), luzcay luzoamosy (lucid), luzcan. ' 

Except meoer, to shake, to rock ; empeoer, to injure ; cooar, to 
bod (cueso, cuema, etc.) ; and 9mooiomi,tojmart (eaoueso, escnesa, 
etc.), which, with their compounds« follow § 373 for the stem-ending. 
Haoor, to da, to make, and its compounds, change the radical o into 
g before a strong vowel (hago, haces ; hfiga, hagaa, etc.) . 

Remark. — The z of this class is properly an oiganic s, derived, 
in the case of verbs in -ecer {-escer), from Latin iaceptives in -escere, 
and retained throughout in old Spanish. Verbs in "ocer and -ocer 
come from Latin stems in asc, osc. With .verbs in 'ucir alone, the z 
is euphonic : — 



Latbs Latin. 
caresco; 
carescis; ftd, ; 
nasco; 
• nascis, gfc. ; 
cognoBco ; 
cognoscis, etc; 
luceo; 
luces, etc. 



Old Spanish. 
caresco; 
caresces, etc, ; 
nasco; 
nasces, etc, ; 
conosco; 
conosces, etc, ; 
lusco; 
luces, etc. ; 



Modern Spanish. 
carezco. 
careces^ etc, 
nazco. 
naces, etc, 
conozco. 
conoces, etc, 
luzco. 
luces, etc. 



373. Verbs in -ger and .^ change the radical g into 
j, before 3.n a or o (§§ 16, 33) : — 



Tht Vefb, 187 

a, ooi^, to gather. 

Indic. Prbs. eojo {but coges, coge, cogemos, </r.)« 

SuBj. Pres. cq|ay cojas, coja, cojamos, ccjaisy cojan. 

iMFERAT. (coge), coja, cojamos, (coged), cojan. 

b. dirigir, to guide, 

Indic, Pres, dlr^o {btU 4i^es, dirige, dirigimos, etc^, 

SuBj. Pres. dirya, dlr^as, dir^a, dlryamos, diryaiSy dii||aii. 

IMPERAT. (<iingc^), dirQAi d|l4aino8» (dirigid), dlr^an. 

37& Verbs in •guir, and (me in -qnlr, reject the 
orthographic u, returning to the simple radical g and c 
hard, when, by inflection, they would stand before an 
^ or an o\ — 

^ a, difltingair, to distinguish, 

Indic. Pres. dlwtingo (Jbut distingues, distingue, distingaimos, etc), 
SuBj. Pres. dlsttnga, distingas, distlngay dtsttngamog, dlstln* 

giftlsy dlstlngan. 
Imperat. (distingue), distlngay distiiiigamosy (distinguid), 

dlfltingan. 

b. segnir, to follow (irregular). 

Indic. Pres. sf^o {but si'gues, si'gue, segoimos, seguCs, stguen, etc,), 
SuBj. Pres. sigay ilgM, 8lg% ilganuMiy aicalB, sigan. 
Imperat. — '■ — (stgue), slgay slgamosy (seguid), slgan* 

c, delinquir, to transgress (law). 

Indic. Pres. dellnco {but delinques, delinque, delinquimos, etc.) . 
SuBj. Pres. delinca, delincas, dellncay delincamos, dellncalB, 

dellncan. 
Imperat. (deliiique)^ dellncay deUncamoa, (deUnquid), de- 

Itnoaa* 

Remark. — Verbs in -gttir are somewhat irregular, and will be 
treated with such. 

377. The necessity of all the foregoing consonant- 
mutations is obviously to maintain in the stem the same 
sound throughout the conjugation that it has in the 
infinitive, whatever be the orthography. 



1 88 Form and Inflection. 

37a Verbs having the stem-ending in a double 
consonant (ch, U, fl), regularly absorb the ^ vowel i of 
the diphthongs ie, io, whenever they occur in the course 
of inflection ; that is, in the gerund, the third person 
singular and plural of the past definite, and in the 
imperfects and future of the subjunctive: — 

a. bullir, io Mi. 
Gerund. bullendo. 

Past Def. fkird singular and plural, bvU6 ; bulleron. 

SuBj. Imperf. buUeim» buUeras,'^/^. / buUeae» bullesesy etc, 

SuBj. Future. buUere^ bulleres, bullere, buU^remosy etc, 

b. tafier, to play (of music, tangire). 

Gerund. tallendo. 

Past Def. taft6» talleron. 

SuBj. Imperf. talleniy t»ftttra«» etc.; talme, ta lg <eB» etc. 

SuBj. Future, taftere, talleres» talleie» t»ft^ivuM» eU. 

c. plafiir, to lament. 

Gerund. plallendo. 

Past Def. plall6, plafteron. 

SuBj. Imperf. plaftera, plafteras, etc; plafteM, plafteMft, etc. 

SuBj. Future, plaftere, plafterea* plalere, plaft^remosy etc. 

d. Those in final radical ch do not uniformly absorb 
the v^wel I : — 

e. henchir, to fiU (irregular). 

Gerund. hlnchiendo and hinchendo. 

Past Def. ]iinchi6 and liiiicli6 ; hinchlero^n and hlncheron. 

SuBj. Imperf. hinchiera and hlnchera, hinchleras and hlncherasy 

etc. : hinchiese and hinchese, hinchiesea and hin- 

cheses, etc, 
SuBj. Future, hlnchlere and hlnchere, hlnchleres and hlncheres, etc. 

Pr«^rx*eMiye Form of the Aetlye Verb» 

879. Spanish verbs may be translated into English 
in three different ways; namely: — 



The Verb. 



^89 



by the absolute form, 
by the emphatic form, 
by the progressive fonn, 



hablo, 



' I speak. 
I do speak. 
. I am speaking. 



The progressive form may also be expressed in 
Spanish by associating with the gerund of the principal 
verb the auxiliary verb estar, to be^ or one of its 
substitutes hallarse or encontranie, to find one's selfy 
to be; qaedar, to remain; ir or andar, to go; segnir, 
to £^0 on; verse, to see ones self: — 



estoy or voy 



estA or va 



' hablando, 
comiendo, 
viviendo, 
hablando, 
or vaa \ comiendo, 
viviendo, 

' hablando, 
comiendo, 
viviendo, 



me halltf esoribiendo, 
te enoontraste jugando, 
qiied6 dtumiendo, 
quedamos mirando, 
Bignid hablando, 



r speaking. 
I am -j eating. 

I living. 

' speaking, 
thou art - eating. 

. living. 

' speaking, 
he is ' eating. 

. living. 

I found m3rself (I was) writing, 
you found yourself playing, 
he remained (was) sleeping, 
we stood gazing, 
he went on talking. 



381. Of the two verbs in Spanish for *'to be/' — ser 
and estar^ — the latter is alone employed with the gerund 
to make up the progressive form of an active verb ; while 
ser is the only one that serves to build the passive voice. 

Remark. — £star is from the Latin sto, stare, to standi with 
the prothetic e^ as in escuela (jchola), estiidio {studium)^ etc. 
(§ 41, remark). The second stem estuv is derived from a Latin 
basis stabui = staudi, estove, estuve, after the analogy of kabui = 
Aaubi, Aobe, hube. 



I90 



Form and Inflection, 



382, Conjugation of astar, to he: — 



nfmriTiTE. 


OEBUXD. 


PAST PASnCIFLE. 


estar, to be. 


estando, bein^. 


estado, been. 


nCDICATITE MODE. 


SUBtllJMCTlVE MODE. 


Pretent. 


• 

Present. 


estoy, (jto), lam. 


est^ (stem), I may he. 


estAfly thou art 


est^ thou mayst be. 


t&tk^ he is. 


est^ he may be. 


V. esta, you are. 


V. est^, you may be. 


estamosy we are. 


estemosy toe may be. 


estalsy ye are. 


estelfly ye may be. 


eaXiokf (hey are. 


est^iiy they may be. 1 


W. estin, you are. 


VV. est6ii, you may be. 


Imperfect. 


Imperfect {first form). 


estaba, I was (being). 


estuviera, / might be. 


estabaty thou wasi. 


estttvleroay thou mighiest be. 


estaba, he was. 


estuvieray he might be. 


V. estaba, you were. 


V. estuviera, you might be» 


est&bamosy we were. 


estuvi^ramofly we might be. 


est&baisy ye were. 


estuvi^raUy ye might be. 


estaban, tJiey were. 


estuvleran, they might be. 


W. estaban, you were. 


W. estuvieran, you nUght be. 


FMt I>eflnlte. 


Imperfect {second form). 


estuTOy I was. 


estuviese, / mi^ be. 


estuvifltey thou wast. 


estuvlesesy ihou mightest be. 


estuvoy he was. 


estuviese^ . he might be. 


V. estuvo, you were. 


V. estuviese, you might be. 


estavlmosy 7ue were. 


estuvI^semoBy we might be. 


estuvistelsy ye were. 


estuvi^sels, ye might be. 


estuvieron, they were. 


estaviesen, they might be. 


W. estuvieron, you were. 


W. estuviesen, you -might be. 



The Verb. 



191 



TNI>XGAT1VK MODE. 


SUBJUKCTITB MODE. 


ratwre* 




Future. 


estar^ 


I shall be. 


estiiYi6ffVy 


I should be. 


estaWby - 


- thou ikali be. 


estttvlerMy 


thou akouldst be. 


estaid. 


he will be. 


estuvlerey 


he should be. 


V. estani. 


y0u vdU be. 


; V. estuviere. 


you should be. 


estar^mofl. 


we shall be. 


estuvl^remofl, we should be, \ 


estardlsy 


ye will be. 


estuvi^relSy 


ye should be, i 


estardn. 


they will be. 


estuviereiiy 


they should be, 1 


W. cstaran, 


you will be. 


VV. estuvieren, you should be. 


Cotidltloaal {fiPodatit), 


Oondltlonal {.protasit). 


estarSa, 


/should be. 


estuvfera 


^estuvtese. 




estarfasy 


thou wouldst be. 


estiivieras 


^restuvlesMy 


/-s 


estarlay. 


he would be. 


estuvfera 


<^e$tuvieM» 




V. cstaria. 


you would be. 


V. estuviera 


^restuviesCy 




estarfamosy 


we should be. 


estuvi^ramos ^^restuvf^semosy 


8. 


estariaisy 


ye would be. 


estuvi^ais 


^restttvi^eisy 


r 


estarlan. 


they would be. 


estuvieran 


tfrestuvleseiiy 


• 


W. estarian 


, you would be. 


W. estuvieran or estuviesen, J 


, 


IMPERATT 


VE MODE. 


t 






estemofly 


let us be. 


est^ 


be (thou). 


estads 


b, (^yi). 


est^ 


let him be. 


est^iiy 


let them be. 


csti v.. 


be. 


est^n W., 


be. 






no estemofly 


let us not be. 


noest^ 


be (thou) not. 


no esteUy 


be (ye) not. 


no est^ 


let him not be, • 


no est^iiy 


let them not be. 


no est6 V., 


do not be. 


no est6n W. 


» do not be. 



The compound tenses of estar are regularly 
formed by means of the verb ^^^r and the past participle 
estado (status)^ so that a synopsis will suffice to suggest 
the full inflection : — 



192 



Form and Inflection, 



Ivfliiltlye PMt. 


Q«r«iid Past. 




haber estado, to have been. 


habiendo estado, having been. 




IndlcAtlTe Mod*. 


Subjonefive Mode. 




Past iNosnNiTB. 
he estado, I have been, 

TtUVKKWWCT, 

habCa estado, / had been. 

Past Antbrior, 
httbe estado, (when) I had been, 

FUTUBB PbSFVCT. 

habr^ estado, I ihall have been. 

COMDITIOMAL PaST. 

habria estado, I should have been. 


Past iNDsniaTB. 
haya estado, I may have been. 

Plupkrfbct {Jirtt/orm). 
hubiera estado, / mi^ have been. 

Plufbrfbct {second /or m). 
httbiese estado, / might have been. 

Futuss Pbrfbct. 
httbiere ea^tsAo^ I should have been. 

Conditional Past. \been 
hub-iera, hub-iese estado, (if) I had 








Passive Voice. 

384. The proper passive voice in Spanish is formed 
by the auxiliary ser, to be^ joined to the past participle 
of the verb to be conjugated. 

Remark. — Ser is a contraction of the old Spanish seer^ from 
the Latin verb sedfire, to sit. This stem forms the gerund siendo 
(old Span, seyendo), the past participle sido (old Span, seydo, from 
seditus for sessus), and the present subjunctive sea (old Span, seya^ 
from sedeam^ like haya from habeam^ and vaya from a form vadeam). 
The future and conditional of the indicative regularly follow the in- 
finitive ser-i^ ser-ia. The present indicative follows sum^ est, sumus^ 
sunt; but in the second person singular, it adopts the future erts 
(eres), and in the plural, a regularized sutts (old Span, sodes, modem 
sots). The imperfect indicative derives from eram, eras, etc. The 
preterit stem /u build» the past definite indicative, the imperfects 
and future subjunctive. Therefore, the Latin esse does not reappear 
in Spanish, except in the present and imperfect indicative. 





The Verb, 


193 


COICcI i;0AT10N UJT XIUS JTjIINUVJS auxii«iast tekb. 


385. S«r, /^ ^A 


■ 


fiNafPUs 


TEN8B8. 


• 

Inll]iltlT«. 


Oerand. 


Past Participle. 


sery /^ be. 


siendo, being. 


sidoy been. 


Indleatlve Mode. 


Sabjanetlve Mode. 


Pkbsent. 


PRBSSMT. 


soy (sum), I am. 


sea (jsedeam), I may be. 


eres (eris for «), M^w tfr/. 


seas, thou mayst be. 


es (est), he is. 


sea, ke may be. 


' V. cs, you are. 


V. sea, you may be. 


somos (sumus), we are. 


seamosy we may be. 


sols (jutis for estis^y ye are. 


seals, ye may be. 


son (sunt), /A<;y are. 


sean, they may be. 


W. son, ^«?« tf f<. 


W. sean, you may be. 


Impbkfbct. 


Impbrfbct (Jirsi/orm), 


era, I was. 


fuera, / might be. 


eraOy thou wast. 


fueras, thou mightest be. 


era, ^^ w<m. 


fttera, he might be. 


V. era, you were. 


V. fuera, you might be. 


^ramosy we were. 


fu^ramos, we might be. 


^rais, ye were. 


fu^rais, ye might be. 


eran, they were. 


fueran, ihey might be. 


W. eran, you were. 


W. fueran, you might be. 


Past DEriNiTE. 


Imperfect {second form). 


f ui, / was. 


fuese, / might be. 


fuiste, thou wast. 


fueses, thou mightest be. 


fu^, he was. 


fuese, he might be. 


V. fu^, you were. 


V. fuese, you might be. 


faimos, we were. 


fu^semos, we might be. 


fulstelB, ye were. 


fu^seis, 4 . ye might be. 


f aeron, tkey were. 


fuesen, they might be. 


W. ftteton, you were. 


W. fuesen, you mi^ be. 



194 



Form and Infitction. 



IndieatlTe Mode. 


SabJnnetlTe Mode. 




Fotusb. 


ser^ I shall be. 


fiiere^. I should he. 


serAsy thou wilt be. 


f uereSy tlwu shouldst b€. 


veckj he will be. 


fuere^ he should be. 


V. scr&, you will be. 


V. fuere» you should be. 


sei^mofl, we shdll be. 


fu^cemosy we shotddhe. 


ser^iSy ye will be. 


fu^relB, ye should he. 


serAiiy they will be. 


fuereiiy they should be. 


W. seran» you will be. 


W. fueren, you should be. 


Conditional (^a^odasts). 


Conditional ^protasis). 1 


seria» / should be. 


fuera \ or fucse. 




sexia^ thou wouldst be,. 


f ueras . or fuesesy- . 




serlay he would be.^ 


fuera or fuesCy 


**> 


V* seria, you would be, . . 


y. fuera or fuese. 


s 


serfaanofly we should be. 


fu^ramos or fu^semosy 


■ ^ 


serislSy ye would b(. 


fu^ais or fu^seiSy 




serially they would be. 


f uei^an. or fuesen. 




W. serlan, you would be. 


W. fuesan or fuesen, . 


• 


Iinp^ratl 

1 


ve Mode. ., 

1 ■ ■ 


Singular. 


Plural. 




seamosi let us be. 


s^, be {thou). 


sed, be {ye), ' 


sea» let him be. 


sean, let them be. 


sea v., be. 


sean VV;, be. 


1 


.no seamosy let us not be. 


no seas, be {thou) ftoi. 


no se&iSy be {ye) not. 


no seay let him not be. 


no seaiiy let them not be. 


no sea V., do not be. 


no sean V v., do not be. 


COMPOUNl 


[> TBNSES. • - 


InflnifclYe Past. 


Gemnd Past. 


haber sido^/^ have been. - 


habiea^o sldo, having been: 



The Verb. 



195 



IndieatlTe Mode. 


8iib|imotly« Mod*. 


Past iNxnFiMiTB. 


Past iNDXnmTB. 




he sldo, I have keen. 


haya ildo* / 


3 


has sidOy thou hast been. 


hayas sldo, Aou 


ha sldoy ^ ^^^ been. 


hayasldo» he 


V. ha sido, you have been. 


V. haya sido, you 


1 


hemos sidOy we have been. 


hayAmos ildo» vte 




halM$is sido» ye have been. 


hay&te sldo* ye 


I 


han sido» (hey have been. 


haya;ift aldo* . they 


^ 


VV. han sido, you have been. 


W. hayan sido, you 


• 


Plopbspbct. 


Plupbrfbct tjlrstform) 


1 


habia sldOy / had been. 


hubiera sido* / ] 


3 


habiassldOy thou hadst been. 


hubieras std<H Aou 


1 


habia sldo^ he had been. 


hubiera sido* he 




V. habia sido, you had been. 


V. hubiera side, you 


5 


habiamos sldo» we had been. 


hubi^ramos sldOy we 


■ % 


habiais sido, ye had been. 


hubi^rals sldOy ye 




habian sidOy they had been. 


hubieran sido* they 




W habian sido, you had been. 


W. hubieran sido, you 




• 


Past Antbrior. 


Plupbrpbct {jtecond /orm\ 


. 


hube sldOy (when) / had been. 


hublese sido» / 


3 


hublste sldo» thou hadst been. 


hubieses sldOy thou 


M 

t 


hubo sidoy he had been. 


hubiese sido, he 


**• 


V. hubo sido, you had been. 


V. hubiese sido, you 


w* ■ 


hubimos sido*. we had been. 


hubi^semot sido, we 




hubf nteis sidOy ye had been. 


hubi^els sido* ye 


1 


hubieron sidOy they had been. 


hubiesen sido, they 


«• 

n 

^j^ 


VV. hubieron sido, you had been. 


W. hubiesen sido, you 


• 


Futurx Perfect. 


Future Perfect. 




habr^ sido, I shall 




hubiere sido* / 


^ 


habr&s sid<H thou wilt 




hubieres sido* thou 




habrA sidOy he will 


>* 


hubiere sido, he 


^ 

^-_ 


V. habra sido, you will 


i 


V. hubiere sido, you 




habr^mos sido* we shall 


■r 


hubi^remos sido, we 


■ ^ 

<>• 


habr^ sido, y^ wiU 


• 


hubi^reis sido, ye 


15 


habdln sido* they will 




hubieren sldo, they 




W. habran «i!do, you will 




W. hnbieren sido, you 




• 



196 



Form and Inflection. 



iBdiMtlTe Mod*. 



CoNDiTloMAL Past {apcdotit). 
habrfa aldOy / shauid 



thou wouldst 
he would 
you would 



habrfas sldoy 
habrfa sIdOy 
V. habr(a sMo, 
habrfanuM sido» we should 
habrfals sldo^ ye would 
habrfan sldOy they would 
W. habrCan sido, you would 



r 



SubJimetiTe MoAe. 



Conditional Past {^ettuu), 

hubl«ra ^rhubiese 
httbleras i>r hubieses 
hubftera or hublese 
V. hnbien or hubiese 
hubl^ranMM ^rrhubi^Minos 
hubl^raU ^hubl^sels 
hnblenui or hubiesen 
W. httbieran i^ hubiesen 



s 
(^ ss. 



CONJVOATIOX OF THE PA8SIYB TEBB, 



386. 8er llamndo, to be called. 



SIMPLE 


TENSES. 


InfinitiTe Mode. 


Gerund. 


(UamadOya, 
ser i „ ^ lo be called, 
{ llamadosy as. 


. llamadO) a, 
siendo „ ^ being called. 
Uamadosy as, ) ^ 


Absolute Pa^ 


It Participle. 


UamadOy a; UamadoSy 


aSy having been called. 


Indicative Mode. 


Subjunctive Mode. 


PRESBX4T. 

**Iam called;' etc., 

soy llamado, a. 
eres Uamado^ a. 
es Uamadoy a. 
somos llamadosy as. 
sois llamadoSy as. 
son llamadosy as. 


Present. 
*^Imay be called^* etc., 
sea llamadOy a. 
seas llamadOy a. 
sea llamadOy a. 
seamos llamadoSy as. 
seais llamadoSy as. 
sean Ilamadofly as« 



The Verb. 



197 



lAdioatlTe Mode. 


SnbJmietlTe Mode. 


luPKKrBCT. 

era llaxnado, a. 
6rainos llamadoey as. 


• 
Impbrfbct (Jirsi/orm), 

"/ mighl be called," etc., 
f uera UaroadOy a. 
fa^ramos llamadosy as. 


Past DEnmTB. 
"/ was called^* etc., 
fui llamadOy a. 
fuimos llamadofly as. 


Impbrpbct {teeomd/orm), 
**/ might be called," etc., 
fnese llamadoy a. 
fuimos llamadosy as. 


Firruss. 
''I shall be called:' 

ser^ llamadOy a. 
ser^mos llamados, as. 


FUTVRX* 

**r should be called," etc., 
fuere llamadOy a. 
ftt^emos Uamadosy as. 


Com»-noNAL {jap0dtuU\ 
*" I should b< calUd,*" 

seria Uamadoy a. 
seriamos Uamados, as. 


. CoNDiTiOHAL (JraUuit). 

(If) «/ vfere caUed," 
fuera or fuese llamadOy a. 
fu^ramos or fu^semos llamados, as. 


TmperatHne Mode. 


s^ llamadO) a, be called, 

sea UamadOy a, lei him be called. 


seamos llamados, as, let us be 1 
sed llamados, as, be 
sean Uamados, as, let them be 




COMPOUND TBNS£S. 


( llamadOy a^ ) 
Inflnltiye Pa«t : — haber sido { ,, , lo have been called. 

{ llamadosy as, ) 

( llamadOy a« ') 
Ctorund Past : — habiendo sido { .1 j } having been called, 

( llamadosy as, ) ^ 


Indicative Mode. 


Subjunctive MiMle. 


Past Indbpinitb. 
**Ihave been called;* 
he sido llamado, a. 
hemos sido llamadoSy as. 


Past Indefinite. 
**/ may have been called" 
hay a sido llamadOy a. 
hayamos sido llamados, as. 



198 



Form, and Inflection. 



I»dleii*lv« Mode. 


8iib|«netlv« Miade. 1 


Plupkrpsct. 


Pluperfbct (Jirst form). i 


^'I had been called;' 


"/ might have been called" 1 


hab{a sido Uamado» s« 


hubiera sido llamado^ a. 1 


habiamos sido Uamadofl, as. 


hubi^ramos sido UamadoSy as* 1 


Past AimnoK. 


Pldpkbfbct {second form), 1 


(When) "I had been calUd;' 


*</ might have been calUd,'' 1 


habe sido UamadOy a. 


hubiese side Uamado, a. 1 


hubimos sido Uamadosy as. 


hiibi6»mos sido Uamados, as. / 


FUTURK PeKFECT. 


FUTUBB PbBFBCT. 1 


** I shall have been caUed," ' 


"/ should have been calUd;* 




hahr^ sido llamadOy a. 


hubiere sido Uamado, a. 




habr^mos sido llamadosy as. 


. hubi^mos sido UamadoSy as. 




COMDITIONAL PAST {a^OtUuts). 


CoiiDrnoNAL Past {prvtasit). 




** I should have been called^* 


(If) "/ had been calUd^' 




habria sido llamadOy a. 


hubiera or bubiese sido llama- 




habrCamos sido Uamadosy as. 


d<H a. [llamadosy as. 
hubi^ramos or hubiesemos sido. 





Remarks on the PaasiTO. 



387. The passive participle is varied like any adjective 
in o, and agrees in gender and number with the subject 
of the verb : — 



el nifio es amado de todos, 
la nifia es mimada del ama, 
estos hombres han sido siempre 

muy estimadosy 
las sefioras habrfan sido mis 
consideradas, si no hubiesen 
tenido tanto orguUo y vanidad, 



the boy is loved by all. 

the babe is petted by the nurse. 

these men have always been very 
much esteemed. 

the ladies would have been more 
highly respected, if they had 
not had such pride and vanity. 



Remark. — The past participle with haber is not variable ; hence 
sido and estado — which are never conjugated with ser^- are incapable 
,of any change for gender and number. The same is the case with 



The Verb. 



199 



kab.do as an auxiliary ; but when it has the meaaiagof aa iiidq)eiident 
verb and may be inflected ia the passive with j/r, or when it is used 
absolutely, it assumes the regular variations of gender and number : — 



no pudieroa ser habidoSi habi- 
. das, 

habido consejo, 
habida cohsulta, 
habidas las mujeres. 



they (men or women) could not 

be apprehended, 
counsel having been taken, 
a consultation having been held, 
the women having been taken. 



. 38a ^^, after passive verbs and participles, is ren- 
dered by por when agency is denoted, and by de when 
the verb expresses feeling or emotion ; — 



este irbol ha sido plantado por 
mi padre, 

fulano como escritor es estimado 
de muchos, 

comenc^ d pasearme como un 
conde, hontado de nils ami- 
gos, temido de mis enemigos, 
y acariciado de todos, 



this tree was set out by my Ei- 
ther. 

so and so, as a writer, is esteemed 
by m^ny, 

I began to parade about like an 
carl, honored by my friends, 
dreaded by my foes, and 
fawned upon by all. 



AVhen the verb to be, with a past participle, 
expresses accidental state or situation, it must be 
translated by estar or one of its substitutes. The past 
participle is then considered to be employed as an 
adjective: — 



'divididos eataban caballetos y 

escuderos, 
la obra est^ ya concluida. 



knights and esquires .were 
. , ; grouped apart. 

the work is already finished. 



a. Substitutes of estar are, ir and andar, to go; 
qaedar. and qnedarse, to remain ; encontraxBe and 
hallarse, tofindone^s self; versd, to see one's self; etc., 
all of which, thus employed, have the signification of 
to be^ taken in a transitory or accidental sense : — 



200 



Form and Inflection. 




las caUes aadaban revueltas» 
qiied6 satisfecho de mi con- 

ducta, 
mm Tf aislado de todos» 



the streets were in an uproar, 
he was satisfied with my beha* 

vior. 
I was isolated from everybody. 



39a In general, x^r is the only verb that serves to form 
the true passive voice in Spanish, and estar the only one 
of the two that unites with the gerund to make up the 
progressive form of the active voice. Aside from these 
constructions, the use of ser and estar is to be carefully 
distinguished: — 



esta obra ha Bide tndiioida del 

Ingles, 
dicha obra ^mtk mal traduoidat, 
este libro ba side impreao en 

el siglo pasado, 
me parece que anda impreaa 

una traduccion de dlcho libro, 



this work has been trandated 

from the English, 
the said work is poorly translated, 
this book was printed in the last 

century, 
it appears to me that a version of 

said book is in print. 



Remark. — Estar is, however, frequently found employed in the 
absolute sense of *Uo be,*^ reflecting the force of its Latin origin 
■tare, to stand: — 

%aXA visto, it is {stands) evident. \ Mtii daro» it is clear. 

391. With other words than participles^ the radical 
distinction in the use of ser and estar may be summed 
up as follows : — 

a, Ser expresses what is essential and inherent, hence 
permanent and absolute : — 

€i es Ingles, Espafiol, 
la casa es de piedra, 
Bomoa amigos suyos, 
yo soy cojOf til eres ciego, 
V. 68 rico, yo soy pobre, 
no son felices, si bien estto 
contentos por ahora» 



he is an Englishman, a Spaniard, 
the house is of stone, 
we. are friends of his. 
I am lame, thou art blind, 
you are ridi, I am poor, 
they are not happy, although 
pleased for the moment. 



The Verb. 



20I 



b. EstoTy on the contrary, denotes an accidental, a 
transitory, situation or state: — 



el Ingles estd en Espafia, 
la puerta estaba cerrada, 
el rio estaba helado, 
la copa eaXA llena, 
estar^n aquf mafiana, 
estuTO de buen humor, 

son buenos ; eatAn buenos, 

ea tnalo ; eatd tnalo, 

ea alto ; emtk alto, 

ea triste ; eatd triste, 

ea cansado ; eat4 cansado, 

ea callado ; eaXA callado, 

el cuarto ea c6modo — eatii 

limpio, 
la mujer es loca — eatii loca, 
el mar ea inmenso ; la mar eat4 

plcada (94) • [caliente, 

el yelo ea frio; el agua eat4 



the Englishman is in Spain. 

the door was shut. 

the river was frozen. 

the goblet is full. 

they will be here to-morrow. 

he was in good spirits. 

they are good ; they are well. 

he is bad ; he is ill. 

he is tall ; he is high. 

he is dull ; he is sad. 

he is wearisome ; he is tired. 

he is close-mouthed — silent. 

the room is convenient — Is 

clean, 
the woman is crazy— is frantic, 
the sea is immense; the sea is 

rough, 
ioe is cold; the water is hot. 



Remark. — ZSstar in its accidental sense may often be translated 
by its original meaning of to stand. ** To stand" or •* stand up," 
referring to posture, is expressed hy ponerse de w en pU {^.c^oxi) ^ 
and estar de or en pii (state) : — 



estuvo d la puerta, 

al entrar la dama, se puso de 

pi^, 
estuvo en pi^ largo rato pensando. 



he stood at the door. 

as the lady came in, he stood up 

(arose), 
he stood up a long time thinking. 



The B«ll«xtv« Ccmjiigatioii* 



392. A reflexive verb is one that is conjugated with a 

pronoun-object relating to the same person or thing as 

the subject : — 

^ [self. 

yo me liaonjtfo ; €i ae engafiai, | I flatter myself ; he deceives him- 



202 



Farmland Inflection, 



Any transitive verb may assume the reflexive 
form : — 

a. With the pronominal object in the accusati'ue^ 
provided the verb naturally takes an accusative of the 
person : — 



le alabo ; se alaba, 
meengafia; me engaflo, 



I praise him ; he praises himself, 
he deceives me ; I deceive myself. 



b. With the pronominal object in the dative, provided 
the verb naturally takes the dative of the person and 
accusative of the thing: — 

te atribuyes el poder, 



[power. 
I thou assumest (to thyself) the 



Remark. — Under this rule belongs also a kind of ethical dative, 
which adds energy to the phrase, and may be omitted : — 



me tomo la libertad de . . . , 
se compra nna prenda, 



I take (for myselO the liberty to. . . . 
he buys (for himself) a garment. 



394. Many transitive verbs are made intransitive by 
assuming the reflexive form: — 



abri6 la puerta; la puerta ae 

abri^ [rompi6, 

rompi6 el vasp; el vaso ae 

▼ende los libros; los buenos 

Ijbros ae venden caro, 
ahog6 su dolor ; me ahogo, 
hace alguna cosa; no sabe lo 
que ae hace, 



he opened the door; the door 
opened. [broke. 

he broke the glass; the glass 

he sells the books ; good books 
sell dear. 

he drowned his grief; I suffocate. 

he makes something; he does 
not know what be does. 



395. Intransitive verbs often become reflexive with 
modified significations, the pronominal object frequently 
assuming an adverbial force ; — - 

dormir; dormirse, 
sale ; el cubo ae sale, 
muere ; ae muere, 



voy» or marcho, 



to sleep ; to go to ^eep. 
he goes out ; the. pail leaks, 
he dies ; he is dying. 
I go, 1 march. 



The Verb, 



203 



me voy or me tnarcho, 
vei>; T^nta, 
cae ; se cae. 



i go off tfT away, 
come ; come along, 
he falls ; it falls down. 



\ 396. Many verbs have in Spanish the reflexive form 

only : — 



alegrarse; arrepentinia 
burlarse; digoarae, 
figurarse; quejarse, 



to rejoice ; to repent, 
to laugh at ; to deign, 
to imagine ; to complain. 



397. Many verbs that are reflexive in Spanish are 
expressed in English by the formal passive, and some 
by both the reflexive and the passive : — 



disgustarse; equlvocarse, 

llamarse, 

engafiarse. 



to be displeased ; to be mistaken, 
to call one^s self ^r to be called, 
to deceive one^s self,, to be de- 
ceived. 



39a Model verb — alabarae, to praise ones self. 



8TMPIJE TKN8E8. 


InfiattHra. 


• 

Ctainmd* 


alabarse^ io praise onis self. 


alabandose^ praising one's self. 


indlcatlTe Mode. 


SabjiinctlTe Mode. 


Present. 
** I praise myself*' etc., 
me alabo. 

• 

te alabas. 
86 alaba. 
V. 86 alaba. 
BOS alabamos. 
08 alabab. 
86 alaban. 
. . .VV. 86 alaban, 


Present. 
**I may praise myself'* etc., 
me alabe. 
te alabes. 
86 alabe. 
V. 86 alabe. 
nos alabemos. .. 
08 alabeis. 
86 alaben. 
vy. 89 alaben.. . 



204 



Form and Inflection. 



Impbrpbct. 
**/ was Raiting myseifi' etc^ 
me alababa. 
te alababas. 
M alababa. 
V. M alababa, etc. 

Past DsnNiTB. 
** J praised myself,** etc., 
me alab^. 
te alabaste. 
ae alab6. 
V. te alabd, eic, 

FUTUIIB* 

'*IshaU^aise myself^* etc., 
me alabar^. 
te alabaras. 
ae alabari. 
V. ae alabara, etc. 

Conditional {a^edtuis), 
**I should praise myself,** etc., 
me alabaria. 
te alabaHas. 
aeaUbaria. 
V. ae alabarfa, etc. 



Sabjnnotlv* Mode. 



Impbrpbct {Jirst /(9trm). 
**/ might praise myself,* etc, 
me alabara. 
te alabaras. 
ae alabara. 
V. ae alabara, etc, 

iMrVRFBCT {jitcand form), 
"/ might praise myself^* etc., 
mealabase. 
te alabases. 
ae alabase. 
V. ae alabase, etc. 

FUTURB. 

*^ I should praise myself" etc, 
me alabare. 
te alabares. 
ae alabare. 
V. ae alabare, etc. 

Conditional {protatit). 
(If) *"/ praised myself** etc., 
me alab*ara, -ase. 
te alab-aras, -ases. 
ae alab-ara, -ase. 
V. ae alab-ara, -ase, etc. 



ImperaUve Mode. 



Singular. 



al&bate^ praise thyself 
aUbeae^ let him praise himself 
alibeae \,^ praise yourself. 



no te alabes, do not praise thyself 
no ae alabe, let him not p, himself 
no ae alabe V., do not p. yourself 



Plukal. 

alab^monoay let us praise ourselves, 
alabioa, praise yourselves. 
aldbenae, let them praise themselves. 
al&benae Wty praise yourselves. 

no noa alabemos, let us not p. o. s. 
no oa alabeis, do not praise y. s. 
no ae alaben, let them not p. th. s. 
no ae alaben W., do not p. y. s. 



The Verb. 



205 



OOMFOUHD TEN8KS. 



Infiniti-re Pact. 



haberae alabado, to have Raised 
om^s self. 



habi^ndoM mUbado, having praited 
&n^s self. 



IndicatlTe Mode. 



Past IicDsninTB. 

"/ have praised myself** etc., 
me he alabado. 
te has alabado. 
se ha alabado. 
V. se ha alabado. 
nos hemos alabado. 
OB habeis alabado. 
Be han alabado. 
W. ae han alabado. 

Plupbrpbct. 

** I had praised myself * etc., 
me habia alabado. 
te habias alabado, eU, 

"Past AinsRios. 

(When) *" I haipraised myself etc., 
me hube alabado. 
te hubiste alabado, etc, 

FuTURB Perfect. 

^ I shall have praised my ielf* etc., 
me habr^ alabado. 
te habras alabado, etc, 

ComHTioHAL Past {^mtatlt), 

** I should have praised myself * etc., 
me habria alabado. 
te habrCas alabado, etc. 



SabJnnetlTe Mode. 



Past iNDBnMiTm. 

"/ may have praised myself* etc., 
me haya alabado. 
te hayas alabado. 
se haya alabado. 
y. ae haya alabado. 
noa hayamos alabado. 
oa hayais alabado. 
ae hayan alabado. 
W. ae hayan alabado, etc» 

Pluperfect (JSrstform). 

** I might have praised myself * etc., 
me hubiera alabado. 
te hubieras alabado, etc, 

Plupbrpbct (steondform). 

** I mi^ have praised myself* etc., 
me hubiese alabado. 
te hubieses alabado, etc. 

Future Perfect. 

** I should have praised myself* etc., 
me hubiere alabado. 
te hubieres alabado, etc, 

CoNDiTioirAL Past (a/MAunr). 

{Uy I had praised myself* etc., 
me hubiera or hubieses alabado. 
te hubieras or hubieses alabado, etc. 



^ 



206 



Form and Inflection. 



>. Model verb — figurarse, to fancy {to ones se(f)\ 
to imagine. 



SIMPLB TENSEar 

1 <- J ■ 


laflaltive Mode. 


GemiMU 


figurane^./tf imagine. 


figurind(me9. itnagining. 


Indicative Mode. 


SubJunctiTe Mode. 


PRBSBNT. 

me 6guro, / imagine, 
te figuras, thou iniaginest, 
•e figura, he imagines, 
V. se figura, you imagine, 
nofl figuramos, we imagine, 
oi figurais, ye imagine, 
86 figuran, they imagine* 
W. 86 figuran, you imagine, 

Impbrfbct. 
me figuraba, / was imagining. 

Past Dbpinitb. 
me figur^, / imagined, 

FUTURB. 

me figurar6, I shall imagine. 

Conditional {apodasis). 
me figuraria, / should imagine. 

m 


Prbsbmt. 

me Hjgure, I may imagine, 
te figures, thou mayst imagine, 
86 figure, he may imagine. 
Y, 86 figure, you may imagine. 
no8 figuremos, we may imagine. 
08 figureis, ye may imagine, 
86 figuren, tliey may imagine, 
W. 86 figuren,>'<7» may imagine, 

Impbrfbct (JSrsi/orm). 
me figurara, I might imagine, _ 

Impbspbct {^seeoud form), 
me 6gurase, / might imagine, 

FUTURB. 

me figurare, / should imagine. 

Conditional {pnOasts). 
me figur-ara, -ase, (if) / imagined. 


Imperative Mode. 


Singular. 

figdrate» imagine (Jhpu). 
figdrese^ lei him imagine, 
figdrese V,fimiifgi$te, 


Plurau 
6gur^inono89 let us imagine, 
figuraosy imagine (ye). 
figliren869 ^l ^^ imagine, 
figdrenae W., imagine. 



The Verb.< 



fe07 



\mpmttMw9 Mode* 


Singular. 


Plural. 




no nos figuremos, let us not imagine. 
no OS figureis, imagine {ye) not. 


no te figures, imagine (Jhou) not. 


no se figure, lei him not imagine. 


no se figuren, let them not imagine. 


no se figure V., do not imagine. 


no se figuren W., do not imagine. 


COMPOUKB TEK8SS. 


InflnltlTe Past. 


Oemnd Past. 


faaberse fignrado, to have imagined. 


habi^ndose figurado, having imag- 
ined. 


IndlcatlTe Mode. 


SubJimetlTe Mode. 


Past IUdbfinitx. 


Past iNDEnNiTs. 


me he figurado, / 




me haya figurado, / 


3 


te has figurado, thou 


t 


te hayas figurado, thou 


^l 


se ha figurado, he 


% 


se haya figurado, he . 




V. se ha figurado, you 


s- 


V. sf haya figurado, you 


:; 


nos hemes figurado, we 




nos hay&mos figurado, we 


■«• 


OS habeis figurado, ye 




OS hay&is figurado, ye 


1 


se han figaiado, they 


^ 


se hayan figurado, they 


1 


W. se han figurado, you 




W. se hayan figurado, you 


f>. 


Pluperfect. 


Pluperfect {Jirst/orm). 


me habia figurado, I had imagined. 


me hubiera figurado, I mi^ have 
imagined. 


Fast Anterior. 


Pluperfect {second form). 


me hube figurado, (when) / had 
imagined. 


me hubiese figurado, / might have 
imagined. 


Future Pbrpbct. 


Future Perfect. 


'. me hahr£ figurado, / sha/i have 
imagined. 


me hubiere figurado, I should have 
imagined. 


Conditional Past (a/odasit). 


Conditional Past {^rotiuu). 


: me habrfa figurado, / should have 
imagined. 


me hub-iera, -iese figurado, (if) / 
had imagined. 



208 



Form and Inflection. 



Bemarloi mk. the R<iflwri-re T«r1>. 

40a The pronoun-subject of the reflexive verb should 
be expressed when emphasis or contrast require it ; but 
in the interrogative conjugation it must never intervene 
between the compound forms of the verb. Its ordinary 
position may be best gathered from a few examples : — f 



WITHOUT A KKOATION. 



Interrogative. 



Present. 



"/ imagine,^* etc., 
yo me figuro. 
t6 te Hguras. 
vofl OS figurais (§ i8i). 
^1 se figttra. 
eUa se figura. 

vno se figura, or se figura uno. 
V. se figura, or se figura V. 

nosotros > 

. \ nos figuramos. 

nosotras ) -* 

VOSOtFOl ) 

. \ OS figurais. 

eUo8 ) - 

VV. se figuran, or se figuran W. 



**Do I imagine?'^ etc., 
^me figuro yo? 
£te figuras t6? 
£os figurais vos? 
£se figura ^1? 
£se figura eUa? 
^se figura uno? 
£se figura v.? or ^V.se figura? 

r nosotros ? 

inos figuramos }^^^^^ 

VOSOtEOS? 

vosotras? 

f eUos ? 

;se figuran i „ « r/- 

^ ^ (eUas? [figuran? 

£se figuran W.? or ^W. se 



^os 



figurais I 



Past Indefinite. 



"/ have imagined^** etc., 
yo me he figurado. 
t6 te has figurado. 
vos OS habeis figurado. 
^1 se ha figurado. 
eUa se ha figurado. 
uno se ha figurado. [rado V. 
V. se ha figurado, or se ha figu- 



^Have I imagined f " etc., 
£me he figurado yo? 
£te has figurado t6? 
^os habeb figurado vos? 
£se ha figurado ^? 
^se ha figurado eUa? 
^se ha figurado uno? 
£se ha figurado V.? etc. 



The Verb. 



209 



Past IUDsmaTB {continued), 
^ JVe have imagined" etc., 



I DOS hemos figurado. 
{oshabeis6«ur«do. 



nosotroft 
nosotras 
^osotroi 
TOBOtras 

I se han figurado. 

W. se han 6gurado, ^ se han 
figurado W. 



^Havt we imagined t " etc., 

, £ J I noaotpoi ? 

/nos hemos ngurado { ^^ ^ 

<oahabe«figurado{^^^^^^^ 

f «llos? 

fsehanfiguiadoj^^^^ 

£se han figurado W.? eU, 



SiNGULAK. 



figtfrate t6. 
fignraos Vos. 
figdrese ^1, eUa, uno. 
figdrese V* 



Plurau 

figur^monos nosotros, 
figuraos vOBOtrofl. 
figuraos voBOtras. 
figdrense ellos, -as. 
figdrense W. 



iriTH A NSGATITIB. 



Aillniiative. 



InterrogatiTe. 



*^I do not imagine^* etc., 
yo BO me figuro. 
t6 DO te fignras. 
^l no se figura. 

V. no se figura, tfrno M figura V. 
noftotroB no nos figuramos. 
vosotros no os Bgurais. 
^os no se figuran. [ran W. 
W. no se figuran, or no se Hgu- 



*^Do I noi imagine T ** etc., 
^no me figuro yo? 
^ no te figuras t6 ? 
^ no se figura ^1 ? 
^nose figura v.? 
^no nos figuramos nosotros ? 
^no OS figurais vosotros? 
^ no se figuran ellos ? 
^no se figuran W.? 



I 



210 



Farmland lufiection. 



AAmuittvtt. 


Ibitorrosaltve. 


Past Imdefikitb. 


^ I have not imagined" etc.. 


''Nave I nci inu^nedV' etc.. 


yo BO me he 6gurado. 


^no me he figurado yo? 


Ul no te has figurado. 


^no te has figurado ^? 


^1 no se ha figurado. 


^no se ha figurado ^? 


V. BO se ha figurado. ' f rado. 


^no se ha figurado V.? 


nosotros no nos hemos figa- 


^ no nos hemos figurado noaotras? 


vosotroft no os habeis figurado. 


^ no OS hdbeis figurado vo$olro0 ? 


ellos no se han figurado. 


^no se han figurado ellos? 


W. no se han figurado. 


4 ; no se han figurado W.? 


.iB&IMrAtlv^ Mode* 


^INGULAK. 


1 
, Plusal. 


• 


no no figuremos nosotros. J 


no te figures t6. 


no OS figuc^is vosotros. \ 


no se figure ^L 


no se figuren ellos. > 


n,o se figure V* 


.no se figuren W. 

* 



401. The pronoun-object regularly stands before the 
jfinite verb in all conditions of a sentence. In the literary 
style, however, it may be attached to the verb in the 
jsimple tenses, and to the auxiliary* in the compound 
iterises, when the verb begins a phrase ; biit in such 
position of the object, the subject must take its place 
iafter the verb or participle : — • 

equivoqu^me (yo), 
equivocdse (^1), 
h^me equivocado (yo), 
hise equivocado (^1), 

Remark. — In quaint, archaic language, the auxiliary and parti- 
ciple often change places, and the reflexive pronoun is attached to 
;the participle : — 



I made a mistake, 
he made a mistake. 
I have made a mistake, 
he has made a mistake. 



L 



The Verb. 



211 



** alegrAdome he con la biiena 
nueva que me ha venido ; d la 
casa del Seflor ir^mos," 



Irejoice at the glad tidings that 
have reached me ; we will go 
to the house of the Lord. 



The hist words of Fray Luis de Granada^ 1588. 

402. The reflexive object is regularly attached to the 
infinitive and gerund, whether the phrase is affirmative 
or negative ; the pronoun-subject, however, is more often 
placed after these forms : — 



venue yo,y»r me to see myself, 
verse 4ii,for him to see himself! 
haberme visto y o, for me to have 

seen myself 
habene visto €i^for him to have 

seen himself 

no verse A, for him not to see 

himself 
no haberse visto 4ii,for him not 

to have seen himself 



vi^ndome yo, T seeing myself, 
vi^ndbse A, he seeing himself, 
habi^ndome visto yo, / having 

seen myself 
habi^ndose visto 4 he having 

seen himself 

no vidndose 4 he not seeing him- 
self 

no habi^ndoee visto Hit he not 
having seen himself 



403. The first person plural of the imperative sup- 
presses the s of the verb-ending when the pronominal 
object is attached to it: — 



i. figurtoonos /iv figur^moxnos, 
3. entenddmonos for entendimomos, 
3. arrepinUmonosy^r arrepintdmo^nos, 



let us imagine, [selves. 
let us understand our- 
let us repent. 



but no nos figuremoj, entendamox, arrepintamox. 

404. The second person plural of the imperative loses 
its d before the attached pronoun-object :—- 



1. figurdos for figura^os, 

2. entenddos for entende^os, 

3. arrepentiois/^ arrepentii/os, 



imagine ye. 
understand yourselves, 
repent ye. 



Except the imperative of irse^ — Wos, go away. 



212 



Form and Inflection, 



409. The reflexive verb may be strengthened by the 
repetition of the pronoun-object in the prepositional 
case joined to the adjective mismo, a, or propio, a, 
self: — 



yo me alabo 4 mi mismo* 
ella se jacta de si misma, 
VV. se burlan de si mismos, 
vosotros OS burlais de ▼osotros 
mismoB, [noeotroe mismos, 
nosotros nos hemos perdido k 
td te engafias k M propio, 



I praise myself, 
she boasts of herself, 
you laugh at yourselves, 
ye laugh at yourselves. 

we have ruined ourselves, 
thou deceivest thyself. 



Speelftl Uses of the BaflezlTe. 

406. Verbs that in Spanish are permanently reflexive, 
with an active or neuter signification in English, may, 
besides the personal inflection, be conjugated imper- 
sonally with se, itself, the dative pronoun serving to 
distinguish the person : — 



me figdro, I 


<-> 


' or se me figdra. 




' I imagine. 


te figuras, 


f 

3 


or se te figura. 


^ 


tfiou imaginest. 


se iigura, 


or se le figura, 


I 


he imagines. 


v. se Bgura, 


S 


or se le figura d V., 


.1. 


you imagine. 


nos figuramoB, 


1 


or se nos figura. 




we imagine. 


OS figurais. 


r? 


or se OS figura. 


g 


ye imagine. 


se Hguran, 


& 


or se les figura. 




they imagine. 


VV. se figuran, 


• 


or se les figura d VV^ ^ 


• 


you imagine. 


me he figurado, 


or se me ha figurado. 




I have imagined. 


te has figurado, 


or se te ha figurado, 




thou hast imagined. 


se ha figurado. 


or se le ha figurado. 




he has imagined. 


v. se ha figurado, 


or se le ha figurado d "^ 


v^ 


you have imagined. 


nos hemos figurado. 


or se nos ha figurado. 




we have imagined. 


OS habeis figurado, 


or se OS ha figurado, 




ye have imagined. 


se han figurado. 


or se les ha figurado. 




they have imagined. 


VV. se han figurado. 


or se les ha figurado d 


w. 


, you have imagined. 



The Verb. 



213 



me olvid^, 
te olvidaste, 
se olvid6, etc., 

me liabfa olvidado, 
te habias olvidado, 
se habfa olvidado, ete,^ 


or se me olvid6, I forgot, 

«r se te olvid6, tkou didst forget, 

or le le olvid6, ^/r., he forgot^ etc. 

or ge me habta olvidado, I had forgotten, 
or se te hab(a olvidado, thou hadst forgotten. 
^r se le habCa olvidado, ete^t he had forgotten, etc. 



407. In Spanish, the formal passive is comparatively 
little used at the present day, other less cumbersome 
constructions being better adapted to the genius of that 
language. Hence : — 

4oa The passive voice may be replaced by the re- 
flexive verb used personally : — 



el libro se pablic6, 
la voz 86 repiti6, 
su gloria se ver^ 
el dinero se gaii6, se perdid, 
ellos se engafian mucho, 
las casas se ban ▼endido, 
eso no se puede deoir, or 
eso no puede decirse, 



die book was issued, 
the voice was repeated, 
his glory will be seen, 
the money was won, was lost, 
they are greatly deceived, 
the houses have been sold, 
that cannot be said, or 
you cannot say that. 



a. In public announcements, the verb to be of the 
passive is usually omitted in English, while, in Spanish, 
the reflexive, which always replaces it in such cases, is 
given in full : — 



aquf 86 habla EspafLol, 

Be casnbia todaclase de moneda, 

00 compran valores de la d^uda 

pdblica, 
■e liaeen cobros y pagos, 
ie oonfeooioiian taijetas y fiic* 

turas en el acto, 



Spanish (is) spoken here. 

all kinds of coin (are) exchanged. 

government securities (are) 

bought, 
collections and payments made, 
cards and billheads made up 

without delay. 



214 



Form and. Inflection, 



mm garantlma el trabajo, 
■• oierrft los Dommgos, 
■e prohiba fijar carteles, 
no mm ftdmiten imposiciones 
despues de las cuatro, 



work warranted, 
closed on Sundays, 
••post no bills." 
no deposits received after 
o^dock. 



409. The passive voice may also be replaced by the 
reflexive verb used impersonally : — 



it is said : it has been said. 

I am deceived. 

I have been deceived. 

he is allowed ; he was allowed. 

we had been deceived. 

they will have been allowed. 



■•. dice ; se ha dioho, 

se me engalia, 

■• me ha engafiado^ 

■e la permlta; ae le pamiltld, 

se noa habia engafiado, 

se lea habr^ permitido, 

UteraUy: it says itself, it has said itself, it deceives itself to me, 
it has deceived itself to me, etc. 

410. The reflexive used impersonally is a substitute 
of the third person plural active, and is preferred when 
a vague or indirect reference to persons is desirable. 
This favorite construction has grown out of the national 
propensity to equivocation : •^— 



no ae me entiende 

(<?r no me entienden)^ 
ae le mand6 salir 

{or le ntandaron salir), 
ae me dioe 

{or me dicen)^ 
ae me ha dioho 

{or me han dicho). 



I am not understood 

(Fr. onneme comprendpas) . 
he was ordered to go out 

(Fr. onlui or donna desortir), 
I am told 

(Fr. on ttu dit). 
I have been told 

(Fr. on m^adit). 



Remark. — It is customary to regard this j^ as an indefinite 
subject — they^ you^ one — like the French on (Jumtnu) and Ger? 
manic man] but an accusative cannot be a nominative^ and the 
only true explanation is to regard the verb, as it is, impersonal, 
re()resenting such Latin constructions as /iter, verttum est^ invidetur^ 
mikij etc. , : : • • ; 



The Verb. 



215 



411. So also in the redundant construction : — 



i A se le matd i. pedradas» 

(le mataron i. pedradas), 

A tales hombres se les engafia 

fiicilmente, [fdcilinente)» 

(d tales hombres it^ahan 

ii I08 bnenoB prfncipes no se 

lea ha de perder la vergiienza, 

d nadie se le puede imputar esta 

fealdad. 



he was stoned to death, 

(they stoned him to death) . 
such men are easily deceived, ' 

[easily). 

(they deceive such men 

we are not to lose our respect for 

good princes, 
such a vile action can be imputed 
to no man. 



412. The following examples of passive constructions 
will serve to illustrate and fix the foregoing rules : * — 





\ soy engafiado, 






he sido engafiado, 




1. 


me '6ngafio, 
se me engafia. 




1. 


me he engafiado, 
se me ha engafiado. 






eres engafiado. 




• 


'has sido engafiado. 


« 


S. ' 


te engafias. 


• 


s. 


te has engafiado, 


• 


■ •'■ 


se te engafia. 




i 


> se te ha engafiado, ' 


• 


( es engafiado. 






'ha sido engafiado, - 


i 


8. -{ se engafia. 




3. 


se ha engafiado. 


S 


[ se le engafia^ 


^ 




se le ha engafiado, ^ 


C V. es engafiado, 


ft 




' V. ha sido engafiado. 


«v 


8. ■{ V. se engafia. 




3. 


V. se ha engafiado, 


r 


[^ se le engafia i V., 


1* 




se le ha engafiado k V., 






' somos engafiados, 


T 




hemos sido engafiados, 


"I" 


1. 


nos engafiamos. 


A 


1. 


nos hemos engafiado, 


r 


- 


[ se nos engafia. 






se nos ha engafiado; 


,2. 




' sois engafiados, 


• 




' habeis sido engafiados, 




a. 


OS engafiais, - 
se OS engafia. 




S. 


OS habeis engafiado, 
se OS ha engafiado, 


• 


f son engafiados, 






r han sido engafiados, 




3. ' se engafian, 
[ se les engafia, 


. 


3. 


se han engafiado, 








se les ha engafiado, 






' W. son engafiados. 






' W. han sido engafiados, 




3. ' 


W. se engafian. 




3. ^ 


W. se han engafiado. 






se les engafia i W., j 


^ ■ 




se les ha engafiado i W., 


■ • 



I 



2l6 



Form and Inflection. 



Raelprocal Verbs. 

4ia When reflexive verbs in the plural refer to two 
or more persons distributively, they are called reciprocal 
verbs, and the object-pronoun is rendered each other 
when two are indicated, and one another if reference is 
made to several : — 



nos alabamos, 
OS alabais, 
se aman, 
alab^monos, 
amdos el uno al otro, 
amdos los unos d los otros, 
dmense, or que se amen, 
estos dos hermanos se abra- 
zan carhlosamentc, 

todos los indivfduos de esta 
familia se quieren entrafia- 
biemente. 



we praise each other, &r one another. 

ye praise each other, or one another. 

they love each other, or one another. 

let us praise one another. 

love each other* 

love one another. 

let them love each other, etc, 

these two brothers (or this brother 

and sister [§ io6]) embrace each 

other affectionately, 
all the members of this family are 

passionately fond of one another. 



414. The reciprocal use of the reflexive verb may be 
strengthened by the term el uno — el otro, fern, la una 
— la otra ; lea nnoa — lea oXxoB^fent, laa nnaa — laa 
otras ; or uno — otro, etc. : — 



consoUos los nnos A los otros 

en estas palabras, 
no OS burleis los nnos de los 

otros, [con la otra, 

hijas, no os impacienteis la una 
veo que las dos hemos nacido 

la tina para la otra, 
sent^monos tino junto ^ otro, 
nos felicitardmos unos k otros 

con ese motivo, 



I 



comfort ye one another with 
these words. 

do not laugh at (make fun of) 
one another. 

children, don^t tease each other. 

I perceive that we two were born 
for each other. 

let us sit near each other. 

we shall congratulate one an- 
other on account of it. 



The Verb. 



217 



The Imperaoiml Verb. 

415. Impersonal verbs are properly such as are 
employed in the third person singular only. Their 
subject, which in English is it, cannot be expressed in 
Spanish when an operation of nature is described ; but 
otherwise, the neuter ello, //, that, is occasionally 
admissible if intensity or emphasis require : — 



nieva; truena; graniza, 
Ilueve; amanece; anochece, 

consta ; ello consta, 
importa ; eUo importa, 
ello es que ...» 



it snows ; it thunders ; it hails, 
it rains ; it dawns ; it grows dark. 

it is proven, or it is known, 
it is important, or it matters, 
the fact is that ... (it is that . . .). 



416. Impersonal verbs are inflected according to the 
conjugation indicated by their infinitive, to wit : — 



417. Nevar, nevando, nevado, to snow. 



Indicatlre Mode. 

nievay it snows. 
nevabay it was snowing. 
nev^ it snowtd. 
nevarA, it will snow. 
nevaria, it would snow. 



SubjanctiTe Mode. 



nievey 
nevara, 
nevasey 
nevaroy 



it may snow, 
it might snow, 
it might snow, 
it should snow. 



nevaray etc., (if) it snowed. 



ImpemliTe Mode t — iileve^ or que nieve, let it snow. 



IndicatiTe Mode. 

ha nevado, it has 
habla nevado, it had 
httbo nevado, (when) it had 
habrd nevado, it will have 
habria nevadOy it would have 






5^ 



SubJunctlTe Mode. 

haya nevado, it may 
hublera nevado, it might 
hublese nevado, // might 
hublere nevado, it should. 
hublera nevado, (if) it had s. 



Is- 



2l8 



Form and Inflection. 



4ia Uover, Uoviendo, Uovido, to rain. 



IndlcatlTe Mode. 

lluerey it rains, 
IlovSa, it was raining. 
llovl6^ it rained. 
lloverdy it will rain. 
Uoveria, it would rain. 



SabJnnctlTe Mode. 

llueTa, it may rain. 
IlOTlerSy it might rain. 
llovlese^ it might rain. 
llovlerey it should rain. 
llovleray (if) it rained. 



Imperatire Mode :— llueva, or que Ilueva, let it rain. 



Indicative Mode. 

ha llovidOy if has 
habfa llovldOy it had 
hubo lIoTldOy (when) it had 
habrd IlovtdOt it will have 
habHa UovldOy it would have 






Sabjanctive Mode. 

haya Ilovldo^ it may 
hublera Uovido, it might 
hublese IlovldOy it mi^ 
hublere Ilovldo» it should 
hublera IlovldOy (if) it had r. 






419. Amanecer, amaneciendo, amanecido, to dawn. 



IndioatiTO Mode. 


SabjunetlTe Mode. 


amanecey it dawns. 


amanezca (374), it may \ 


amanecia, // was dawning. 


amanecieray it, might 


1- 


amanecl^ it da^umed. 


amanecies^ it might 




ainaneceMy it will dawn. 


amaneclerey it should , 




amanecerla, it would dawn. 


amaneciera, (if) it dawned. 


ImperatiTe Mode: — que 


» amanezca, let it dawn. 



420. Verbs that are naturally impersonal may assume 
a personal signification and inflection : — 



amanecf en Cddiz, 
anocheoimos en Madrid, 



it was morning when / reached 

Cadiz. 
night had set in when we reached 

Madrid, or we reached Madrid 

at night. 



The Verb. 



219 



IloTlan palos sobre nosotros, 

dntes eran amigos ; pero hace un 
afio que tronaron, 



blows came down upon us in 

quick succession. 
they were formerly good friends ; 

but they fell out boisterously a 

year ago. 



421. Many personal verbis are temporarily employed 
in impersonal senses : — 



bastar, to be sufficient. . 
parecer, to appear. 
convenir, to agree, to suit. 

l>aBte decir, 
no oonvenia, 



basta, it suffices. 
parecOi it seems. 
coniriene, // suits ^ behoovis. 

let it suffice to say. 
it was not expedient. 



a. Such verbs may also be used in the third person 
plural as personal verbs : — 

explanations are not sufficient, 
the conditions appear to me (to 

be) severe, 
such measures will not suit me. 



no baiitan explicaciones, 
las condidones me pareoen du- 
ras, [das, 

no me oonvendr^ tales medi- 



422. A number of verbs are used only in the third 
persons singular and plural. Such properly belong to 
defective verbs : — 



— acaecen, ) 
acontece — aoontecen, j 



happens — happen. 



42a The English impersonal expression "// W is 
variously rendered in Spanish : — 

424. By es: — 

a. With adjectives, nouns, and adverbs. 

it is sure ; it is late. 



es cierto ; es tarde, 
es preciso ; es menester, 
es verdad ; es mentira, 
es de dia ; asf es, 



it is necessary. 

it is true ; it is false. 

it is daylight ; so it is. 



220 



Form and Inflection, 



b. To denote the hour, only when that is one or any 
of its divisions. With all other hours, " it is " must be 
expressed by son : — 

it is one — half past one. 



as la una — la una y media, 
■on las dos — las diez, 



it is two — ten (o'clock) . 



425. By estd^ to denote accidental state : — 

astA oscuro ; estA lloviendo, | it is dark ; it is raining. 

426. By kace: — 

a. When reference is made to the weather or tem- 
perature : — 



^qu^ tal tiempo haoe? 
haoe buen tiempo, 
haoe sol ; haoe aire, 
haoe frio ; haoe calor. 



what sort of weather is it? 
it is fine weather, 
it is sunny ; it is windy, 
it is cold ; it is warm. 



b. Idiomatically, with reference to time : — 
haoe ocho dias que no le veo, 



^cuinto tiempo haoe que tra- 
baja V. aquf? 



it is a week since I have seen 
him ; /.^., I have not seen him 
in a week. 

how long is it that you have been 
working here? /.^., how long 
have you been working here? 



427. By kayy with reference to distance : — 

^cuinto hay de aquf al palacio? | how far is it from here to the 

palace ? 

42a The English expressions "// w/," ^Htis thou^** "/V 
is he^' etc., are given in Spanish by the regular inflection 
of the verb "to be" with the subject-pronoun : — 

yo soy ; tti eres ; ^1 es, it is I ; it is thou ; it is he. 

^es ella? somos nosotroB, is it she? it is we. 

^son elloB? eUoB son, is it they? it is they. 



The Verb, 221 

a. The same construction obtains when a relative 

follows : — 

it is I who, <?r I am the one who. 
it is not we who, or we are not 
the ones who. 



yo soy qnien, or el qne, 
no somos nosotros los que, 



429. '' It is better *' is translated by mte vale^ it is 
worth more: — 



ni^ vale esquivarlo, 
voAb vale tarde que nunca, 
miui vale pdjaro en mano que 
buitre volando. 



it is better to evade it. 
(it is) better late than never, 
a bird in the hand is worth two 
in the bush. 



(Jiterally^ a bird in hand is better than a viilture on the wing.) 

IBKBOUI4AR VJSKB8* 

430. An irregular verb is properly one that deviates 
in any respect from the inflection of the regular models, 
hablar, contery and vivir. 

Remark. — There are a large number of irregular verbs in 
Spanish, — about 850, including compounds, — the most of which, 
however, are mere variations involving uniform laws of orthography 
and accent, to subserve the purposes of harmony, and to satisfy the 
national instinct for vowel-expansion. They may be easily reduced 
to a few classes with appropriate representatives, to which the general 
alphabetic Index of irregular verbs refers. Hence the following defi- 
nitions of technical terms, embracing principles of wide application, 
will greatly assist the learner to master quickly the whole subject. 

431. Irregular verbs are to be inflected, according to 
class and conjugation, on the three stems — present, 
preterit, and future — as bases. See § 360. 

432. The original stem of a verb is found by sup- 
pressing the characteristic inflnitive-ending. That of 
the future and conditional of the indicative (fatore 
8tem)> is the full infinitive itself (§§ 359; 359, ci) : — 



222 



Form and Inflection. 



bnso-ar, to look for, 
boso-d, he looked for. 



biuoar-^, fskall look for. 
bosoar-fa, I should look for. 



433. In the regular verb the original stem is the 
same throughout ; but in the irregular verb each group 
of tenses may have a distinct form of the original stem, 
or three distinct stems : — 



poder, to be able. 
original stem ^ pod; 
present stem, pod, pued ; 
preterit stem, pud; 
future stem, podr. 



ix, logo, 

original stem, i and va; 
present stem, i and v ; 
preterit stem,^«(verb/^^^); 
future stem, tr. 



434. Tonic Stems are such as have the primary stress 
or tonic accent upon them in any given form : — 



tftog-d, I have, 
tIBn-6s, thou hast, 
tI6n-€, he has. 
tI6n-€n, they have, 
tllT^, I had. 



Ting-5, I come, 
vfdn-^, thou comest. 
▼I§n-£, he comes. 
vI6ii-€n, they come. 
▼In-^, I came. 



435. Atonic Stems are such as have but a secondary 
accent, the primary stress being laid on the personal 
ending : — 



tSn-emos, we have, 
tSn-eis, ye have, 
tttv-Iste, thou hadst. 



rSn-Tmos, we come, 
rSn-fs, ye come, 
Tln-imos, we came. 



436 A stem-voiRrel is the characteristic vowel in 
any radical, and always stands nearest to the infinitive 
ending : — 

acert-ar, adquir-ir. | sonre-ir. | recost-ar, redargU-ir. 

437. Strong stems are those which are followed by 
endings beginning with, or consisting of, one of the 
strong vowels a or o\ — 



The Verb. 



223 



Ihdve, 
;-a, . / {may) have. 
;-ftmoB» let us have. 
o, he had. 



Teng-o, Tcofne, 
veng-aB, thou mayst come* 
veng-an, they may come. 
▼In-o, he came. 



43a Weak stems are those which are followed by 
endings beginning with, or consisting of, one of the 
weak vowels e or /: — 



dec-ir, to say, to teU, 
dec-imoB, we say — tell. 
dic-es, thou say est — tellest. 
dio-iendo, sayings telling. 



I rl-este ? dost thou laugh f 
se xi-en. they laugh. 
nos re-imoB, we laugh. 
sab-iendo, knowing. 



439. The following orthog^phic changes are to be 
noted : — 

Strong stems ending in z become weak stems ending in c. 



M 

M 



« 

M 



M 
«4 



© " M •• « . q„^ 

gu " " ** " ipi. 

Weak stems ending in c become strong stems ending in z. 



u 



u 



M 
M 
« 






«< 
« 



« 
« 



M 



M 



J- 



440. The expansion of a vowel into a diphthong may 
be called diphthongization. In verbs, the diphthong of 
the vowel a is ai ; that of ^, ie ; and of «?, tie. 

441. The diphthongs iV and id are said to be con- 
sonantized when the first vowel composing them is 
changed into y consonant, pronounced as in year. 

442. The diphthong ie is consonantized : — " 
a. When it is initial in a tonic stem : — 

err-ar — ierro, writteh yerro, but etx-dmos because atonic, 
ergu-ir — iergo, written yergo, but exe^-imos because atonic, 
ir — {iendo)jyen.€io, going. 



224 Form and Inflection. 

b. When it is Initial in a verbal ending after a stem- 
vowel ; likewise id when final in the same case : — 



cre-er — {cre-iendo)^ creyenda 

(cre-id), crey6. 

tra-er — (tra''tendo)y trayendo. 
inclu-ir — (inclu-^iemio)^ ii&clu- 
yenda 



ca-er — {capiendo) ^ cayendo. 

(ca-id), cay 6. 

le-er — (k-unda)^ leyendo. 
argu-ir — {argu-iendo)^ arga- 
yendo. 



4i& The I of the diphthongs ie and id is absorbed 
by foregoing double consonants — //, ^, {ch usually ), 
and j when it represents the archaic jr, formerly pro- 
nounced sh : — 



cefi-ir — omendo, cilid. 
dijera, anciently dixera. 



tafier — tallendo, talld. 
trajese, anciently traxsse. 



444. The diphthong ue is said to be aspirated when 
it assumes an h, which regularly occurs if the diphthong 
is initial and has the tonic accent : — 

o2-er — uelo^ written hnelo ; but ol-imoSy because atonic. 



Bemarks on the Present Stem. 

445. Tonic stems, whether weak or strong, are often 
strengthened in the present indicative and subjunctive, 
and in the imperative : — 

a. By the expansion of the radical vowel e into ie^ 
and of o into ue: — 

pens-ar — pienso, I think. i volv-er — vuelvo, I return. 

ten-er — tiene, he has. \ mov-er — mueve, he moves. 

b. By the mutation of the original stem-vowel e to i\ — 



serv-ir — sirvo, [serve. 
— sirve, he serves. 
but Jdrz/Imos, we serve. 



seg-uir — sigo, IfoUow. 

aigna, hefoUaws. 

but segu\mQ&, we follow. 



The Verb. 225 

446. Strong stems, whether tonic or atonic, are like- 
wise frequently strengthened in the present indicative 
and subjunctive, and in the imperative : — 

a. By changing the original stem-vowel ^ to / : — 

seg — siga, /or A^ may follow. 
sigftmos, let us follow. 



serv — sirva, lor he may serve. 
sirvftmos, we may serve. 



b. By adding a ^ to the original stem ending in a 
consonant, in the following verbs : — 

as-ir — asg-o, asg-a, I seize, 
pon-er — pong-o, pong-a, / 

place, 
sal-ir — aalg-o, salg-a, I go out. 



ten-er — teng-o, teng-a, I have, 
val-cr — valg-o, Talg-a, / am 

worth, 
ven-ir — veng-o, veng-a, I come. 



Remark. — This g is the expression of the Latin e and i enounced 
with a consonant power. Thus : — 



valeo — valyOy Span, valgo, 
valeam — valya\fn\ Span, valga. 



venio — venyo^ Span, vengo^ 
venlam — venya\m\ Span, venga. 



So asgo^ Lat. adsdo ; pongo, Lat. pcnio for pono ; salgo^ Lat. 
salio ; iengo^ Lat. teneo. The Portuguese still preserves the Latin 
y sound, graphically represented by Ih and nh : valho, valha ; venho^ 
venha; etc. 

c. By adding a ^ to the diphthongized stem ending 
in a vowel, in the following verbs : — 

ca-er — cfldg-o, cSig-a, I fall, \ tra-er — trftig-o, trftig-a, I bring, 

o-ir — 5ig-o, 5ig-a, / hear, 

d. By diphthongizing the medial stem-vowel a into 
aiy and reducing it graphically to its corresponding 
simple vowel (fii = e)^ in the following verbs : — 

cab-er — {caip) quep-o (§ 13), quep-a {Lat, capio, capiaih), I hold, 
sab-er — (saip) »e[p-o], sep-a {Lat, sapio, sapiam), / know. 
hab-er — {haib) ]ie[b-o], but hay-a {LcU, habeo, habeam), I have* 

The Portuguese preserves the diphthong in caib-o^ cailhz, ; saHh^ 



226 Form and Inflection, 

€. By. changing the final stem-consonant c into ^, in 



hac-er — hag-o, hag-a (Latin, 
facto, faciam). 



dec-ir — dig-o, dig-a (Latin, 
dicoy dicam). 



For the letter ^, as a mode of euphonizing certain strong stems, 
see § 374. 

447- The verbs ver, to see^ and ser, to bey find their 
strong stem in the archaic infinitives z;^^r and seef^: — 

ve-cr — ve-o, re-a, l see, \ se-er — se-a, T may be, 

44a Atonic stems usually contain the original radical 
before weak vowels, and the strengthened radical or 
modified vowel before strong vowels : — 



■ab-eis, ye know, 
ten-emos, we have, 
mor-imos, we Uve, 



sep-ais, ye may know, 
teng-amos, let us have. 
mur-amos, we mhy die. 



449. Four verbs are expanded in the first person sing- 
ular of the present indicative by assuming a final y : — 

■er, to be, ancient so; modem soy, lam, 

estar, to be, estd; estoy, l am, 

dar, to give, do; ^oj,^ I give. 

ir, to go. vo ; voy, /go, 

450. Eight verbs make their imperative second per- 
son singular in abbreviated forms : — 

▼aler, to be worth ; val and vale, be worth ; no yalgas. 

salir, to go out; sal (y^sale), go out; no salgi 

venir, to come; van (/or \ient), come; no 

tenor, io have ; ten {Jar tiene) , have ; no teng< 

poner, to put, place ; pen (for pone), place ; no pongaa. 

hacer, to make, to do; haz (for hace), tnake, do ; no hagas. 

deoix,tosay,totell; d£ (for dice), say, tell; no digas. 

ir, to go; ve (forw^), go;, no vayam. 



The Verb. 227 

451. The imperfect indicative is always regularly 

formed from the original stem, except in the following 

verbs : — 

ir — ibvL,/ was going {jmicon].). \ ver — vela (a«if. via),/ n«ijj^- 

ser — era, Iw<is (being), [iVr^. 

Tonic Preterit Stems. 

452. Fifteen verbs have preterit stems, which are 
tonic in the past definite first and third persons singu^ 
lar, with the respective endings e and instead of / — rf, 
or / — i6. In the other persons and tenses of this stem, 
the tonic accent is, as usual, on the endings, which are 
regular. Thus : — 



vine, I came, 
▼inbte, thou earnest. 
▼Ino, he came, 
▼inlmoB, we came, 
▼inXsteis, j^^ came, 
vinifiron, they came. 

▼iniSra, Tmi^ come. 
vinitae, / might come. 
▼inifire, I should come. 



pllsa, I placed. 
pQB&ite, thou placedst^ 
pflao, he placed, 
poslmoa, we placed. 
pnafsteis, ye placed, 
pnalfiroii, they placed. 

poaiCra, / might place, 
pvaiiae, / might place, 
pnaiere, I should place. 



Remark — These tonic preterit stems have retained more or 
less distinctly the form of the Latin irregular perfects as they must 
have been popularly employed in the Iberian peninsula. Therefore 
the vowels of the stem and termination were attracted or exchanged, 
and the diphthongs arising therefrom were reduced to simple 
vowels, according to the custom of the language. For example: 
s^zpiA was attracted to sdupi and the diphthong changed to o^ — 
aope, — precisely as aurum makes ore, gold. The modern speech, 
since the close of the fourteenth century, has preferred the stem- 
vowel u to o — supe, tnve, poae, etc. The Portuguese retains the 
ancient ^, lengthened according to its phonological system into ou 
(^^), in houve, soube^ coube^ and trouxe (trdw-shS), which corre- 
spond to the Cftstilian hube^ supe^ cupe, tnge. 



228 



Form and Inflection. 



45a List of tonic preterit stems, as found in the first 
and third persons singular of the past definite indicative, 
together with their origin and formation : — 





Inflniave. 


PMtorit. 

Ftrti and third ting. 


Old Spanlsli. 


Modem Spanisb. 




Lat. 


habere 


htfbMi, habvit 








Sp. 


liaMr 


hdubif hdubu 


hobe, hobo 


hQbe, biibo. 






And Four by Analogy with haber: — 


Lat. 

Sp. 


tenere 
tenSr 


(tabtdy tabfldt) 
tdubiy idubu 


tovc, tovo 


tUTOy tiivo. 


• 


Lat. 
Sp. 


stare 
estar 


(stabMi, st^ibtdt) 
stdubi^ sidubu 


estove, -ovo 


estilTey estfivo. 




Lat. 
Sp. 


ambiilare 
andar 


(andabxA, -btnt) 
andd$tii^ "bu 


andove, -ovo 


andfive, andfivo. 




Lat. 
Sp. 


cap&e 
caber 


(copMi* captnt) 
cdupi, cdupu 


cope, copo 


eupey capo. 




Lat. 
Sp. 


sapere 
saber 


sapMi, s<2pMit 
sdupi, sdupu 


sope, sopo 


supe, supo. 




Lat. 
Sp. 


ponere 
ponSr 


p^M, p^int 
P^usi, p4usu 


pose, poso 


pascy paso. 




Lat. 
Sp. 


(potere) 
podSr 


p^tiA, p0t»it 
p6uii, pdutu 


pode, podo 


pQde, pudo. 




Lat. 


facere 


feci, fecit 








Sp. 


hacer 


fice^fisu 


fice, fi^o 


liice, liizo. 




Lat. 


venire 


v^ni, v^nit 








Sp. 


venir 


vine^ vinu 


vine, vino 


vine, vino. 




Lat. 
Sp. 


quaerSre 
querer 


(qua a/), qua^fvit 
quise^ quisu 


quise, qmso 


quisey quiso. 




Lat. 


videre 


ytdi, vidit 








Sp. 


ver (veer) 


vidi^ vidu 


vide, vido 


vi, vi6 {regular). 




Lat. 


dicere 


dtxi, dtxtt 








Sp. 


declr 


dixi, dixu 


dixe, dixo 


d^ey dyo. 




Lat. 


ducere 


duxi, duxit 








Sp. 


r^if-ducir 


duxi, duxu 


•duxe, -duxo 


•diyey -dmo. 




Lat. 


trahSre 


traxi, traxit 






1 


Sp. 

(anal 


traSr 

. with ducire) 


traxif traxM ) 
frtixi, truxu 


traxe, traxo ) 
truxe, truxo j 


trije, tri^o. \ 
truje, trujo. I 















The Verb, 



229 



Future Stems. 



Ten verbs form their future stem by rejecting 
the vowel of the infinitive-ending, five of which replace 
it by a phonetic d (§ 39) : — 



caber — cabr-^, oabr-fa. 
haber — habr-^, habr-(a. 
poder — podr-^, podr-fa. 
querer — querr-^, querr-ia. 
saber — sabr-^, sabr-fa. 



salir — saldr-^, saldr-Ca. 
valer — Taldr-^, Taldr-Ca. 
poner — pondr-^, pondr-ia. 
tener — tendr-^, tendr-(a. 
venir — Tendr-^, ▼endr-(a. 



Remark. — The three last stems were anciently euphonized by 
metathesis of the nr^ instead of by intercalating the orthographic 

poner — pour — por»-^, por«-fa. | tener — Xitnr — tem-^, ter»-fa. 

venir — ve»r — vern-^, vem-fa. 

455. Two verbs form their future stem from primitive 
infinitives that no longer exist : — 

decir — dir — dir-^, dir-(a. | hacer — far — har-^, har-fa. 

The latter verb is from "LaX, facire^ ltal,/are, and Fr, /aire. 

In the following inflections, only deviations from the three model 
conjugations, /la^lar, corner^ vivir, are printed in heavy type. 

To show where the stress falls in forms of the verb that do not 
admit the graphic accent, a long mark is placed over the vowel of 
the tonic syllable. 



Fimst Clam. 



45e. The characteristic of this class is the expansion 
of the stem-vowels e and into their corresponding 
diphthongs ie^ ue^ when the accent falls on the radical^ 
or, in other words, when it is tonic (§§ 19 ; 19, «). This 



2y> Form a^td Inflection, 

can only occur throughout the singular, and in the third 
person plural, of the present indicative, subjunctive, 
and imperative; for, in all other persons and tenses, 
the accent lies on the verbal ending. 



E Stems. — First Conjugation. 

457. Poiuiar, pensandp, pensado, to think. 

pMtSBNT Stems. — plena (tonic), /^xw (atonic). 

Pres. Ind. plens-o plens-as plens-a pens-amos pens-ais plens-an. 

Pres. Subj. plens-e plens-es plens-e pens-emos pens-eis plens-en. 

Imperat. plens-a piens-e pena-eraos pens-ad plena-en. 

Imperf. pens-aba -abas -aba -abamos -abais -aban. 

pRBTBtaT Stem. «— Rbgulak. 



Past Def. 


pens-^ 


-aste 


-6 


-amos 


-asteis 


-iron 


I Imp. Subj. 


pens-ara 


-aras 


-ara 


-iramos 


-irais 


•aran 


2 Imp. Subj. 


pens-ase 


-ases 


-ase 


-JLsemos 


-aseis 


-asen. 


FuT. Subj. 


pens-are 


-ares 
Future 


-are 
Stem.- 


-iremos 
— Regular. 


-areis 


-aren 


Futurf.. 


pensar-^ 


-£s 


-a 


-^mos 


-^U 


-£n. 


Condit. 


pensar-(a 


-Cas 


.{a 


-(amos 


-(ais 


-(an. 



45a Acertar, acertando, acertado, to hit the mark, 

Pres. Ind. acierto aciertas acierta acertamos acertais aciertan. 
Pres. Subj. aclerte aciertes acierte acertemos acerteis acierten. 

Imperat. acierta acierte acertemos acertad acierten. 

acertaba; acert^, acertara, acertase, acertare; acertar-^, -la. 



459. Alentar, alentando, alentado, to encourage, 

Pres. Ind. aliento alientas alienta alentamos alentais alientan. 
Pres. Subj. aliente aiientes aliente alentemos alenteis alienten. 
Imperat^ -^— alienta aliente alentemos- alentad alienten. 
alentaba; alent^, alentara, alentase, akntare; alentar-^, ^a. 



The Verb. 231 

460. Cerrar, cerrando, cerrado, to shut. 

Pres. Ind. clerro derras derra cerramos cerrais cierran. 
Pres. Subj. cierre cieires derre cerremos cerreis cierren. 

Imperat. derra derre cerremos cerrad derren. 

cerraba ; cerr6, cerrara, cerrase, cerrare ; cerrar-^, -la. 

461. Apretar, apretando, apretado, to grasp tightly. 

Pres. Ind. aprieto aprletas aprleta apretamos apretais aprietan. 
Pres. Subj. apriete aprletes apriete apretemos apreteis aprleten. 

Imperat. aprleta apriete apretemos apretad aprleten. 

apretaba; apret^, apretara, apretase, apretare ; apretar-^, -(a. 

462. Atestar, atestando, atestado, to cram. 

Pres. Ind. atlesto atiestas atlesta atestamos atestais atiestan. 
Pres. Subj. atleste atlettes atleste atestemos atesteia ntl^Mten. 

Imperat. atiesta atleste atestemos atestad atlesten* 

atestaba; atest6, atestara, atestase, atestare; atestar-^, -ta. 

46a Sembrar, sembrando, sembrado, to sow. 

Pres. Ind. slembro slembras slembra sembramos sembrais slembran. 
Pres. Subj. slembre slembres slembre sembremos sembreis slembren. 

Imperat. slembra slembre sembremos sembrad ^lembren. 

sembraba; sembr^,sembrara,sembrase,sembrare; sembrar-^,-(a. 

464. Helar, helando, helado, to freeze. 

Pres. Ind. hielo hidas Mela helamos helais hielan. 

Pres. Subj. hide hides hieles helemos heleis hiden. 

Imperat. hiela hiele helemos helad hlelen. 

helaba; hel<£, helara, helase, helare; helar6, helaria. 

Euphonic Changes. 

465. In the verb errar, the stem-vowel being initial, 
the vowel / of the diphthong is consonantized, that is, 
written and pronounced y consonant (§ 442, a) : — 



232 Form and Inflection. 

466. Brrar, errando, errado, to miss. 



Pres. Ind. yerro 


yerras 


yerra 


erramos 


errais 


Pres. Subj. yerre 


yerres 


yeire 


erremos 


erreis 


Imperat. 


yerra 


yerre 


erremos 


errad 



erraba; crr6, errara, errase, crrare; errar^, erraria. 

467. Verbs of this class in -gar and -zar, besides 
diphthongizing the stem-vowel e, observe the regnlar 
orthographic changes explained in § 371 : — 

46a Nagar, negando, negado, to deny. 

Pres. Ind. niego nlegas niesa negimos negais nlegan. 

Pres. Subj. niegue nlegues niegue neguemos neguels nleguen. 

Imperat. nieg^a niegue neguSmos negad niegueo. 

negaba; negu^, negaste, etc.; negara, negase, negare; etc. 

469. EmpeaEar, empezando, empezado, to begin. 

Pr. In. empiezo empiezas empieza empezamos empezais emplezan. 
Pr. Sj. emplece empieces empiece empecSmos empecSls empiecen. 

Imper. empieza emplece empecemos empezad empiecen. 

empeziba; empec^y empezaste, etc; empeziray empezise; etc. 

E Stems. — Second Conjugation. 

470. Perder^ perdiendo, perdido, to lose. 

Prbsbmt Stbms. — plerd (tonic), j^erd (atonic). 

Pres. Ind. pierd-o plerd-es plerd-e perd-emos perd-eis pierd-en. 

Pres. Subj. plerd-a plerd-as plerd-a perd-amos perd-ais plerd-an. 

Imperat. plerd-e plerd-a perd-amos perd-ed plerd-an. 

Imferf. perd-(a -(as -fa •lamos -lais -lan. 

Preterit Stem. — Regular. 

Past Def. perd-i -iste -id -imos -isteis -ieron. 

1 Imp. Subj. perd-iera -ieras -iera -i^ramos -i^rais -ieran. 

2 Imp. Subj. perd-iese -ieses -iese -i^semos -i^is -iesen. 
FuT. Subj. perd-iere -ieres -iere -i^remos -i^reis -iiren. 

Future Stem. — Regular. 
Future. perder-^ -as *a -^mos -£is -£n. 

CoNDiT. perder-(a -(as *(a -(amos -(ais -(an. 



The Verb. 



233 



471. XSntandar, entendiendo, entendido^ to understand. 

1^. In. entiendo entlendes entiende entendemos entendSs entienden. 
Pr. Sj. entienda entiendas entlenda entendamos entendais entiendan. 

Imper. entiende entienda entendamos entended entiendan. 

entendfa; entendiyentendiera^entendiescyentendiere; entender-^,-(a. 



O Stems. — First Conjugation. 
472. Sonar, sonando, sonado, to sound. 

PxssEKT Stbms. — suen (tonic), *om (atonic). 

Pres. Ind. 8uen-o suen-as suen-a son-amos son-aU sven-an. 

Pres. Subj. suen-e suen-es suen-e son-emos son-eis suen-en. 

Imferat. suen-a suen-e son-emos son-ad suen-en. 

Imperf. son-aba -abas -aba -fibamos -ILbals -aban. 



Past Def. son-^ 

1 Imp. Subj. son-ara 

2 Imp. Subj. son-ise 
Fur. Subj. son-are 



Future. 
CoNDrr. 



sonar-^ 
sonar-(a 





T Stkm.— 


-RBBtnJUL 






-aste 


^ 


-amos 


-£steis 


-iron. 


-aras 


•ara 


•iramos 


-ivais 


-iran. 


-ases 


-ase 


-asemos 


•aseis 


-asen. 


-ares 


-are 


-dremos 


-&reis 


-aren. 


FTnvRB Stkm. — 


RsCITLAlt. 






-£s 


-& 


-^mos 


-^is 


-in. 


-(as 


-fa 


-famos 


-{ais 


•£an. 



473. Costar, costandOy costado, to cost. 



Pres. Ind. cuesto cuestas cuesta 
Pres. Subj. cueste cuestes cueste 
Imperat. cuesta cueste 



costamos costus euestan. 
costemos costeis cuesten. 
costemos costad cuesten. 



costaba; cost6, costara, costase, costare; costar-^, -fa. 



474. Acordar» acordando, acordado, to agree. 

Pres. Ind. acuerdo acuerdas acuerda acordamos acordais acuerdan* 
Pres. Subj. acuerde acuerdes acuerde acordemos acordeis acuerden. 

Imferat. acuerda acuerde acordemos acordad acuerden* 

acordaba; acord^, acordara, acordase, acordare; acordar-^, -£a. 



234 Form and Inflection. 

470. BoUar, hoUando, hollado, to trample. 

Prss. Ind. hueUo hueUiis hueUa hoUamos bollais huellan. 
Pres. Subj. huelle huelles huelle hollemos holleis huellen. 

Impebat. huella huelle hollemos hoUad huellen. 

hoUaba ; hoU^, hollara, hoUase, hollare ; hollar^, hollaria. 

47a Volar, volando, volado, to fly. 



Pres. Ind. vuelo 


vuelas 


vuela 


volamos 


volais 


vuelan. 


Pres. Subj. vuele 


vueles 


vuele 


volemos 


voleis 


vuelen. 


Imperat. 


vuela 


vuele 


volemos 


volad 


vuelen. 



volaba ; vol^, volara, volase, volare ; volar6, volaria. 

477. Contar, contando, contado, to count, 

Frss. Ind. cuento cuentas cuenta contamos contais cuentan. 
Pres. Subj. cuente cuentea cuente contemos conteis cuenten. 

Imperat. cuenta cuente contemos contad cuenten. 

contaba ; cont^, contara, contase, contare ; contar6, contaria. 

47a Probar, probando, probado, to prove, 

Pres. Ind. pruebo pruebas prueba probamos probais prueban. 
Pres. Subj. pruebe pruebes pruebe probemos probeis prueben. 

iBiPERAT. prueba pruebe probemos probad prueben. 

probaba; prob^, probata, probase, probare; probar^, probar(a. 



Orthographic and Euphonic Changes, 

479. The verbs desosar, to separate the bones from 
the meat, and desovar, to spawn (from hueso, bone, and 
huevo, egg), introduce an h before the diphthong of the 
present stem : — 

480. Desosar, desosando, desosado. 

pR. In. deshueso deshuesas deshuesa desosamos desosais deshuesan* 
pR. Sj. deshuese deshueses deshuese despsemos desoseis deshuesen. 

Imper. deshuesa deshuese desosemos desosad deshuesen. 

desosaba ; desos^^ desosara, desosase, desosare ; desosar-6, -la. 



The Verb. 235 

481. Verbs of this class in -car^ -gar, and -Bar, besides 
diphthongizing the stem-vowel o^ observe the regular 
orthographic changes laid down in § 371. 

482. Trocar^ trocando, trocado, to barter. 

Pr. In. trueco truecas trueca trocamos trocais tmecan. 
Pr. Sj. trueqae trueques trueque troquSmos troquSls truequen. 

Imper. trueca trueque troquemos trocad truequen. 

trocaba ; troqu^y trocaste, etc. ; trocara, trocise, trocare ; etc, 

483. Rogar, rogando, rogado, to request. 

Pres. Ind. ruego ruegas rnega rogamos rogus megan. 
Pres. Subj. ruegue megues ruegue roguSmos roguSls rueguen. 

Imperat. ruega ruegue roguemos rogad rueguen. 

rogaba; rogu^9rogaste,^/^./rogara,rogase,rogare; rogar6,^/o 

484. Here belongs the verb jngar (JjSit.jocari), which 
follows the analogy of this class, with the stem-vowel 
Uy anciently o : — 

485. Jngar» jugando, jugado, to play ^ to gamble. 

Pres.* Ind. Juego Juegas Juega jugamos jugais Jnegan. 
Pres. Subj. Juegue Juegues Juegue Juguemos JuguSia Jueguen. 

Imperat. juega Juegue Juguemos jugad Jueguen. 

jugaba; Jugu^jugaste,^/^./ jugarajugasejugare; jugar^,^/^. 

486. ForaEar, forzando, forzado, to force. 

Pres. Ind. fteerzo fiierzas fuerza forzamos forzais fteerzan. 
Pres< Subj. fUerce fuerces Aierce forcSmos forcSia fUercen. 

Imperat. fuerza fUerce forcSmos forzad fUercen. 

forzaba; forc^^ forzaste,^/^./ forz^ra, forzise, forzare; etc. 

4iB7. In verbs of this class whose stem-vowel stands 
2^ter a gy the diphthong assumes the diaeresis («^), ac- 
cording to §§ 17 and 32, a : — 






y 



Tlie Verb. 237 

492. Moler, moliendo, molido, to grind. 

Pres. Ind. muelo mueles muele molemos moleis mueleii. 
Pres. Subj. muel* muelas muela moUmos molais muelan. 

Imperat. muele muela molamos moled muelan. 

molfa ; moli, inollera, moliese, moliere ; moler^, moleria. 

Orthographic and Euphonic Changes. 

493. The verb oler assumes an h before the diph- 
thong of the tonic stem: — 

494. Oler, oliendo, olido, to scents to smell. 

Pres. Ind. huelo hueles huele olemos oleis hueleii. 

Pres. Subj. huela huelas huela olamos oliis huelan. 

Imperat. — * huele huela olamos oled huelan. 
olia ; olCy oliera, oliise, oliere ; oler^, oleria. 

495. Verbs of this class in -cer preceded by a conso- 
nant, and a few in -ocer, besides diphthongizing the 
stem-vowel ^, observe the regular orthographical changes 
indicated in § 373. See § 374, exception : — 

496. Toreer, torciendo, torcido, to twist. 

Pres. Ind. tuerzo tuerces tuerce torcemos torceis tuereen. 
Pres. Subj. tuenca tuerzae tuerza torzamos torzals tuerzan. 

Imperat. tuerce tuerza torzamos torced tuerzan. 

torda; torci, torciera, torciese, torciere; torcer6, torcena. 

497. Cocer, cociendo, cocido, to boil, to bake.^ 

Pres. Ind. cuezo cueces cuece cocemos coceis cuecen. 
Pres. Subj. cueza cuezae cueza cozfimos cozSis ouezan. 

Imperat. cuece cueza cozlEmos coced cuezan. 

cocia ; cocf, cociera, cociese, cociere ; cocer^, coceria. 

1 Cocer means to boil, to cook^ meats, vegetables, tea, etc., and to bake 
bread, pottery, brick. Of water, it is preferable to use hervir {fervere). The 
mistress, for example, would say, el agua hierve ; and the servant, el agua estd 
cociendo, "Boiled meat" is came cocida; "boiling water," or "very hot 
water," agua hirviente. " To boil an egg *' is pasar un huevo por agua / " boiled 
^ggs/* hueuos pasados por agua; " baked clay," barro cocido; etc. 



238 



Form and Inflection. 



S«eond CUuw* 



49a This class embraces verbs of the third conjuga* 
tion only, with the radical vowels e and o. The gerund 
uniformly belongs to the preterit system. 

In the present stem, besides the usual diphthongiza- 
tion of the vpwels e and o when tonic, these vowels 
subside into i and u respectively before a strong termi- 
nation, whenever the stem is atonic ; that is, in the first 
and second persons plural of the subjunctive, and in 
the first person plural of the imperative. 

Again, in the preterit stem, including the gerund, the 
radical vowels e and o become respectively i and u, as 
often as the ending that follows contains the diphthong 



ie or id. 



E Stems. 



4d9. Sentir, (sintiendo), sentido, to feel, to perceive. 

Present Stem. — sient (tonic), sent (atonic, weak), gint (atonic, strong). 

Pres. Ind. sient-o sient-es sient-e sent-imos sent-is sient-en. 

Pres. Subj. sient-a sient-as slent-a slnt-amos sint-ais slent-an. 

Imperat. sient-e slent-a sint-amos sent-id sient-an. 

Imperf. sent-(a -fas -fa -famos -(amos -(an. 



Preterit Stem. — sint (before a diphthong). 



Gerund. sintiendo. 

Past Def. scnt-f -iste 

1 Imp. Subj. slnt-iera -ieras 

2 Imp. Subj. sint-iese -ieses 
FuT. Subj. slnt-iere -ieres 



slntid sent-imos 

-lira -i&amos 

•iese -i6semos 

•iere -i^remos 



-isteis 
•i^rais 
•ieseis 
-idreis 



sintieron. 
-ieran. 
-i^n. 
•ieren. 



FirruRB Stbm. — Regular. 



Future. 

Ck>NDIT. 



sentir-^ 
sentir^a 



-as 
-fas 





-a 

-fa 



-^mos 
-{amos 



-6is 
-fais 



-an. 
-Ian. 







The Verb. 




239 


500. Herir> (hiriendo), herido, to strike { 


[with a 


weapon). 


PRES. IND. 


liiero 


hleres 


liiere 


herimos 


heHs 


hiereii. 


Prks. Subj. 


hlera 


hleras 


hlera 


hirftmoB 


hirfilA 


hieran. 


Impekat. 




hlere 


hiel^ 


hlrSmoB 


herid 


hieran. 


Imferf. 


her-(a 


.(as 


# 
-la 


-iambs 


-(ais 


-(an. 


Gerund. 


hiriendo* 












Past Dkf. 


her-i 


-iste 


hiri6 


her-imos 


-(steis 


hlrieron* 


I Imp. Subj. 


lilr-iera 


-ieras 


-iera 


-i^ramos 


-i^rais 


-ieran. 


2 Imp. Subj. 


hir-iese 


-ieses 


-iese 


-i^semos 


•i&cis 


-iesen. 


FuT. Subj. 


hir-iere 


-ieres 


-icre 


-i^remos 


-Wreis 


-ieren. 


Future. 


herir-^ 


•as 


-& 


-^mos 


.^is 


-an. 


CONDIT. 


herir-ia 


-fas 


.(a 


•(amos 


-(ais 


•(an. 



a. So the compounds of herir (from Lat. haeriri)^ or oi ferir 
(from \jaX,ferire)y and of -gerir^ -jerir (Lat. -gerire, -serirt). 



501. Herir means to strike with a weapon^ with intent 
to wound or to put to death. Otherwise, to strike is 
expressed by dar nn golpe — dar golpes — A dlgnien, 
to inflict a blow — blows — on any one : — 



Ritben, Conserve yo mi vida, 
y Raquel muera (hi^ela). 
RaqueL j Ay de mf J ' 

— Tragedy of Rachel^ by D. Vicente Garc(a de la Huerta, 1778. 



Reuben, Let me preserve my 
life, and let Rachel 6\Q(Jie strikes). 
Rachel, Alas for me ! 



502. Advertir, (advirticndo), advertido, to observe. 





ad' 






ad- 






Pres. Ind. 


vlezto 


vlertes vlerte 


vertimos 


vertfs 


vierten. 


Pres. Subj. 


vierta 


viertas vlertA 


Tirtamos 


TirtalH viertan. 


Imperat. 




vierte 


vlert» 


virtamos 


vertid 


viertan. 


IMPERF. 


vert-(a 


•fas 


-fa 


•lamos 


-lais 


-(an. 


Gerund. 


advirtiendo. 










Past Def. 


vert-( 


•iste 


vlrti6 


vert-imos 


-(steis 


virtleron 


I Imp. Subj. 


virt-iera 


-ieras 


-iera 


-i^ramos 


-i^rais 


-ieran. 


2 Imp. Subj. 


vlrt-iese 


-ieses 


-iese 


-i^semos 


-i^seis 


•iesen. 


FuT. Subj. 


vlrt-iere 


-ieres 


-iere 


-i^remos 


-i^reis 


-ieren. 


Future. 


vertir-6 


-as 


-a 


-6mos 


-^is 


-in. 


CONDIT*^ 


vertir-ia 


-(as 


.(a 


•(amos 


-(ais 


-(an. 



240 



Form and Inflection. 



80& 

Puis. Ind. 
Prks. Subj. 
Impsrat. 

Imperf. 
Gerund. 
Past Dbp. 

1 Imp. Subj. 

2 Imp. Subj. 
Put. Subj. 
Future. 

CONDIT. 



(hirviendo), hervido, to boil. 

lilarvo hlerres hierve hervimos hervCs hlerven. 
htorvas hierva hirvamos hlrvals hlervan. 
hierve l&lerva hlrvamos hervid hlervan. 



herv-Ca -(as 

hirviendo. 



.(a 



-(amos 



herv-£ 
hirv-iera 
hirv-iese 
hinr-iere 

hervir-^ 
hervir-Ca 



-iste 

-ieras 

-ieses 

-ieres 

-as 

-(as 



UiTi6 herv-imos 
-iera -i6ramos 
-iese -i^semos 
-iere -i^remos 
-& -^mos 

-(a -(amos 



•(ais -(an. 

-(steis hirvleroii. 

•i^rais -ieran. 

-i^is -iesen. 

-i^reis -ieren. 

-^is -an. 

-lais -(an. 



904. In the verb erguir, to throw back (the head) 
haughtily, the stem being initial, the vowel i may be 
either consonantized, or it may replace the diphthong 
altogether, in the present tenses. The other changes 
are the same as in the model verb sentir: — 



505. 
Pr. Ind. 

Pr. Sj. 

Imperat. 

Imperf. 

Gerund. 
Past D. 

1 Imp. Sj. 

2 Imp. Sj. 
Fur. Sj. 
Future. 

CONDIT. 



Ergoir (irguiendo), erguido. 

yergues yergue 
irgues irgue 



yepgo 
irgo 
ycpga 
tpga 



eiguimos 



yergas yerga) ^ 

irgas Ipga \ *^"»^ 

yergue yergai 

irgue irga I 

-(as -(a 



ergu(a 

irguiendo. 

ergui erguiste irgui6 

irgulera -ieras 

irguiese -ieses 

irguiere -ieres 

erguir-6 -as 

erguir-(a -(as 



-lera 
-iese 
-iere 
-a 



•(a 



irgamos 

•(amos 

erguimos 

-i^ramos 

-i^semos 

-i^remos 

-^mos 

-(amos 



ergids 
irgals 

erguid | 



f yergaen. 
1 irguen. 
f yergan. 
lirgan. 

yergan. 

irgan. 



-tais 



•(an. 



ergu(steis 

-i^rais 

-i^eis 

•i^reis 

-^is 

-(ais 



irguieron. 

-ieran. 

-iesen. 

-ieren. 

-an. 

-(an. 



506. Verbs in -quirir which are derived from a primi- 
tive radical quer (Lat. quaer^re), have the usual diph- 
thong ie in the present stem when tonic ; but otherwise 
they preserve the characteristic i throughout 



The Verb. 



241 



507. Adqnirlr (adquiriendo), adquirido, to get^ to 

obtain, 

Pr.In. adquleroadqnieres adqaiere adquirimos adqulHs adqulereB. 
Pr. Sj. adquiera adquleras adqulera adquiramos adqoirais adquieran. 

Imfer. adqaiere adquiera adquiramos adquirid adquieran* 

adquiria; adquiriendo, adquiri, adquiriera, adquiriese; eU, 



O Stems. 

5oa Dormir (durmiendo), dormido, to sleep. 

Prbsbnt Stems. — dnerm (tontc)i dorm (atonic weak), dnrm (atonic strong). 

Pr.In. duerm-o dnerm-es duerm-e donn-imos dorm-Cs daerm-en. 
Pr. Sj. duerm-a dnerm-as duerm-a durm-amos durm-ais duerm-an. 

Imper. duemoL-e duerm-a durm-amos dorm-id dverm-an. 

Impf. dorm-ta *ias -ia -(amos -(ais -£an. 

Prbtbrit Stbm. — darm (before a diphthong). 

Ger. durmiendo. 

Pa.D. dorm-i -iste dnnni6 

1 1. Sj. durm-iera -ieras -iera 

2 1. Sj. durm-iese -ieses -iese 

Fu.Sj. durm-iere -ieres -iere 



dorm-imos 
-i^amos 
-i^mos 
-i^remos 



-fsteis dimmeroii. 

-i^rais -ieran. 

-iteis -iesen. 

-i^ia -ieren. 



Future Stbm. — Rbguuuu 

For. dormir-^ -4s -& -^mos 

CoND. dormir-(a -fas -fa -Camos 



•{ais 



-in. 
-(an. 



509. Morir (muriendo) , muerto, to die. 



pRES. Ind. muero 
Pres. Subj. muera 

Imperat. 

Imperf. mor-{a 
Gerund. muriendo. 
Past Def. mor-( 

1 Imp. SiTBj. mur-iera 

2 Imp. Subj. mur-iese 
Fur. Subj. mur-iere 
Future. morir-^ 
G>NDIT. morir-(a 



mueres muere morimos morfs mueren. 
mueras muera muramos murais mueran. 
muere muera muramos morid mueran. 



-{as 


-fa 


-famos 


-fais 


-fan. 


-iste 


marl6 


mor-imos 


-fsteis 


murieron. 


-ieras 


-iera 


-i^ramos 


-i^rais 


-ieran. 


-ieses 


-iese 


-i^semos 


-i^seis 


•iesen. 


-ieres 


-iere 


-i^remos 


•i^reis 


-ieren. 


-&s 


-& 


-^mos 


-^is 


-&n. 


-fas 


-fa 


-famos 


-fais 


•fan. 



242 



Form and Inflection. 



53a Podrir and pndxir (pudriendo), podrido, to decay. 

This verb, which usually made the stem-vowels inter- 
changeable in certain tenses and persons, has now 
become nearly regular with «, by the authority of the 
Spanish Academy. The latest recommendation of that 
body' Axes the inflection as follows (we insert the old 
variations between parentheses) : — 

pttdra pudramos pudrais pudran. 

pudra pudramos { (J^^^j { pudran. 

-fa -(amos -iais -lan. 

(-la) {'iamos) (rials) (^'{an), 

pudrhnos pudrfsteis 



Pr.In. pudro 
Pr.Sj. podra 
Imfer. 



pudres 

pudras 

pudre 

Impf. pudr-ia -fas 

{podr-ia) (-las) 
Ger. pudriendo. 
Pa.D. pudrf pttdiiste 



pudri pttdnste \ t pudmnos pudnsteis 1 

(Jodrl) {podriste) \ P"^"^ 1 {podrimos) (JodHsieis) I P'»'l"««>»- 
1 1. Sj. pnclri-era 



2I.SJ. pudri-ese 
Fu.Sj. pndri-ere 
Fur. piidrir-6 

(podrir-f) 
CoND. pudrir-fa 



-leras 
-ieses 
-icres 

-as 

(.-ds) 

-las 



{^drir-ia) {-ias) 



-lera 
-iese 
-iere 
-a 

•la 



-i^ramos 

•i^semos 

-i6reinos 

-^os 

{r^mos) 

-famos 

{'{amos) 



-i6rais 

-fais 
(-iais) 



•leran. 

-iesen. 

-ieren. 

-in. 

i'dn), 

-ian. 

(-ian). 



Third Class. 



511. This class embraces only verbs of the third 
conjugation, with the radical vowel e. The gerund 
uniformly belongs to the preterit system. 

In the present stem, the vowel e becomes / when the 
radical syllable is tonic, or atonic strong ; that is, 
throughout the present indicative, subjunctive, and the 
imperative, save only the first and second perscms plural 



1 Gramdtica de la Lengva Castellana, por la Real 
Madrid* z88o (published January, z88i), p. 13a. 



Bipaikola. 



The Verb. 



243 



of the indicative, and the second person plural impera- 
tive. 

In the preterit system, the vowel e^ as in e stems of the 
preceding class, uniformly becomes /, when the personal 
ending contains a diphthong; that is, in the gerund, in 
the third persons singular and plural of the past definite, 
and throughout the derivative tenses. 

512. Pedir, (pidiendo), pedido, to ask. 



Prbsbkt Stems. 

PRES. Ind. pid-o 

Pres. Subj. pid-a 

Imperat. 

Impekf. ped-{a 



-]rfd (tonic, fttonic strong), /ti/ (atonic weak). 

pid-es pid-e ped-imos ped-(s pid-en. 

pid-as pId-a pid-amos pid-ais pld*an. 

pid-e pid-a pid-amos ped-id pid-an. 

•fas -(a -famos -(ais -fan. 



PsBTBRiT Stsm. — pid (before a diphthong). 

Gerund. pidiendo. 

Past Def. ped-{ -iste 

1 Imp. Subj. pld-iera -ieras 

2 Imp. Subj. pid-iese -ieses 
Fur. Subj. pid-iere -ieres 



pidl6 ped'Imos -fsteis 

-iera -i^ramos -i^rais 

-iese -i^semos -i^is 

-iere -i^remos -i^reis 



FuTURB Stkm. — Rbgular. 

Future. pedir-^ -£s •£ -^mos -^is 

CoNDrr. pedir-(a -fas -fa -{amos -tais 

513. Servir, (sirviendo), servido, to serve. 



pidiSron. 

-ieran. 
-iesen. 
•ieren. 



-iin. 
-(an. 



Pres. Ind. sirvo 
Pres. Subj. slrva 

Imperat. 

Imperf. 

Gerund. 

PasTiDef. 

1 Imp. Subj. sinr-iera 

2 Imp. Subj. sirv-iese 
Fur. Subj. sirv-iere 
Future. icrvir-^ 
Condit. Mrvir-ia 



sirves sIrvB servimos servfs 
sirvas sirva slrvamos sirvfils 
Birve sfrva sirvSmos servfd 



serv-(a 
Blrvi^do* 

scnr-C 



-fas 

-iste 

-ieras 

-ieses 

-ieres 

-&s 

-(as 



-(a 



-(amos 



8irvl6 servfmos 

-iera -i6ramos 

-iese -i^mos 

•iere -i^remos 

-& -^mos 

-(a -(amo» 



-(ais 

-(steis 

-i^rais 

-i^is 

-i^reis 

-^is 

-(ais 



sirren. 
sirvan. 
sirvan. 

-(an. 

sirvieron. 

-ieran. 

•ie^n. 

-ieren. 

•in. 

-iuL 



244 



Form and Inflection. 



Orthographic and Euphonic Changes, 

514. Verbs of this class in -gir^ besides modifying the 
radical vowel ^, observe the euphonic changes indicated 

in §375: — 



515. Regir, (rigiendo), regido, to rule. 



Pres. Ind. fQo riges 

Pres. Subj. rQa rQas 

Imperat. rig© 

Imperf. reg-£a -las 

Gerund. rigiendo. 

Past Def. reg-i -iste 

1 Imp. Subj. rig>iera -ieras 

2 Imp. Subj. rig-iese -ieses 
FuT. Subj. rig-iere -ieres 
Future. regir-^ -as 
CoNDiT. regir-ta -las 



rige reg^mos regis 

rya rUfimos r^ais 

rQa rySmoB regid 

-£a -iamos -lais 



ligen. 
ryaji. 
rijan. 

-Can. 



rlgi6 

-iera 
-iese 
•iere 



-(a 



re-gimos 

-i^ramos 

-iesemos 

-i6remos 

-^mos 

-famos 



-{steis rigteroni 



-lerais 

-ieseis 

-i^reis 

-6is 

•(ais 



-leran. 

-iesen. 

-ieren. 

-an. 

-(an. 



516. Verbs of this class in -gnir {gkeer) modify the 
stem-vowel, and conform to the euphonic changes laid 
down in § 376: — 

Segnir, (siguiendo), seguido, to follow. 



Pres. Ind. 
Pres. Subj. 
Imperat. 
Imperf. 
Gerund. 
Past Def. 

1 Imp. Subj. 

2 Imp. Subj. 
FuT. Subj. 
Future. 
Condit. 



BigO 

Biga 

segu(a 

Biguiendo. 

seguf 

Blguiera 

Biguiese 

Blgulere 

seguir^ 

seguiria 



slgues sigue seguimos seguis Blgaen. 

siga siga sigamoB BigalB sigan. 

Blg^e Biga Bigamos seguid Bigan. 

-(as -la -(amos -(ais -(an. 



-iste 

-ieras 

-ieses 

-ieres 

-as 

-las 



Bigiii6 seguimos 
-iera -i^ramos 
•iesemos 
-i^remos 
-^mos 
-(amos 



-lese 
-iere 



-a 



.(a 



-(steis 

•i^rais 

-i^is 

-i6reis 

-^is 

•(ais 



Blgnleroii* 

-leran. 

•iesen. 

-ieren. 

-an. 

-(an. 



517. Verbs of this class in the double consonant -A«r, 
and' optionally those in -chir, modify the stem-vowel e, 



J 



The Verb. 



245 



and absorb the i of the diphthongs iV, id^ contained in 
the gerund, the past definite third persons singular and 
plural, and the derivative tenses, according to § 378 : — 



5ia Ceflir, (cinendo), ceilido, to gird. 

ci&o cilles ci&e cefiimos cefits 

cilia . cillas cilia ciilainos ci&ais 

cile cilia cmamos cefiid 

•ias -(a -{amos -(ids 



Pres. Ind. 
Pres. Subj. 
Impesat. 
Imperf. 
Gerund. 
Past Def. 



cefi-fa 

cillendo. 

cefi-{ -iste ciU cefi-imos •(steis 

1 Imp. Subj. ciil-era -eras -era -^ramos -^rais 

2 Imp. Subj. cill-ese -eses -ese -^emoB -^seis 
FuT. Subj. ciil-ere -eres -ere -^remos -^reis 
Future. cefiir-^ -£s -a -^mos -^is 
CoNDrr. cefiir-(a -(as -(a •famos -(ais 



cilleii. 
cillaii. 
clllan. 

-{an. 

cileron. 
-eran. 
-esen. 
-eren. 

•iXL. 

-(an. 



519. Verbs in -^ir modify the stem-vowel e into 1, 
according to this class, but they lose the i of the diph- 
thongs ie and 16 throughout the preterit stem : — 



520. Re-ir, (ri-endo), re-ido, to laugh. 

ries rie reimos re(s rien. 

rias ria riilmos lifiis rian. 

rie ria rifimos reid rian. 

-(as -(a -(amos -(ais -(an. 



rio 
ria 



Pres. Ind. 
Pres. Subj. 

Imperat. 

Imperf. re-(a 

Gerund. rl-Sndo. 

Past Def. re-{ 

1 Imp. Subj. ri-era 

2 Imp. Subj. ri-ese 
FuT. Subj. ri-ere 
Future. reir-6, etc. 



-iste 
-eras 
-eses 
-eres 



ri6 

-Sra 
-ese 
-ere 



re-imos 
-^ramoB 
-^semos 
-^remos 

CONDIT. 



•(steis riSron. 
-^rals -Sran. 
-^seis -esen. 
-^reis -Sren. 

reir-la, etc. 



Fourth Class. 



521. This class embraces all verbs in -«i>, including 
those in -guir (not those in -giiiry § 376 and remark). 
The gerund uniformly belongs to the preterit system, as 
in the second and third classes. 



246 



Form and Inflection. 



In the present stem a y consonant is inserted before 
the ending when the radical is tonic (weak or strong), 
and also when atonic strong ; that is, in the same positions 
of the present indicative, subjunctive, and of the impera- 
tive, in which the third class modifies the stem-vowel. 

In the preterit system, including the gerund, the 
diphthongs ie and id are consonantized throughout 
(§§ 441 ; 442, b). 

022. Huir, (huyendo), huldo, to flee. 

pRBSBNT Stems. — hu-7 (tonic; atonic strong), ku (atonic weak) 

Pr. In. huyo hfiyes hQye huimos huis huyeii. 

Pr. Sj. hnya hfiyas hQya huyamos huyais hfiyan. 

Imper. hQye hQya huyamos huid huyan. 

Imperf. hu-ia -Cas -fa -(amos -fais 



-lan. 



Prbtbkit Stbm. — ha (with diphthongs consonantized). 



Gerund, huyendo. 

P. Def. hu-i -iste -y6 

I Imp. Sj. hu-yera -yeraa -yera 

2IMF.SJ. hu-yese -yeses -yese 

Fur. Sj. hu-yere -ygres -yere 



-imos 
-y^ramos 
-y^semos 
-y^remos 



-(steis -yeron. 

-y^rais -yeran. 

-y^seis -yesen. 

-y^reis -yeren. 



Future, huir-4 
CONDIT. huir-fa 



•as 



-las 



Future Stem. — Rbgulak. 
-a -^mos 

-la -iamos 



•^is 
-fais 



•an. 
-lan. 



52a Atxibuir, (atribuyendo), atribuido, to escribe. 



Pr. In. atribu-yo -yes 
Pr. Sj. atribu-ya -yas 

Imper. -ye 

Imperf. atribu-ia -fas 
Gerund, atribuyendo. 
P. Def. atribu-i -iste 

I Imp. Sj. atribu-yera -ySras 
sImp.Sj. atribu-yese -yeses 
FuT. Sj. atriburyere -yeres 
Future, atribuir-^ -as 
CoNDiT. atribuir-ia -(as 



-ye 
-ya 
•ya 

-la 



atribu-imos -{s 
.atribu-ySmos -yais 
atribu-jrfiinos -id 

-iamos -fais 



•y6 -Imos -Isteis 

•yera -y^nunos -y^rals 

•yese -y^semos -y^eis 

•yere -y^remos -y^r^s 

-a -^mos -^is 

-la -Iamos -fais 



atribu-yen. 
atribu-yan, 
atribu-yan, 
-lan. 

•yeron. 
-yeran. 
-ySsen* 
-yeren. 

•an. 
•(an. 



The Verb. 



247 



524. Institnir, (instituyendo), instituido, to establish. 



Pres. Ind. 
Pres. Si3j. 
Imperat. 
Imperf. 
Gerund. 
Past Def. 
I Imp. Subj. 
2IMP.SUBJ. 
FuT. Subj. 
Future. 

CONDIT. 



institu-yo -yes 
institu-ya -yas 

-ye 

institu-fa -(as 
InstltuySndo. 
institu-( -iste 
institu-yera -ySras 
institu-yese -yeses 
institu-yere -yeres 
instituir-^ -as 
instituir-(a -(as 



-ye institu-imos -(s 

-ya institu-yftmos -yils 

-ya institu-yamos -id 

.(a -(ainos -(ais 



y6 -inios 
yera -y^ramos 
-ySse -y^semos 
ySre -y^remos 

•a -6mos 
(a -lamos 



institu-yen. 
institii-yaii. 
institu-yan. 
-(an. 



-(steis -ySron. 
-y^rais -yeran. 
-y^eis -yesen. 
-y^reis -yeren. 

-^is -in. 
-(ais -(an. 



525. Verbs in -guir lose the diaeresis as often as they 
admit the y consonant : — 

526. Argiiir, (arguyendo), argiiido, to discuss. 



Pr. In. ai*gG-yo -yes 


-ye 


argft-imos 


-(s argil-yeii. 


Pr. Sj. arsfl-ya -yas 


-ya 


argtt-yfimos -yfils argi-yan. 


Imper. — -ye 


-y» 


argu-ySmos argU-id argii-yaii. 


Imprf. argu-(a -(as 


-(a 


-(amos 


-(ais -(an. 


Ger. arguyendo. 








P. Def. argu-( -iste 


argu-y^ 


» argft-imos 


-(steis argu-yCron. 


I I. Sj. argu-ySra -ySras 


-ySra 


-y^ramos 


•y^rais -ySran. 


2 1. Sj. ars^-yese -ySses 


-ySse 


•y^semos 


-y^seis -ySsen. 


Fu. Sj. argu-ySre -ySres 


-y6re 


-y^remos 


-y^reis -ySren. 


Fur. argfiir-^ -as 


•k 


-^mos 


-6is -an. 


COND. arguir-(a -(as 


-(a 


-(amos 


-(ais -(an. 




Fifth ClASfk 





527. This class embraces those verbs that have 
irregular preterit systems derived from the Latin by 
attraction, with the tonic accent on the radical in the 
first and third persons singular of the past definite. 
The present and future stems are generally irregular. 



248 



Form and Inflection. 



First Conjugation. 

Andar> andando, andado, to go (indefinitely). 

Prbsent Stem. — Regular. 

Pres. Ind. ando andas anda andamus andais andan. 

Pres. Subj. ande . andes ande andemos andeis anden. 

Imperat. anda ande andemos andad anden. 

Imperf. and-aba -abas -aba -ibamos -abais -aban. 

PaiTBxiT Stem. — andnT (§452). 

Past Def. andllve anduviste anduvo anduv-imos -(steis -ieron. 

1 Imp. Subj. anduv-iera -ieras -iera -ieramos -i^rais -ieran. 

2 Imp. Subj. anduv-iese -ieses -iese -iesemos -i^seis -iesen. 
Fur. Subj. anduv-iere -ieres -iere -ieremos -i^reis -ieren. 

Future Stem. — Regular. 
Future. andar-^, etc. Condit. andar-fa, eU. 

a. Andar is a general undefined going, expressing manner or 
state ; ir^ a going in a specific direction, or for a definite purpose. 
Of inanimate objects and animals, andar is used ; of persons, ir* 
Ix 4 followed by an infinitive, means to be going to, to be about to: — 



andar de Ceca en Meca,* to go 

from Dan to Beersheba, 
andar vagando por todas partes, 

to go roaming all over, 
andar de prisa — despacio, logo 

fast — slow. 
andar d gatas, logo on all fours. 
el reldj no anda ; estd parado, the 

watch don't go ; it has stopped. 
el caballo anda bien, the horse 

travels well. 
la tierra anda, ike earth moves. 



ir de Madrid d Sevilla, to go from 
Madrid to Seville. 

ir al teatro — d la compra, to go 
to the play — to market. 

ir de un recado, to go of an er- 
rand. 

dl va de ministro d tal parte, he 
goes as a minister to such a 
place, [to take a short walk. 

voy d dar un paseTto, lam going 

^qu^ me va V. d dar? what are 
you going to give me f 



1 The Ceca of C6rdova» originally a Mint (Arab, d&r as-siklca), was 
the central oratory for pilgrims in the western caliphat, corresponding to the 
oa'aba of Mecca in that of Bagdad. 



The Verb. 



249 



Second Conjugation. 

529. Caber, cabiendo^ cabido, to be contained in, (en), 
to Iiold, 

Fkbsbht Stems.— qnep (strong, f 446, d), cai (weak). 

Pres. Ind. quepo cabes cabe cabemos cabets caben. 

pRES. SuBj. quepa quepas quepa quepftmos quepllis quepan. 

IMPERAT. cabe quepa quepfimos cabed quepan. 

Imperf. cab-(a '(as -ia -iamos -(ais •fan. 

Prbtbrit Stem.— cup (§ 453). 



Past Def. 


c3pe 


cupiste cfEpo 


cup-imos 


•Uteis 


-ieron. 


I Imp. Subj. 


cup-iera 


-ieras -iera 


-i^ramos 


-i^rais 


-ieran. 


2 Imp. Subj. 


cup-iese 


-ieses -iese 


-i^semcMi 


-i^seis 


-iesen. 


Fur. Subj. 


cup-iere 


-ieres -iere 
Future Stem. — 


•i^remos 
cabr (§ 454). 


•i^reis 


-ieren. 


Future. 


cabr-6 


•as .& 


-^mos 


•^is 


-kn. 


CONDIT. 


cabr-ia 


-fas -la 


-famos 


-(ais 


-lan. 



a. The use of oaber (from the Latin cap^re, to take) is anomalous, 
in that it reverses the English order of subject and object, and is 
construed with the preposition en* Thus: En eata sala caben 
quinientas penonaa, this hall holds five hundred persons, — liter- 
ally, ** five hundred persons hold in this hall ^^ ; no cabe mibi en 
esta vasija, this vessel will not hold any more, — literally, ** no more 
holds in this vessel." In this sense of material capacity, coger, with 
the English construction, may be substituted; as, esta sala coge 
qUinientas personas ; esta vasija ho coge mds. 

b. Caber signifies also moral capacity in the sense oito be capable 
of; as, no cabe en ^1 tal infiimia, he is not capable of such baseness \ 
todo cabe en fiilano, so and so is capable of anything; no cabe mis, 
there is no room for more^ or ** that caps the climax," — the latter 
meaning also expressed in Spanish by no faltaba m^ 

c. Cabe is used impersonally in the sense of **it is possible"; 
negative, ** there is no — possible" : si cabe, if it is possible, if it 
ptay be; no cabe duda, there is no possible doubt. 



250 



Form and Inflection, 



530. 

facire). 

PftES. IND. 

Pres. Subj. 

Imperat. 

Imperf. 

Past Def. 

1 Imp. Subj. 

2 Imp. Subj. 
Put. Subj. 

Future. 

CONDIT. 



haciendo, hecho, to ntake^ to do (Lat. 



Prssbnt Stbms. — bar (strong, f 446, r)» hetc (weak). 

]ui«o 
haga 



haces hace 

hagas haga 

liaK(§45o)haga 

hada hacias hacia -tamos 

Pbbtkiut Stem. --hie (§ 45s). 
hice Uciate bizo (§ 14) hicimos 
hiciera hiclenui hiciera >i^ramos 
hiciese hicieses hidese -i^semos 
hiciere hicieres hiclere -i^remos 

FunnuB Stem. — Ymat (f 455). 
har-^ -as -a -^mos 

bar-la -las -la -iamos 



hacemos haceis 
hagfimoa hagals 
hagfimos haced 
•(ais 

-tsteis 
-i^ais 
-i^is 
-i^reis 



hacen. 

hagan. 

hagan. 



-iais 



•lan. 



-leron. 
-ieran. 
-iesen. 
-ieren. 

-in. 
-Ian. 



531. Satisfacer, satisfaciendo, satisfecho, to satisfy. 



satu- 

Pres. Ind. fogo 
Pres. Subj. faga 

Imperat. 

iBfPERF. fac(a 
Past Def. flee 

1 Imp. Subj. flclera 

2 Imp. Subj. fleiese 
FuT. Subj. fieiere 
Future. fkr^, etc. 



faces face 

fagas foga 
face or taz foga 



•fas 
fleiste 

•ieras 
-ieses 
•ieres 



.(a 
flzo 

-iera 
-iese 
-iere 

CONDIT. 



facemos faceis facen. 

fagamos fSagSIs fagan. 

fagamos faced fagan. 

-famos -lais -fan. 

-Csteis -ieron. 

-i^rais -ieran. 

-i^seis -iesen. 

•i^reis -ieren. 



ficimos 

-i^amos 
•i^emos 
-i^remos 
foriay etc. 



532. Foder (pudiendo), podido, to be able. 

Present Stems. — pned (tonic, § 445, a),^ (atonic, § 435). 

Pres. Ind. puedo puedes puede podemos podeis pueden. 

Pres. Subj. pueda puedas pueda podamos podais puedan. 

Imperat. — ^ 

Imperf. pod-fa -fas -la -famos -Iais 



•(an. 



Prbtbrit Stem. — pud (S453). 

Gerund. pudiendo. 



Past Def. pade pudlste pQdo 

1 Imp. Subj. pud-iera -ieras -iera 

2 Imp. Subj. pud-iese -ieses -iese 
Fur. Subj. pud-iere -ieres -iere 

Future Stem. — podr (§ 454). 
Future. podr-^ -is, iu: Condit. podr-ia 



pud-imos -fsteis 

-i^ramos -i^rais 

-i^emos -i^seis 

-i^remos -i^reis 



-leron. 
-ieran. 
-iesen. 
-ieren. 



-Cas, etc. 



The Verb. 



251 



a. Poder is one of the 80-called modal verbs» and signifies me^ 
{might) ^ can {could) ^ denoting physical or moral possibility, per- 
mission, and a possible contingency: — 



no pnedo hacerlo, 

no hemes podido efectuarlo, 

^se pnede pasar? 

no se pnede seguir adelante, 

podrA ser ; pudo ser, 



I cannot do it. 

we could not bring it about. 

may one (I) come in? 

you can't go on. 

it may be ; it might have been. 



53a Foner, poniendo, puesto, to put^ to place. 

Prbsskt Stbms.— pony (ttioiig, f 446, k), ^ (weak). 
Pres. Ind. pongo pones pone ponemos poneis ponen. 

Pres. Subj. ponga pongas ponga pongfimos pongfils pongan. 

Imperat. poB (§ 450) ponga pongfimos poned pongan. 

Imperf. pon-(a -{as -fa -famos •iais -ian. 

Pkbtbrit Stbm. — put (S 453). 
PastDef. pQse pusiste 
I Imp. Subj. pus-iera -ieras 
2lMF.SuBj.pus-iese -ieses 
FuT. Subj. pus-iere -ieres 



Future. pondr-^ -4s 

CoNDiT. pondr-{a -fas 



pQso pus-imos 


•fsteis 


-ieron. 


-ieca -i^ramos 


•i^rais 


-ieran. 


•iese -i^emos 


-i^seis 


•iesen. 


-iere -i^remos 


•i^wis 


-ieren. 


.— pondr ($454)- 






"k -^mos 


-^is 


-&n. 


•ia -lamos 


-(ais 


-fan. 



a, Poner may be accompanied by the prepositions en^ sobre, or 
encima de^ to signify ** to put" or ** set on " a surface or the outside 
of anything. **To place" or **put in" the inside of anything is 
expressed by meter en. The synonym of both verbs is colocar : — 



poner (or colooar) el sombrero 

en la mesa, 
meter la costura en el cajon, 
colocarla en su sitio, 



to put the hat on the table. 

to put the sewing in the drawer, 
to put it in its place. 



b. Fonerae, to set one^s self about ^ to begin ^ followed by d and an 
infinitive ; to put on a garment, gloves, etc. Meterse en, to get 
one'*s self into, to meddle with: — 



25a 



Form and Inflection. 



•• puio i, cantar y i, bailar, 

mm ponfo la kvita, 

•• ha m«tido •& honduras, 



•• oMta V. •& los negocios 
ajenos. 



he began to sing and to dance. 

I put on the frock-coat. 

he has got into straits — **gone 
beyond his depth." 

do not meddle with other peo- 
ple's business. 



5dc QnaraTy queriendo, querido, to will, to wish. 



PRES. InD. 

pres. subj. 

Imperat. 

Imperf. 

PastDef. 
I Imp. Subj. 
a Imp. Subj. 
FuT. Subj. 

Future. 

CONDIT. 



pRBSBNT Stems. — qiil«r (tonic), gutr (atonic). 

qol^ro quierea quiere queremos quereis 

qaiem quieras quiera queramos querais 

quiere quiera queramos quered 

quer-ta -(as -(a -(amos -(ais 

Pkbtbrit Stem. — qvls (f 453). 

quite qultiste quiso qulB-imos -isteis 

quls-iera •ieras -iera •i^ramos -i^rais 

qulS'iese -ieses -iese -i^mos -i^is 

quls'iere ^ieres -iere -i^remos -i^reis 

Funms Stbu. — qnerr (S 454). 

qnerr-^ -is -i. -^mos -^is 

querr-(a -fas -fa -(amos -lais 



quleren. 
quieran. 
quieran* 



-lan. 



-leron. 
-ieran. 
-iesen. 
•ieren. 

•&n. 
•(an. 



4 



I 



a, Querer, as a verb of mode, denotes will, inclination, in the 
meanings to wiU^ to be wiUingj to wish : — 



^quiere V. leer esta carta? 

no quXao hacer lo que yo le pro- 
pose, 

el muchacho qneria jugar, mas 
su compafiero no quiso, 



will you read this letter? 

he would not do what I suggest- 
ed. 

the boy wanted to play, but his 
mate was not willing to. 



d. When tvt'II, ivoutd, signify future time, or a condition, the 
appropriate tense must be used: — 

when will you come to see me? 



^cuindo vendrd V. A verme? 
▼endrf a pronto, si tuviese tiempo, 



I would come soon, if I had time. 



c. Querer signifies also to like, to love, to be fond of: — 
el padre quiere d sus hijos, | the father is fond of his children. 



The Verb. 



253 



535. Saber, sabiendo, sabido, to know (things). 



Pres. Ind. 
Pres. Subj. 
Imperat. 
Imperf. 



Prssknt Stbms. — aep (stn»g), tab (weak). 

0^(§446,^ sabes sabe sabemos sabeis saben. 

seiM MiMui MiM sepSmos sepOls mimui* 

sabe sepa sepftmos sabed seiMui* 

sab-(a -(as -(a -{amos -Cais -(an. 



Prbtbut Stbm. — sop (S 45a). 



PastDef. 


stipe 


suplste 


Biipo Bup-imos 


-(steis 


-ieron. 


I Imp. Subj. 


sup-iera 


-ieras 


-iera •i^ramos 


-i^rais 


•ieran. 


2 Imp. Subj. 


Bup-iese 


-ieses 


-iese -i^mos 


-i^U 


-iesen. 


FuT. Subj. 


sup-iere 


•ieres 

FUTUKB StKM. 


-iere -i^remos 
-■abr(f454). 


-i^reis 


-ieren. 


Future. 


■abr-^ 


-is 


-a -^mos 


-^U 


-&n. 


CONDIT. 


■abr-ia 


•Cas 


-(a -(amos 


-(ais 


•(an. 



a. Saber is to know things, objects of thought; oonooer 
(§ 374f 0* ^^ knmv persons, and to be acquainted with things, 
objects of thought : — 



lo 8^; no quiero saberio, / 
know it; I do not want to 
know it. 

^sabe V. su leccion? la %6 de 
memoria, do you know your 
lesson ? I know it by heart. 

yo ya aabia lo que quiso averi- 
guar, / knew what he wanted 
to find Old. 



le conosco; no quiero cono- 
cerle, / know him i I do not 
wish to know him. 

I conoce V. este libro ? lo co- 
nozco, are you acquainted 
with this book f I am. 

conozoo mi debar, y sabrd des- 
empefiarlo, / know my duty^ 
and shall find means to dis- 
charge it. 



b. Can {could) is always rendered by saber instead of poder, 
when it means to know how: — 



sabe hablar Castellano, 

^ ,1 hacer eso, 

yo puedo i 



he can speak Spanish. 

I can (intetUctual fMssibilUy) ) , ... 

T ^ / ^z • f J. LJi* N f do that. 
I can {^physical possibtUty) i 



254 



Form and Inflection, 



536. Tener, teniendo, tenido, to have^ to possess, 

Prbsbmt Stbms. — tonif (strong), tien (tonic w«ak), ten (atonic weak). 



Pres. Ind. tennfo 
Pres. Subj. tenga 

Imperat. 

Imperp. ten-ta 

Past Def. tflve 
I Imp. Subj. tuT-iera 
a Imp. Subj. tuv-iese 
FuT. Subj. tuv-iere 



tlenes tlene tenemos teneis tienen. 

tengas tenga tenglEinos tengSis tengan. 
ten (§450) tenga tengfimos tened tengan. 



•(as oia -{amos -{ais 

pRBTBiaT StBM. — tUT (§ 453). 

tuviste tiivo tuv-imos -Csteis 

-ieras -iera -i^ramos -i6rais 

•ieses -iese -i^semos -i^seis 

-ieres -iere -i^remos -i^reis 

FuTURB Stem. — tendr (§ 454). 

Future. tendr-^ -is -a -6mos -^is 

CoNDiT. tendr-ta -las -fa -iamos -(ais 



•(an. 

-ieron. 
-ieran. 
-iesen. 
-ieren. 



-an. 
-(an. 



a, Tetur was formerly much used as an auxiliary verb, but at 
present it is limited to certain verbs in certain locutions not easy to 
define. The student will do well to confine himself to haber^ till 
experience and observation serve to guide him surely: — 



tengo entendido que . . . 
lo tlene averignado ya, 
tienen ideado un proyecto, 



I have learned that .... 
he has ferretted it out already, 
they have a plan in mind. 



537. Traer, trayendo (§ 442, b), traldo, to bring. 

Prbsbmt Stbms. — traig (strong), tra (weak). 

pR. In. tralgo traes trae traemos traeis traen. 

Pr. Sj. trfilga tralgas tralga tralgftmos tralgSis traigan. 

Imper. trae tralga tralgfimos traed traigan. 

Impf. tra-{a -(as -(a -tamos -(ais -(an. 



P. Def. trfije 

1 I. Sj. traj-era 

2 I. Sj. traj-ese 
Fu. Sj. traj-ere 



Fur. 

COND. 



traer-^ 
traer-(a 



Preterit Stem. — traj (S 453). 

trajiste tri^o traj-tmos 

-eras -era -frames 

-eses -ese -^semos 

•eres -ere -^remos 

FirriTKB Stbm. — Regolar. 
-as "k -^mos 

-(as -(a -(amos 



-(steis 


-€ron(§443) 


-^rals 


-eran* 


-^sels 


-esen. 


-^reifl 


-eren. 


•^is 


-&n. 


-(ais 


-(an. 



The Verb. 



255 



a. The preterit stem truj is now obsolete as a literary form, 
although it is still heard, like most Castiliaa archaisms, among 
rustic people. Its inflection is precisely like the prevailing form : ; — 

Past Def. tr^Je tri^iste triyo trt^-imos -isteis -Sron. 

1 Imp. Subj. tri^-era -eras -era -^ramos -^rais -Sran. 

2 Imp. Subj. trv^-ese -eses -ese -^emos -^seis -esen. 
Fur. Subj. tn^-ere -eres -ere -^remos -^reis -eren* 



Third Conjugation. 

53a Condncir, conduciendo, conducido, to conduct 

Pkksxnt Stbhs. — conduce (strong, § 374, d), cc$uliu (weak). 



Pres. Ind. dOzco 
Pres. Subj. duzca 

Impkrat. 

Imperf. ducia 



con' 
duces duce ducimos ducis ducen. 
diizcas duzca duzcfimos duzciUs dQzcan. 
duce duzca duzcfimos ducid dnzcan. 
-las -(a -lamos -lais -(an. 



-«roii(§443). 
-eran. 
-esen. 
•Cren. 



-an. 



Prbtbrit Stem. — conduj (§ 453). 

Past Def. diye di^iste d^o di^'^inos -fsteis 

1 Imp. Subj. dH)-era -eras -9ra -^ramos -^rais 

2 Imp. Subj. duj-ese -eses -ese -^semos -^seis 
Fur. Subj. dt^-ire -Sres -9re -^remos -^rels 

Future Stem. — Regular. 
Future. ducir-^ -as -a -^mos -^is 

Condit. ducir-Ca -las -(a -{amos -fais -fan. 

a. Dncir (Lat. ducifre), to lead, is not in use, as a simple verb, 
since the close of the fifteenth century. , 

539. Decir, diciendo» dicho, to say, to telL 

Presbict Stems. — die (strong) • dlo (tonic weak), dec (atonic weak). 
Pres. Ind. di^o dices dice decimos decis dicen* 
Pres. Subj^ dl^a dlgas dl^^ digftmos digals dlgan. 

Imperat. •: di({45o)dlga digamos decid digan. 

Imperf. .dec(a -las -la -(amos -fais -(an. 



Past Def. dije 

1 Imp. Subj. d^-era 

2 Imp. Subj. dy>Sse 
FuT. Subj. d^-Sre 



Preterit Stem.— dij (§ 459). 

dljiste d^o dy-imos -fsteis 

-Sras -era -frames -^rals 

-eses -Sse -^emos -^els 

-Srea -Sre -^remos -^rels 



-5ron(§443). 
-Sran. 
-Ssen. 
-Sren* 



256 



Form and Inflection. 



FOTUIIB STBM.~dlr (ff45S)- 

Firrotx. dlr-^ -&s -a -^mos -^is -in. 

CoNDiT. dlr>U •£as ^fa -(amos -(ais -(an. 

tf . The special form dls, they say^ seems to be a contraction of 
the Latin dicitur (dt'cti-ur, dist^ like nios-o from must-us) . It is a 
quaint sort of a synonym for j^ dice or ^<<c^;f : — 

diB que ese labrador es rico, | they say that fanner is rich. 

b. Like decir^ are inflected all the compounds, such as antedecir^ 
contradecir^ desdecir, entrededry interdecir^ predecir^ save only in 
the imperative second singular, which, in these, is generally dke^ 
instead of di. In bendecir and maldecir^ the variations are more 
numerous, as will appear by the inflection of the first. The latest 
edition of the Academy^s grammar makes all compounds of decir 
follow the inflection of bendecir in the imperative and in the future 
stem ; but this use is not constant either in literature or in conversa- 
tion. 



540. Bendecir, bendiciendo, bendecido^ (bendtto), to bless. 

This verb and its contrary, maldecir, to curse , differ from the 
simple decir, in the past participle, the imperative second singular, 
and in the future stem only. Thus : — 





ben- 






ben" 




Pres. Ind. 


digo 


dices 


dice 


decimos 


decis 


Pres. Subj. 


diga 


digas 


diga 


digamos 


digais 


Imperat. 




dice 


diga 


digamos 


decid 


Imperf. 


decia 


-las 


-I'a 


•(amos 


-lais 


Past Def. 


dije 


dijiste 


dijo 


dij-imos 


-isteis 


I Imp. Subj. 


dij-era 


-eras 


-era 


-^ramos 


-erais 


2 Imp. Subj. 


dij-ese 


-eses 


-ese 


•^mos 


-^seis 


Fur. Subj. 


dij-ere 


-eres 


-ere 


•^remos 


-^reis 


Future. 


decir-^ 


'is 


.£ 


-^mos 


-^is 


CONDIT. 


decir-ia. 


-fas 


.£a 


-(amos 


-(ais 



dicen. 

digan. 

digan. 

-lan. 

-eron. 

-eran. 

-csen. 

-eren. 

-an. 

-(an. 



a. The irregular past participles bendito and maldito are used 
little as such, save in a few expressions, as : bendito seas, blessings 
on thee; maldito sea, confound him — literally, tnayest thou be 
blessed, may he be accursed. 



The Verb. 



257 



541. Veiiir> (viniendo), venido, to come. 

Presekt Stems. — venip (strong), vien (tonic weak), ven (atonic weak). 
Pres. Ind. venif^ vienes viene venimos venls Tleneii. 
Pres. Subj. venga vengas venga vengfimos veiigfils Tensan. 



Imperat. 

Imperf. ven-fa 


ven(§ 450) venga vengfimos venid 
-[as -(a -(axnos -lais 


vengan 

-(an. 


Pmctriut Stkm. —Tin (§ 453). 
Gerund. Tlniendo. 






Past Def. vine 


viniate vino vin-imos 


•fsteis 


•ieron. 


I Imp. Subj. vin-iera 


-ieras -iera -Uramos 


•i^rais 


•ieran. 


2 Imp. Subj. vin-iese 


-ieses -iese -i^mos 


-i6seis 


•iesen. 


FuT. Subj. vin-iere 


•iires -iere -i^remos 
Future STBM.--Teii€lr (§ 454). 


-i^reis 


-ieren. 


Future. vendr-^ 


-&s -k -^mos 


-^is 


-&n. 


CoNDiT. Tondr^fa 


Asa -(a *(amos 


-fais 


-Can. 



Sixth Class. 



542. This class embraces a few verbs not easily redu- 
cible to any of the foregoing. 



First Conjugation. 
54a Dar» dando, dado, to give. 

PRBSBMT StBM.~</ RbCULAK. 

Pres. Ind. doy(§449)das da damos 

Pres. Subj. d^ des d^ demos 

Imperat. da d6 demos 

Imperf. daba dabas daba dabamos 



dais 
dels 
dad 
dabais 



Preterit Stem.— </ (second conjugation). 

Past Def. dl dlste di6 dimes disteis 

1 Imp. Subj. diera dieras diera di^ramos di^rais 

2 Imp. Subj. diese dieses diese dl^semos dl^seis 
FuT. Sub. diere dieres diere dl^remos dl^rels 



Future Stem.— Regular. 



Future. 

CONDIT. 



dar-^ 
dar-ia 



-as 

-(as 



.(a 



•^mos 
-(amos 



-^is 

•Cais 



dan. 
den. 
den. 
daban. 

dieron. 
dieran. 
diesen. 
dieren. 

•in. 
•Ian, 



258 



Form and Inflection. 



Second Conjugation. 

544. Cm«r, cayendo (§ 442> i)t caldo, to fall. 

Pkbsbnt Stbms. — o«lgr (strong, § 446, c), ca (weak). 

PRES. Ind. cUffO caes cae caemos caeis caen. 

Pres. Subj. cUca c&lfi^as c&l^a calgftmos caigSIs caiman. 

Imperat. cae cfilg^ calgftmos caed caigau. 

Impeef, ca-(a -fas -(a -iamos -lais -lan. 



F m i mi 'i' Stbm. — Rbgulak (but see $ 44s, h). 

Past Dkf. eti caiste cay6 ca-imos -(steis 

1 Imp. Subj. ca-yCra -ySras -ySra -y^ramoB •y^rals 

2 iBfP. Subj. ca-ySse -ySBes -yese -y^Bemos -y^sels 
Fur. Subj. ca-ySre -yeres >yere -y^remos -y^relB 



•^is 



# • 
-lais 







FuTURB Stbm. 


— Rbgular. 


Future. 


caer-^ 


•is .& 


•^mos 


CONDIT. 


caer-ta 


•(as -fa 


-(amo8 



-yeron. 
-yeran. 
•yesen. 
-yercn. 



-an. 



-Can. 



545. PlaodTi placiendo, placido, to please. 



Pres. Ind. place. 

Pres. Subj. plazca (plegue). 

Imperat. plegue (plega). 

Imperf. placia. 

Past Def. plugo (placi6). 



1 Imp. Subj. plugulera (placiera). 

2 Imp. Subj. plugulese (placiese). 
FUT. Subj. plugulere (placiere). 
Future. placera. 

Condit. placeria. 



a. The impersonal verb placer is now mostly archaic, except 
in ejaculations. Otherwise, it is replaced by querer, to wish^ to 
please ; giutaxle d uno, and parecerle d uno, to please^ to suit^ 
any one: — 



iplegne d Dios que se salve ! 
iplugniera i. Dios que jamis le 

hubieses visto ! 
vendris cuando te plugtdere, 
si 4 V. le place, 
si le gusta d V., 
si d V. le pareoe, 
si V. quiere, 



God grant he may be saved ! 
would God you had never seen 

him! 
you will come when you please. 

if you please, or if you like. 



The Verb. 



259 



546. The compounds of placer are conjugated like nacer (§ 374, 
^) ; that is, they are regular throughout, except in the present stem, 
when they are euphonized by the intercalation of a jsr with strong 
vowel-endings : — 

Complacer, complaciendo, complacido, to oblige, 
com- com- 



Pres. Ind. plazco 


places 


place 


placemos 


placeis 


placen. 


Pres. Subj. plazca 


plazeas plazca plazcamos plazcals plazcan. 


Imperat. 


place 


plazca plazcamos placed 


plazcan. 


iBfPERF. placfa 


-(as 


-(a 


-(amos 


-(ais 


-(an. 


Past Def. placi 


-iste 


-16 


-imos 


-fsteis 


-ieron. 


I Imp. Subj. placiera 


-ieras 


-iera 


-i^ramos 


-i^rais 


•ieran. 


2 Imp. Subj. placiese 


-iesea 


-iesc 


-i^semos 


-i^is 


•iesen. 


FuT. Subj. placiere 


-ieres 


-iere 


-i^remos 


-i^reis 


•ieren. 


Future. placer-6 


-is 


-a 


-^mos 


-^is 


-in. 


CoNDiT. placer-(a 


-(as 


-(a 


-(amos 


-(ais 


-(an. 



647. Valer, valiendo, valido, to be worth. 

PRBSBirr Stems. — Talgr (strong, $ 446, ^), vol (weak). 

Pres. Ind. valgo vales vale valemos valeis viien. 

Pres. Subj. valga valgas valga valgfimos valgfils valgan, 

Imperat. Tala^t^vale valga valgamos valid valgan, 

Imperf. val-ia -(as -(a -(amos -(ais -(an. 

Pkbtbkit Stbh. — Rbcular. 



Past Def. yal-( 


-iste 


-id 


-imos 


-(steis 


•ieion. 


I Imp. Subj. val-iera 


-ieras 


-iera 


-i^ramos 


-i^rais 


•ieran. 


2 Imp. Subj. val-iese 


-ieses 


-iese 


-i^semos 


-i^is 


•iesen. 


FuT. Subj. val-iere 


-ieres 


-iere 


-i^remos 


-i^reis 


-ieren. 




Future Stem. — valdr (§ 454). 






Future. valdr-^ 


-ds 


-a 


-^mos 


.^is 


-&n. 


CoNDrr. valdr-ia 


-(as 


.(a 


-(amos 


-(ais 


-(an. 



a. So also the reflexive verb valerae, to avail one^s self of (pM)^ 
to take advantage : — 

me valgo, te vales, se vale, nos valemos, os valeis, e/c. 

Be vale de este recurso para he takes advantage of this expe- 
engaflar y estafar i. la gente dient to deceive and defraud 

sencilla, simple people. 



26o 



Form and Inflection. 



54a V«r, viendo, visto, to see, 

Pkxsbnt Stems, — Te (strong), v (weak). 



PRES. IND. 


veo 


ves 


ve 


vemos 


veis 


ven. 


Pres. Subj. 


vea 


veas 


vea 


vefimos 


veSift 


vean. 


IMPERAT. 




vc 


vea 


veamos 


ved 


vean. 


Imperf.({45i} 


ve-fa 


.{as 


-ia 


-(amos 


•lais 


-ian. 






Prbtbrit Stem. ~r 


Regular. 






Past Dkf. 


v£ 


viste 


vi6 


viiuos 


visteis 


vieron. 


1 Imp. Subj. 


viera 


vieras 


viera 


vi^ramos 


vierais 


vieran. 


2 Imp. Subj. 


vicse 


vieses 


viese 


vi^semos 


vi^is 


viesen. 


FuT. Subj. 


viere 


vieres 


viere 


vi^remos 


vi^reis 


vieren. 



Future. 



FirruRB Stem. — Regular. 
ver-^, etc, Condit. ver-ia, etc. 



a, Ver was formerly written and pronounced veer (from the 
Latin vidire), and was regular in the present indicative and sub- 
junctive, but still irregular in the imperfect. Thus: — 



veo 


vees 


vee 


(veemos) 


(veeis) 


veeu. 


vea 


veas 
yee 

vias 


vea 


veamos 


veais 
veed. 
viais 


vean. 


via 


via 


v£amos 


v(an. 



In the past definite first and third persons singular, the forms 
vide, vido, from the Latin vidi^ vtdit, were used. 

549. Like ver are inflected all its own compounds; those in 
veer, as well as all simple verbs in -eer, like creer, leer, poaeer, 
etc., are regular throughout, save that the diphthongs ie and id 
must always be consonatUized, according to § 442, b: — 

a. Proveer, proveyendo, proveido, or provisto, to provide. 



Pres. Ind. 
Pres. Subj. 
Imperat. 
Imperf. 
Past Def. 

1 Imp. Subj. 

2 Imp. Subj. 
Fur. Subj. 
Future, 
Condit. 



proveo 
provea 



prove-(a 

prove-f 

prove-yera 

prove-yese 

prove-y5re 

proveer-4 

proveer-ia 



provees 

proveas 

provee 

-las 

-iste 

-yeras 

-yeses 

-ySres 

-as 

-ias 



provee 

provea 

provea 

.(a 

-y6 

-yera 

-ySse 

-ycpe 

•k 

-fa 



proveemos 

proveamos 

proveamos 

-{amos 

-imos 

-y^ramos 

•y^semos 

-y^remoB 

-^mos 

-{amos 



proveeis 

proveais 

proveed 

-lais 

•{steis 

•y^rais 

-jr^sels 

•y^rels 

-{ais 



proveen. 

provean. 

provean. 

-{an. 

-ySron. 

-yeran. 

-ySsen* 

-ySren. 

-&n. 

-fan. 



The Verb. 



261 



b. Creer, creyendo (§442, ^), creido, to Mievi. 



Pres. Ind. 
pres. subj. 
Imferat. 
Imperf. 
Past Def. 

1 Imp. Subj. 

2 Imp. Subj. 
FuT. Subj. 
Future. 



creo 
crea 

cre-(a 

cre-i 

cre-yera 

cre-ycse 

cre-ycr© 



crees 

creas 

cree 

-las 

-iste 

-yeras 

-yeses 

-yeres 



cree 

crea 

crea 

-(a 

-y6 

-yera 

•yese 

-yere 



creemos 

creamos 

creamos 

-{amos 

-imos 

-y^ramoB 

•y^semos 

>y^reino8 



creer-^, etc. CoNDiT. creer-{a, etc. 



creeis 

creais 

creed 

-(ais 

-tsteis 

-y^rals 

-y^seis 

•y^reis 



r. Poseer, po8eyen4o, poseido, to possess. 

Pres. Ind. poseo 

Pres. Subj. posea 

Imperat. 

Imperf. pose-(a 



posees 

poseas 

posee 

-(as 

•iste 



Past Def. pose-( 

1 Imp. Subj. pose-yCra -yeras 

2 Imp. Subj. pose-yCsc -yeses 
FuT. Subj. pose-yCre -yeres 
Future. poseer-^, etc. 



posee 
posea 
posea 
-(a 

-y6 

-yera 
-yese 
-yere 

CONDIT, 



poseemos 
poseamos 
poseamos 
-(amos 



-imos 
-y^ramos 
-y^semos 
-sr^remos 

poseer-(a, 



poseeis 
poseais 
poseed 
-(ais 
-(steis 
-y^rals 
-y^sels 
-y^reis 
etc. 



creen. 

crean. 

crean. 

-(an. 

-yeron. 

-yeran. 

-yesen. 

-yeren. 



poseen. 

posean. 

posean. 

-(an. 

-ySron. 

-ySran. 

-ySseo. 

-y6reii. 



55a Tac«r, yaciendo, yacido» to lie (Loit. jacire). 



"Pkbs. Ind. 

Pres. Subj. 
Imferat. 



yaces yace yacemos yaceis yacen. 



yazco 

yazgo 

yago 

yazca yazcas yazea yazcamos yazcals yazcan. 

yaacga yazgas yazga yaasgamos yazgals yazgan, 

yaga yagas yaga yagamos yagals yagan. 

^■^ yace, or yaz yaced 

yac(a; yaci, yaciera, yaciese, yaciere; yacer-6, -(a. 



Third Conjugation. 

551. Asir, asiendo, asido, to lay hold of. 

Pkxsent Stems. — asg (strong), at (weak). 
Pres. Ind. asgo ases ase asimos as(s 

Pres. Subj. asga asgas asga asgfimos asgSIs 
Imferat. — — ase asga asgiimos asid 

asla; a8(, asiersy asiese, asiere ; adi^ siina. 



asen. 



362 



Form and Inflection, 



552. &r, yendo (§ 442, a), ido, to go (definitely). 



Pres. Ind. Toy ({ 449) vas va 

Pres. Subj. vaya vayas Taya 

Imperat. ve(§45o) vaya 

Imperf. lba(§45i) Ibas Iba 

Past Def. fUi f^iiste fnA 

1 Imp. Subj. fuera f ueras fktera 

2 Imp. Subj. fkiese fUeses Aiese 
Fur. Subj. fkiere fueres fUere 
Future. ir-^ •&$ -k 
CoNDiT. ir-(a -tot -(a 



vamos vais van. 

vaySmos vasrfiis vayan. 

vamoa id vayan. 

fbamos fbals iban. 

f^iimos fUfsteUt fUeron. 

fu^ramos fU^rais fueran. 

fU^semos fU^seU fUesen. 

fkt^remoB fkt^reU fkieren. 

•^mos -^is -an. 

'iamos -lais -ian. 



a, Ine, yendose, fdose, to go away, to go. 



Pres. Ind. 
Pres. Subj. 
Imperat. 
Imperf. 
Past Def. 

1 Imp. Subj. 

2 Imp. Subj. 
Fur. Subj. 
Future. 
Condit. 



mevoy tevas seva nosyamos 
me vaya tevayas sevaya nosvayamos 
— vite v&yase vamonos 
me iba te ibas se iba nos fbamos 
me fui te fuiste se fa6 nos fuimos 
me fuera te fuetas se fuera nos fu^ramoa 
me fuese te ftteses se fuese nos fu^semos 
me fuere te fueres se fuere nos fu^remos 
me ir^ te iras se iri nos ir^mos 
me ir(a te irfas se iiia nos irtamos 



osvais 
osvayats 
fdos(§404) 
os'fbais 
OS f uisteis 
OS fu^rais 
OS fu^seis 
OS f u^reis 
OS ir^is 
osiriais 



Sevan, 
se vayan. 
vayanse. 
seiban. 
se fueron. 
se fueran. 
se fuesen. 
se fueren. 
se Iran, 
seirfan. 



553. Oir, oyendo (§ 442, ^), oido, to hear, 

pRBSBNT Stems. --olg^ (strong), oy (tonic weak), o (atonic weak). 

Pres. Ind. Slg^o Syea 5ye oimos ots 9yeii. 

Pres. Subj. 51ga Slgas 5iga olgfimos olgSIs Slgraji. 

Imperat. 5ye 5l£^ olgSmos oid Slg^an. 

Imperf. o-fa -las -(a -(amos -(amos -ian. 

pRBTBRiT Stem. — o (diphthongs tV, id^ consonantized). 

Past Def. o( oiste oy6 oimos ofsteis oyeron. 

1 Imp. Subj. oyera oySras oyera oy^ramos oy^rals oyeran. 

2 Imp. Subj. oyese oyeses oyese oy^semos oy^eis oyesen. 
Fur. Subj. oyere oyeres oyere oy^remos oy^reis oyeren. 

Fvruav Stem^^Rbqiaab. 

Furms. oir*^ •is -& -^mos -^. - -an. 

Condit. oir-Ca 4as -ia - 4anios -iais . -Can. 



The Verb. 



263 



S54L Salir, saliendo, salido, to go out 



Prbsknt STBMS.~B«lir (ttrong), tmt (weak). 



5. Ind. 
5. SUBJ. 

Xmperat. 

XlbCFERF. 



salgo 
saiga 



sal-(a 



I^AST Def. sal-( 

1 Imp. SuBj. sal-iera 

2 Imp. Subj. sal-iese 
FuT. Subj. sal-iex« 



FirruRE. 

CONDIT. 



saldr-6 
Mddr-ia 



sales 
saigas 

sal 
-fas 



sale 

saiga 

saiga 

-fa • 



salimos 

salgamos 

salgamos 

-tamos 



Prbtsrit Stbm. — Rbculax. 

•iste -id -imos 

-ieras -iera -i^ramos 

-ieses -iese -itemos 

-ieres -iere -i^remos 

FuTURB Stkm. — Mddr (§ 454). 

•as -a -6mos 

-fas -ia -famos 



salis 
salgals 

salid 
•fais 

-(steis 
-i^rais 
•i^seis 
-i^reis 

-iis 
•£ais 



salen. 

salgan* 

salgan. 

-(an. 

-ieron. 
-ieran. 
•iesen. 
•ieren. 



-ian. 



PJSJ ' JS Cr iVJS TEBB8. 



555. The following verbs are used only in those forms 
of which the personal ending begins with an f , including, 
however, the future : — 



abolir, 


regular. 


despavorir, 


regular. 


agnertir, 


like herir. 


embair, 


regulat. 


arrecirse. 


like herir. 


empedcmir. 


like servir. 


aterirse. 


like herir. 


garantir. 


regular. 


desmarrirse, 


regular. 


manir, 


regular. 



Ejuiinples. 

a, Abolir, aboliendo, abolido, to abolish. 



"Pkbs, Ind. 
Imferat. 
Imperf. 
Past Def. 

1 Imp. Subj. 

2 Imp. Subj. 
FuT. Subj. 
Future. 

CONDlT. 



abol-imos 



abol-(a 


.(as 


-fa 


-famos 


aboU 


•iste 


'16 


-imos 


abol-iera 


-ieras 


-iera 


-i^ramos 


abol-iese 


-ieses 


-iese 


-i^mos 


abol-iere 


-ieres 


-ieM 


-i^emos 


abolir-^ 


-as 


-& 


-^mos 


aboiir-(a 


-tea 


-(a 


-lamos 



-(s 

abol-id 

-Cais 

-(steis 

-i^rais 

-idseis 

-idreis 



-fan. 

-ieron. 

-ieran. 

-iesen. 

-ieren. 

-in. 

•(an. 



264 Form and Inflection. 

b. Agnerrir, agnirriendo, aguerrido, U exercise tn war, 

Pr.In. ^-^ aguerr-imos -fs — ^ 

Imper. ^-^ aguerr-id 

Impf. aguerr-(a -(as -la -(amos -lais -(an. 

Pa.D. aguerr-( -iste agiilTri6 aguerr-imos -fsteis ag^uirrieron. 

I I. Sj. a^^liT-iera -ieras -iera • -i^ramos -i^rais -ieran. 

2 1. Sj. aguliT-iese -ieses -iese -i^semos -ieseis -iesen. 

Fu.Sj. agulrr-iere -ieres -iere -i^mos -i^reis -ieren. 

FUT. aguerrir-^ -is -& -^os -^is -an. 

COND. aguerrir-fa -fas -(a -(amos -iais -{an. 

556. The verb raer, to erase^ is now replaced by rayar^ 
which is regular. The original form is, however, met 
with occasionally, conjugated like cder. Thus : — 

ralgo and rayOy raes, rae, raeinos, raeis, raen. 

raiga and raya^ etc, 

ra-(a; rat, raiste, ray6, etc.; rayera, rayese, rayere^ etc, 

' 557. Roer, to gnaw, has the following forms : — 

rdfh rolgOy and royo; roes, roe, etc. 

roa, rolga, and roya ; roasy roigasy and royas ; etc. 

a. Corroer, to corrode^ makes corroe — corraen in the indicative 
present, and corroa — corroan in the subjunctive. 

55a Many verbs are used only in the third persons 
singular and plural of certain tenses (see also § 422) : — 

a. Aplacer, to pUase (obsolete) : — 

aplace — aplacen. | aplacfa — aplacian. 

b. Atafler, to appertain : — 

atafte — ataften. | atafifa — atafifan. 



aquien lo de yufo en efta nfa 
carta contenido atafi&e / o 
ataiier puede, 



to whom appertaineth or may 
appertain what followetb in 
this our letter. 



•Law /or the expulsion of the Jews from Spatn^ A.D. 1492. 



1 



The Verb. 



265 



Cm Concemir, concemiendo, concernido, to concern. 



coBcleme — comclenieii. 
conciema — concieman. 

concemia — concemian. 
concenii6 — concemieron. 



concemiera — concernienui. 
concemiese — concemieaen. 
concemiere — concemieren. 
concemira, etc, ; all little used* 



559. The verb soler, to be accustomed to (past parti- 
ciple Bolido) has in common use only the following 
forms : — 



Fres. 


snelo 


snelM 


suele 


solemos 


soleis 


snelen. 


Imperf. 


solia 


solias 


soHa 


soUamos 


soKais 


solian. 



IBBlfiOUUkB PAST PARTIOIPUSS. 

560. Past participles are said to be irregular when 
they do not end in -ado or -ido^ like the primitive models 
habl-Bid^f com-idOf viv-ido. The irregularity proceeds 
from the original Latin form, more or less contracted 
and modified (classic and post-classic), and is found 
even with verbs that are otherwise regular in Spanish. 

561. Regular verbs in Spanish that have an irregular 
past participle are the following, together with their 
compounds : — 



abxir, to open ; 

entreabrir, to katf-opm; 

cubrir, to cover \ 

descubrir, to discover; 

encubrir, to conceal; 

escribir, to write; 

drcunscribir, to circumscribe; 
inscribir, to register; 

prescribir, to prescribe ; 

proscribir, to proscribe ; 

imprimtr, to print \ 



abierto (L. apertus)^ opened. 
entreabieito, half^emed. 

ciibi6rto(L. co-opertus^^covered. 
descubierto, discovered. 

encubierto, concealed. 

escxito (L. scriptus), written. 
circimscrito, circumscribed. 

inscrito, registered. 

prescrito, prescribed. 

proscrito, proscribed. 

i]DI»eso(L. itf^essus)^ printed. 



1 



266 



Form and Inflection. 



562. Irregular verbs in Spanish that have an irregttlar 
past participle are the foUowiog, together with their 
compounds : — 

dicho (L. dictus)^ said^ told. 
contradicho, gainsaid. 

desdicho, unsaid. 

interdioho, prohiHied. 

puredicho, foretold. 

heoho (L,/actus), madCj done. 
contrahecho, falsijied. 

deshecho, ■ undone. 

rehecho, done over. 

satisfecho, satisfied, 

muerto (L. mort\u\us), died. 

paettto (L. pos\f'\tus) , put. 



daoir, to say^ to tell; 


contradecir, 


to gainsay; 


desdedr, 


to unsay: 


interdedr. 


tofrokibit; 


predecir. 


toforeUU: 


haoer (obs.f acer) ^to make^ to do; 


contrahacer. 


tofaUify: 


dflibacer, 




rehacer. 


to do over; 


satisiacer, 


to satisfy: 


moxix,to die; 




poner, to put ^ to place; 


componer, 


to mend; 


deponer, 


to lay doum; 


disponer, 


to dispose; 


exponer, 


to set forth; 


Imponer, 


to deposit; 


oponer. 


to oppose; . 


proponer, 


to propose; 


suponer, 


to suppose; 


■olv«r (obs.)* 


to solve ; 


absolver, 


to absolve; 


disolver, 


to dissolve; 


resolvef, 


to resolve; 


▼•r, to see ; 




entrever, 


to get a glimpse 


prever, 


to foresee; [of; 


rever, 


to review; 



compuesto, 

depue&to, 

dispuesto, 

expuesto, 

iropuesto, 

opuesto, 

propuesto, 

supuesto, 



mended, 
laid doum. 
disposed, 
set forth, 
deposited, 
apposed, 
proposed, 
supposed^ 



volvor, to turn to return ; 
devolver, to give btuk ; 

envoi ver, to wrap up; 

revolver, to turn over; 



Btt«ltD {'L.^ol\vl^ius)^ solved. 
absuelto, absolved. 

disuelto, dissolved. 

resueito, resolved. 

visto (L. vistus for visus), seen. 

entrevisto, got a glimpse 

previsto, foreseen, [of, 

revisto, revievred, 

vn^to (L.vol[vl']tus)treturned. 
devuelto, given badi. 

envueltOy wrapped up, 

revuelto, turned over. 



563. The verbs bendecir, to bless, and maldacir, to 
curse^ have the regular past participles bendecido, mal- 
decido, although compounds of decir. The ancient 
past participles beiidito> maldito, are now used as 



The Verb. 



267 



a^dj ectives, save only when a wi^h or desire in the form 
of an exclamation is to be expressed : — 



IDios le ha bendecido A €[ y i. 

toda su casa, 
xia^die diga que es maldecido 
de Dios, (jeres! 

^l3endita seas tu entre las mu- 
I sean malditos todos ellos ! 
sigua bendita; una bendita li- 
mosoa* 



God hath blessed him and all 

his house, 
let no one say he is accursed of 

God. 
blessed be thou among women \ 
may they all be accursed ! 
holy water ; a blessed alms. 



a. " Blessed,^ throughout the Scriptures, is rendered by blen- 
aventnrado when it represents the Hebrew dskdrim^ and the Greek 
fuucdpios : — 



ibienaventurado el varon que 
no anda en consejo de malos ! 



blessed is the man that walketh 
not in the counsel of the un- 
godly! 



564. Bienqtrarer, to esteem, and malquerar, to abhor, 
have the regular past participles bienquerido, maL 
qneildO) but are more commonly employed with ser in 
the ancient forms bienqnlsto, malqnifito: — 



es bienqulsto de sus vecinos, 
no es malqtdtfto de ellos, 



he is much esteemed by his 

neighbors, 
he is not hated by them. 

a. These two verbs are oftener used as separable, and thus we 
say : les qoeremos bien, we are very fond of them ; no la quiso 
mal, Ae did not hate her. 

565. Freir, to fry, and its compounds, have two past 
participles, frefdo and frito, either of which may be 
used with haber ; but with ser and estar it is more 
common to employ the latter form : — 

, ffreldol , , , , ^ have they not fried the eggs 

^nohan<J^. ^todavfaloshuevos? p , 

los hoevos ya estdn frltoa, the eggs are fried now. 



268 



Form and Inflection, 



566. Xhjttilr, to grafts has the regular past participle 
injerido with haber and sery and the form injerto in 
other relations without an auxiliary : — 



fueron quebradas (las ramas) 
para que yo fiiese injerido, 

mi padre me dec(a que era Espa- 

fiol transplantado en Italiano, 

y Gallego enjerto en Romano, 

— EstibaniUoy 1646. 



(the branches) were broken off 
that I might be grafted in. 

my father told me I was a Span- 
iard transplanted into an Ital- 
ian, and a Gallician grafted 
on to a Roman. 



a. The orthography of injerir^ instead of ingerir^ b sustained 
both by the etymology of the word and the old form of writing it. 
Enzexir (pronounced ensherir) came from inserire^ and not inge* 
rire^ the s medial regularly passing over into sh ; old Spanish, x^ 
and modern, j. The Academy, however, recognizes only ingerir^ 
an untenable form. 



567. Matar, in its proper sense of to kill, referring 
to persons, has the irregular past participle muertOy 
like ntorir ; but, in the figurative senses, involving the 
idea of harassing, worrying, putting one out of patience, 
and, as a reflexive verb, as well as in its proper sense, 
referring to animals, it is regular — matado : — 



dlguien ha maerto {morir)y 
dlguien le ha maerto (matar)^ 
me ha matado con sus chismes, 

dice que yo he matado la vaca, 
^I se ha maerto {marirse) , 
^1 Be ha matado (matarse). 



some one has died (is dead). 

some one has killed him. 

he worried me to death with his 

gossip, 
he says that I killed the cow. 
he has died (he died), 
he has committed suicide. 



56a Oprimir, to oppress, and suprimir, to suppress, 
have the regular past participles oprixnido, suprimido, 
and occasionally the irregular forms opreso and 
snpraao, although the latter do not often occur: — 



The Verb. 



269 



se ha Bnpzinildo £1 Imparcial, 
la obra fu^ suprimida, 



" The Impardal^' has been sup- 
pressed, 
the work was suppressed. 



569. The verb prender in the sense of to arrest a 
person, has two participles, prendido and preso (Lat. 
prensus). With haber, either form may be used ; but 
with ser and estar^ it is customary to prefer preso: — 



ban prendido 1 , 
, lalreo, 

han preBO 3 

lleg<5 el alguacil y dijo, sed preso 

en nombre del rey, 



they have arrested the culprit. 

the constable came up and said, 
'* You are my prisoner in the 
king^s name.^^ 
todos estdn presos ya, all are now made prisoners. 

a. In all other significations, prender is regular throughout : — 
el fuego habfa prendido en la casa, | the house had taken fire. 

b. All compounds of prender have only the regular past parti- 
ciple. Such are : aprender, to learn ; comprender, to understand; 
emprender, to undertake ; etc. : ^- 



ha aprendido algo nuevo hoy, 

han comprendido la trama, 
el encaigo no fu^ emprendido, 



he has learned something new 

to-day. 
they understood the plot, 
the charge was not undertaken. 

570. ProTe«r, to provide, makes proveido and pro- 

visto, the latter usually with estar: — 

the government has provided 



el gobiemo ha proveldo lo ne- 
cesario para la seguridad del 



pais, 
lai plaza estaba provista de todo, 



what is necessary for the se- 
curity of the country, 
the fortress was provided with 
everything. 



571. Romper, to break, makes rompido and roto in 

the past participle, but the latter form generally prevails 
in all positions, when the verb is used transitively : — 



270 



Form and Inflection. 



han roto los cristales de la 

tienda, 
ae ha roto el vase, 
la fuente esti rota ; ya no sirve, 



they haye broken the window- 
panes of the shop, 
the glass has been broken, [use. 
the dish is broken; it is of no 



a. As an intransitive verb, romper is regular in its past partici- 
ple : — 



ha rompido con su amigo, btU 
ha roto todos los lasos, 



he has broken with hb friend, 
he has severed every tiCi. 



b. The compound forms of romper are regular. Thus: cor- 
romper, to corrupt i interrumpir, to interrupt; etc.: — 



sin ser corrompido, . 
le han intemimpido, 
despues de haber pronunpido 
en Idgrimas, 



without being corrupted. 

they interrupted him. 

after having burst into tears. 



572. Past participles are variable in gender and 
number, like adjectives in <?, when they are conjugated 
with any auxiliary whatever, except haber; likewise, 
when used as pure adjectives or participial adjectives 
without a verb : — 



ella tiene escrita una carta, 

las cartas estiin esoritas, 

las condiciones del empr^stito 

han sido publicadas, 
la cuestion queda zanjada, 
una leccion aprendida, 
los libros impresos, 
una hoja suelta, 
las simpatias granjeadas, 
ella ha escrito la carta, 
han emprendido las obras, 



she has written a letter. 

the letters are written. 

the terms of the (government) 

loan have been published, 
the affair is adjusted, 
a lesson learned, 
printed books, 
a printed sheet, a notice, 
sympathies acquired, 
she has written the letter, 
they have begun building. 



57a Past participles^ like common adjectiveS| are 
often converted into substantives:-^— 



preso, arrested I 



\ un preso, a prisoner^ 



The Vtrb. 



271 



t • 



$574. 



GENERAL ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



TX) THB 



INFLECTION OF ALL THE IRREGULAR VERBS. 





A 


k 




agorar . . 




• 


§488. 


abastecer . 


. like earicer^ 


§374.«- 


affradecer. 


. like careeer. 


§374.tf. 


abnegrar 


« 


fttgur; 


§468. 


affuerrir. . 




• • 


§555.*. 


aborrecer . 


M 


earicer^ 


§ 374. «. 


alebrarse . 


u 


sembrar. 


§463. 


absolver . 


« 


voh>er^ 


§491. 


alentar . . 




• • 


§459. 


pp. abmelto. 








allQTiebrar. 


u 


sembrar, 


§463. 


absonar. . 


M 


s'ondr^ ' 


§472. 


almorsar . 


II 


/brwar. 


§486. 


abstenerse 


<t 


tener. 


§536. 


alongar . . 


M 


rogur. 


§483. 


abstraor 


H 


H'dtr^ 


§537. 
§476. 


aznanecer . 


H 


careeer. 


§374,*. 
§474. 


abufiolar . 


« 


volar^ 


amoblar. . 


It 


acordar. 


acaecer . . 




§§374. «; 422. 


amolar . . 


«l 


volar. 


§476. 


acertar . . 






§458. 


amollecer . 


It 


careeer. 


§374.tf. 


aclocar . . . 


M 


trocar^ 


§482. 


amorecer . 


II 


careeer. 


§374.«. 


acoilar . . < 


M 


hollar. 


§475. 


amorteoer . 


II 


careeer. 


§374.* 


acontecer . . 


, • 


§§ 374. ^3 


\\ 422. 


amover . . 


M 


mover. 


§489. 


acprdari . . 






§474. 


andar. . . < 




■ 


§528. 


acomar . . . 


U 


acordar^ 


§474. 


anocbeoer . 


<) 


careeer. 


§374,tf. 


acostar . . . 


M 


eostar. 


§473. 


antedecir . 


M 


decir. 


J 539,*. 


acrecentar . 


M 


aUntar, 


§459. 


pp. antedicho. 








acrecer . . . 


U 


earecer. 


§374.<». 


anteponer . . 


41 


potter. 


§533. 


adecentar . , 


II 


aUntar^ 


§459. 


pp. antepuesto. 








adestiar . . 


U 


atestar. 


{462. 


antever . . . 


.« 


ver. 


§548. 


adherir . . . 


II 


herir. 


§500. 


pp. antevisto. 




• • 




adolecer . . 


« 


Carecer^ 


§374.^. 


apacentar . . 


M 


alentar. 


f4S9. 


adormecer , 


U 


Carecer, 


§374.«. 


aparecer . . 


M 


careeer. 


S374.«. 


adonnir . . « 


II 


dormir, 


§508. 


aperoollar . . 


M 


hollar. 


}475. 


adqulrir. . . 






§507. 


apemar . . . 


«r 


acertar. 


f45«. 


adudr . . . 


M 


canducir 


. § 538. 


apetecer . . 


w 


careeer, 


f374.A 


advertir . . 






§502. 


apoatari. . . 


H 


cosiar^ . 


I473. 


af ollar . . . 


H 


hollar. 


§475. 


apretar . . . 




1 


[461. 


aforars . . 


II 


sonar. 


§472. 


aprobar . . • 


II 


probar. 


}478. 


^ Regular in the 


(senseof'totune/* 


> Regular in die 


■ense of " to post *' men, 


* Regular when 


it meams " to gauge." 


guards, etc 









272 



Form and InJUctum. 



arfffUr . . . 


isas. 




a 


arredrse , 


§555. 


caber. . 


. . §539. 


arrendar . 


. like aleniar, \ 459. 


caer . . 


. . §544- 


arrex>entlrse 


. •* seniir, §499. 


calentar. 


. . like aUniar, $ 459. 


asoandar . 


. •* entemder, \ 471. 


canecer . . 


, . " carecer, $374.** 


asentar . . , 


. " altntar, §459. 


carecer . . 


• . §374.«- 


asentir . . 


. - MMtir, $499. 


ceflrar. . . 


, . " negar $468. 


aserrar . . 


, " cnrar, $46a 


cenir . . , 


§Si8. 


asir 


i 55*. 


cemer . , 


. . " perder, $470. 


aaolar . . . 


, " valor, §476. 


cerrar . , 


> . §46a 


aaoldar . . , 


, ** acordar, {474* 


cimentar . 


. . " alentar, §459. 


a0(»ar . . . 


, •• umar, §47*- 


clrculr . . 


. ** atribuir, \ 533. 


afloaeffar . . 


. " negar^ (468. 


clareoer. , 


, . •' carecer, §374,0. 


atafier • . 


§§378.*; 558.*. 


clocar . . 


. ** trocar, {482. 


ataiMier. . , 


, " entender, \ 471, 


cocer . . , 


§497. 


atanena • . 


, " Utur, J536u 


colar . . . 


. " volar, {476. 


atentar^ . . 


, " aUntar. §459. 


colefirir . . 


. •* regir, §515. 


ateiirsa . . . 


§555. 


colirar . . 


. " rogar, J483. 


aterrar* . . 


, " cerrar, §460. 


comedir . . 


. " fedir, {51a. 


atestars . . 


§46* 


comenzar . 


. " empetar, \ 469. 


atraer . . . 


, " iraer, J 537, 


coxnpadece 


r . " carecer, \ 374, «. 


atraTOsar . . 


, ** aprttar, $461. 


comiMurece: 


p . " carecer, {374,0. 


atribuir . . , 


\ 533. 


competir . 


. " pedir, §512. 


atronar . . , 


** joff ar, \ 47a. 


complacer 


§546. 


avalentar . , 


, ** alentar, $459. 


complafUr . 


. " phtnir, §378. <:. 


avaneceraa < 


. •• carectr, }374><'* 


coxnponer . 


. - foner, {533. 


avanir . . . 


, " tvifir, §541. 


pp. compues 


to. 


aventar. . . 


, ** aUntar, $459. 


comprobar 


. " probar, J 478. 


averffonsar. 




concebir 


, . " pcdir, §5ia. 


like agorar, \ ^ 


f88, anA/ortar, \ 486^ 


concemir . 


. . §558.^. 


aaolar . . , 


, like volar, § 476. 


concertar , 


, . " acertar, J458. 






concluir 


. ** kmr, §522. 




B. 


concordar . 


. *' acordar, §474. 


bendecir . . 


$540. 


condescenc 


ler " entender,^ j^ji. 


pp. bendecido. 




condolerse 


• ** moler, §492. 


biexiQuerer . 


.Ukeptern-, $534. 


conducir , 


• . §538. 


blanqueoer < 


, •• carecer, $374,0. 


conferir . , 


, . " Aerir, §5cxx 


brefirar . . . 


, " negar, $468. 


confeaar . 


. •* apretar, §461. 


brufiir . . . 


. " pla^r, $378.^. 


confluir . . 


, *' kuir, §522. 


bullir. . . . 


§378,0. 


conmover . 


, " mover, §489^ 






conooer . , 


• • § 374* c. 


1 Regular in tlu 


» more usual modem tense 


consefiTuir , 


, . " seguir, §516. 


of to attempt a c 


rime." 


consentir 


. . " sentir, §499. 


* Regular when 


it means '* to terrify.** 


consolar 


, . •* volar, §476. 


* Meaning " to 




conaonar , 


> . " JOHor, {47a. 









The Verb. 






273 


constitnlr . 


. Uke msHtuir, 


is^ 


deponer. . . 


like/tf«r/r. 


(533* 


constrenir. 


M 


ceHir^ 


f 518. 


pp. depuesto. 








construir . 


M 


Aitir, 


§522. 


derreneffar . 


M 


negar. 


)468. 


contar . . 






J 477. 


derrenffar 


U 


negar. 


I468. 


contender . 


tt 


eniender. 


§471. 


derretir . . . 


M 


pedir. 


512. 


contener . 


M 


teHer, 


{536. 


derrocar . . 


M 


trocar. 


I48X 


contorcerse 


U 


torcer. 


J 496. 


derrulr . . . 


•< 


huir, \ 


1 ■ 

•522. 


contracordar ** 


ac&rdar. 


§474. 


deaabastecer 


It 


carecer. 


1 ^ ^"^ 

l374t<'* 


contradecir , 


M 

» 


decir^ 


J 539.^. 


deaacertar . 


U 


acertar, j 


1 W w^' 

458. 


pp. amiradUko, 






desacoUar . 


II 


koliar, j 


475. 


contraer . . 


M 

1 


tratr. 


J 537. 


deaacordar . 


M 


acordar, \ 


474. 


contrahaoer . 


U 

1 


hac€r^ 


I530. 


deaadormecer 


> M 


carecer, \ 


374. A 


pp. ctmtrakecho. 






deaadvertlr . 


M 


advtrtir, \ 


502. 


contraponer . 


u 


poner. 


J 533. 


desaferrar 


II 


eerrar, j 


f46a 


pp. contrapmestQ, 






deaaforari. . 


M 


iMtar, j 


w 

47X 


contravenir . 


M 


vgnir. 


$541. 


deaaflrradecer 


« 


carecer, j 


' 374. <». 


csontribulr . . 


M 


atrihtir^ 


>593- 


desalentar . 


M 


alemtar, \ 


^0m W» 

459. 


controverttar . 


M 


adviriir, 


fsoo. 


desamoblar . 


M 


acordar, j 


474- 


convalecer . 


M 


carecer^ 


i374.«. 


deaandar . . 


U 


andar, \ 


528. 


convenir . . 


•• 


venir^ 


>54i. 


deaaparecer . 


M 


earecer, \ 


1 374. «- 


convertir . . 


M 


advtrtir^ 


}5<». 


deaapretar . 


«l 


apretar, ^ 


461. 


csorreerir . , 


H 


re^ir. 


\S^S' 


deaaprobar . 


M 


probar, 1 


478. 


corroer . . , 




■ 


iS57.«. 


deaarrendar . 


II 


aUntar, j 


459. 


coetar . . . 






M73. 


deaaaentar . 


M 


cUentar^ 


459- 


erecer . . . 


M 


carecer^ 


J374.«. 


deeaair . . . 


N 


osir, j 


551. 


creep .... 






J 549.*. 


deeaaoseflrar . 


M 


*<ffl''. i 


[468. 










deaatender . 


l« 


tntender, \ 


471. 


• 


D, 






deaatentar . 


II 


alentar, \ 


U59. 


dar 






$543. 


deaaterrar . 


U 


cerrar, \ 


1460. 


decaer . . 


. like^a^, 


*544. 


deaatraer . . 


II 


traer, j 


537. 


decentar . 


II 


aUntar, 


J 459. 


deaatraveaar 


M 


apreiar, 1 


1461. 


decir . . . 






{539. 


deaavenir . . 


II 


vefsir, j 


541. 


pp. dich4>. 








deaaventar . 


II 


alentar. 


1459. 


decrecer . . 


M 


carecer, 


}374.«. 


deabastecer . 


U 


carecer. 


f374.«. 


deducir . . , 


•1 


canducir^ 


(538. 


deabravecer. 


II 


carecer, i 


[374.tf. 


defender . 


M 


mttender^ 


!47i. 


deacabullirae 


N 


ifullir. 


!378,tf. 


def enecer . , 


II 


carecer. 


$374,«. 


descaecer . . 


II 


carecer. 


f374.«. 


deferir . . , 


•1 


herir. 


$Soa 


descender. . 


M 


eniender^ \ 


[471. 


defirollar . 


M 


agorar^ 


M8. 


descefilr . . 


U 


ceHir, 


1518. 


demoler 


M 


moUr^ 


§49* 


deacolgrar . . 


U 


rogar. 


483. 


demostrar 


W 


costar. 


{473. 


descollar . . 


II 


hollar, \ 


475. 


denegrar 


M 


negar. 


[468. 


deacomedlrae 


II 


pedir, { 


51X 


deneffrecer 


M 

M 


cancer^ 
costar. 


§374.«. 
U73. 










denostar . 


* Regular when 


it meaak "to n 


Ml«em a 


dentar . . 


M 


aUntar, 


J 459. 


heritage." 









274 



Form and Inflection. 



** actrtar, 
" comocgr, 

** volar^ 
** cotUar^ 

** acordar, 

(Ucir, 
aUntoTt 



«4 



de0oomponer» }Skeponer, 

pp. descompuesto, 
deaconcertar* 
desconooer . 
desconseiitir . 
desconsolar . 
descontar . . 
deaconvenir . 
deacordar . • 
deacomar . . 
deacrecer . • 
deader . . . 
deadecir . . • 

pp. (UsdicAa, 
deadentsr , « 
deaembebecerae, cmrtur^ 
deaembellecer/* cartctr, 
deaembravecer, car4cer, 
deaempedrar. '* acgrtar^ 
deaempobrecer, cartctr^ 
deaencarecer, " carectr, 
deaencerrar . *' cerrar, 
deaencordar . ** acordar, 
deaencrudecer, carectr, 
deaencruelecer, carecer^ 
deaenfurecerae, cartc4rt 
deaenflrroaar . '* costar, 
desexunohecer," carecer^ 
deaenmudeoer/' carecer^ 
deaex|8oberbecer,^ar^^«r, 
deaentendevae/* tmUmdtr, 
deaenterrar . *' cerrar, 
deaentorpecer,** cartcer^ 
deaentriatecer/* car^ctr^ 
deaentumecer/' cancer^ 
deaenvolver . " 

pp. desenvutUo, 
deaervir . . . ** 
deafallecer, , ** 
deafavorecer " 
deaferrar . . " 
deaflaquecerae , 
deaflocar . . " 
deaflorecer 
deafortalecer, 



volver. 



« 



servtr, 

carecer^ 

carecer, 

cerrar^ 

carectr^ 

trocar^ 

carecer^ 

carecer^ 



^533- 

♦ 458. 
4374.^. 
U99* 
4476. 

i477. 

iS4«. 

i474. 

{474* 

i374.«- 

i543« 

i539> 

i4S9- 

4374.*. 

*374.«. 

}374,tf. 

{458. 

}374.«. 

i374.«. 

$460. 

♦ 474. 
i374.«. 
J374.«. 
i374,«. 
§473* 
§374.«- 
§374.«. 
§374.«. 

4471- 

446a 

i374.«. 
§374.tf- 
§374.«. 
§491. 

§513- 
§374.«- 
i374.«- 
*46o. 

§374.tf. 

{482. 

§374.«- 
h 374. «• 



deaff olbemer, like acertatr. 



,'* carecer, 
•* hacer^ 



deatiacer . , 

pp, deshecho, 
deahelar . . *' kelar, 
depherbar . " €u:^t<^r, 
deaberrar . . *' cerrmr, 
deabombrecerae, carreer, 
deabumedeoer, carecer, 
deaimponer . *' pontr^ 

pp. desimpmtsto, 
deainTen^ar. " acertmr, 
dealeir . . 
dealeftdrar 
dealucir 
deemajolar 
deamedirae 
deamelar . 
deamembrar, 
deamentir. 



deamullir . 
deaoeirar . 
deenevar . 
deeobedecer, 
deaoir . . 
deaolar . . 
deaoldar . 
deeoUar 
deaobatruir 
deaoaari • 
deaovar 
deaparecer 
deapedir * 
deapedrar 
deeperecer 
deapemer. 
deepertar . 
deapezar > . 
deaplace^ . 
deaplecrai* • 



retr, 

" pedir, 

** h€iar, 

** srmirar, 

** sentir^ 

** carecer, 

" bullir, 

•* negar, 

" nevar, . 

** cartcgr^ 

*• oir, 

'* volar^ 

*• acordar, 

•' hollar, 

*' Auir, 

" desosar, 

** carecer, 

" pedir, 

" acertar, 

** carecer, 

" acertar^ 

" acertar, 

** entpezar, 

*' avnplacer. 



458. 
374. 



458- 
46OW 

374. <». 
374. «. 
533* 



4^ 
374.^- 
47*. 
SM. 

464. 
463. 
499. 
374. <». 
378. tf. 
468. 

417. 
374. «. 

5S3> 

476. 

474. 
475- 

5» 

48a 

48a 

374. «. 
SiUk 

458. 
374. «. 
458. 
458. 

4^ 
546. 
468. 



1 Signifying " not to dare," it is 
* Regular when it means to reduce the «Bd 
of a pipe or tube, so as to fit it to aaotlaer. 



The Verb. 



275 



deepoblar . like/r«^«fv *{ 478* 
. pps. dtspravtido and desprmfiU*, 



deetentar . 


, like aiemtar. 


{459- 


deetefiir . . 


<t 


c<ii*r. 


^518. 


desterrar 


M 


ctrror^. 


J 46a 


destituir . , 


H 


v{stiHnr, 


iifH^ 


destorcer . 


M 


tofctn 


«496. 


destrocar . 


M 


tr.ocar, 


*4fia. 


destruir . . 


M 




§SM. 


deevan^oer. 


M 


carecer. 


^374.*. 


dasFentar ^ 


If 




$459* 


desvardeoar 


• 


cartcer. 


§374.*. 


daavarironsMrsa 


» . 




like fornar^ § 486 


; 9Xid ti^0rar, $488. 


deavolvar . 


like wther. 


J49X- 


pp. desvueUo 




, 




detenar . . 


M 


i£9€r. 


*536. 


datraer . . 


M 


traert 


iS37. 


davolver . . 


M 


volver^ 


§491. 


pp. dcuuaUo, 




^ 




dezznar . . 


M 


atesiar^ 


§469. 


dtf arir . . . 


M 


hfrir^ 


J 500. 


difluir . . . 


M 


Auir, 


§5aa. 


diff arlr . . . 


M 


hfrir^ 


isoo. 


dUulp . . . 


l< 


hdr^. 


isaa. 


discemer 


M 


perder^ 


4470. 


diacemir . . 


M 


hcrvkr^ 


*503- 


djaconvenlr. 


M 


venir. 


*54X. 


discordar 


U 


acardar^ 


§474- 


dieantlr . . 


M 


SffUir, 


§499. 


dtflTninutr 


M 


Mtir, 


§SM. 


diaolver . . 


M 


vplvfir^ 


§491. 


pp. dlsueUo. 




• 




dlflonar . . 


U 


sonar. 


§47* 


disi>ertar. . 


U 


aceriar. 


J4S8. 


diaplacer. . 


It 


cqmplacer. 


iS46. 


diaponar • . 


U 


poner. 


iS33- 


pp^ dispueston 








distender 


U 


entetidsr. 


{47X' 


distraar . . 


H 


iraer. 


§537. 


diatribuir . 


(I 


afr^uiTt 


§533. 


dlvartlr . , 


M 


advertfr. 


§S<M. 


dplar . , . 


II 


mol^r,. 


J 49a. 


donair., • . 




» 


JSoS. 



aduclr • • . like ^ondueir^ 
elecrir. ... * t^f/A-. 
axniMrbaoar . * cftrutr^ 




** Cfir^cer^ 



embeb^oar 

embaUacar . " cfir^cer^ 
ambarmajaoar," cftrscer^ 
ambeatir . . * s,€rvir^ 
amblandacar, ** t^artttr^ 
amblanquacar, 
axnbobacar • 
amboaquacar, *^ 
ambravaoar ** 
ambrataoar 
amparentar 
empadanUr 



cartcer. 



• ** cartcer, 

carecer, 

carfcer, 

** carteer, 

^ ifletUaTf 



ampellar . . 
ampequanacar, 
empazar . 
amplaatacar, 
amplumacar, 
ampobreoer, 
ampodreoar, 
ampoltronacarse, cartcer, 

* carectr^ 
£areur, 

carecer. 



•• terriir, 

" fular, 
carectr, 

* cjur^ctr, 

** carectr^ 

*• cartistr^ 

*' ifarecer. 



amporoar . . 
analtacar . • 
enardeoar . , 
eiM^bellacarae 
enoalvecer . 
anoaUecar . . 
ancandacar , 
axioaiieoar . . 
ancarecar . 
anoainacer 
aaaandar . 
ancentar . 
encarrajr \ 
enclocar 
encloquacar 
encomendar 
ancontrar . 
ancorar . . 
enoordar . 



, " careeer, 

, '•* (arecer^ 

■** careeer^ 

^ carecsr, 

,• " canecer^ 

, ^ cartegr, 

, •** entemder, 

, ^ fdgttUw, 

. '* cerrar, 

, ** trocar. 



.«« 

.M 

M 

M 



eartcer^ 

iUentar. 

♦ • . » 

contar, 

sonar, 

acqrdar. 



538. 

515. 

374.*. 

374.* 

374, «• 

374. «. 

374.*. 

5x3. 

^4.«. 

374. «. 

374. «» 

374.«- 

374.«- 

374. «• 

459. 

555- 

4^ 

464. 

374.*. 

469. 

374.*. 

374. «- 

374. tf- 

374. «- 

374. <«. 
48a. 

374. <«. 
374. «• 
374. «. 
374. «- 
374. «. 
374. «. 
374. «. 
374. «. 
374. tf. 
471. 
459* 
460. 
48a. 

374.«- 

459- 

477* 

47a. 

474- 



276 



Farm and Inflection. 



enooreeer . 



enoovar . • 

encrudeoer 

encrueleoer 

encubertar 

endentar . 

md^ntecer 

eDdurecer . 

enllarecene 

enflaqueeer 

enfranquaoar 

enfurecer . 

anirorar . . 

enffrandecer 

enirrairae . 



like eareeer^ 
" acordar^ 
" sonar, 
•• eareeer, 
cartcer^ 
acertar^ 
aUntar^ 
carecer^ 
carecer, 
earecer^ 
earecer^ 
earecer^ 
careeer, 
agorar, 
careeer^ 
reir, 
sonar^ 



m 

M 
M 
M 

M 
« 
M 
« 
M 
M 
II 
« 
M 



anffrumacaraa, *' 
anffullir . . . " 
enhambrecar, " 
anhambrentar, ** 
anhastar . . ** 
anlensar . . " 
anloquecar . " 
^nluoir . . . - 
anllentecer . ** 
enmaGrrecer . ** 
anxnalecar. . ** 
anmarlllecerae ," 
anmelar. . . " 
enmendar . . " 
anmohecer . " 
enznoUecer . " 
azunudacer . 
aimeGrrecer . 
aimoblecer . 
ennudecer. . 
anorgrullacer. 
enrarecar . . 
enriquecer . 
enrobustacer, 
anrodar . . . 
anrojecer . 
enronquecar ■, 
enrofieoer . . 



u 



u 



•I 



a 



u 



u 



u 



u 



earecer^ 

buUir, 

carecer^ 

alentar^ 

atestar^ 

empexar^ 

Citrecer^ 

lueir^ 

carecer^ 

tarecer^ 

earecer, 
helar^ 
alentar, 
earecer, 
earecer, 
earecer, 
•earecer, 
earecer, 
earecer, 
earecer, 
<arecer, 
<arecer, 
earecer, 
probar, 
earecer, 
earecer, 
earecer. 



$474. 
}472. 

J374.«. 

J374.A 

*458. 

§459. 

§374.tf. 

} 374. «• 

§374.«- 

§374,<». 

4374.«. 

}374.'». 

{488. 

§374.tf. 

§Saa 
§472. 

} 374. «. 

}378,«. 

§374.«. 

{459. 
{462. 

{469. 

§374.«. 
h 374. d. 

§ 374. «. 

i374.«. 

§374.^. 
}464. 

§459. 

§374.«. 

{374.«. 

§ 374. «• 

{ 374. «. 

{374.tf. 

§374.<». 

{374.«. 

{374.<». 

{374.<». 

?374,«. 

{478. 

§374.«. 

i374.«. 

§374-«. 



M 



anrulnaoaraa, VOke earecer, 

anaalmorar . 

anaaadecar . 

anaaograntar, 

anaobarbacar, 

anaofiar . . 

enaordecar 

antaUecar . 

antander . 

entanabreoar, 

antemecar, 

antarrar . . 

antlffracaraa 

antontecar 

antorpeoar 

entortar . . 

antredacir . 

pp. entredicko, 
antreg-erir . 
antrelucir . 
entremorir. 

pp. tttuerto, 
entreoir . . 
entreparecaraa; 
antrepemar 
entreponer 

pp. entrepttesto, 
entretaner . 
entrever 

pp. enirevisto, 
entristecer 
entiiUecer . 
entuznecer. 
envanecer . 
envejacer . 
envardecar 
envaatir . . 
envilecar . 
envolver . 

pp. envtulto, 
enzurdacar 
equivalar . 
erffulr. . . 
emr . . • 
aaoabulliraa . " bmltir. 



H 



<« 



U 



M 



•I 



voiar, 

earecer, 

eUentar, 

earecer, 

sonar, 

earecer, 

earecer, 

earecer, 

earecer, 

cerrar, 

earecer, 

earecer, 

earecer, 

acordar, 

decir, 

herir, 
lucir, 
morir, 

oir, 

earecer, 
aceriar, 
poner, 

tener, 
ver, 

earecer, 

earecer, 

earecer, 

earecer, 

earecer, 

earecer, 

servir, 

earecer, 

ifofver, 

earecer, 

valer. 



§374,*' 
§476. 

§374.«. 

J 459. 

f374.«- 

§472. 

§374,«. 

§374.«. 

§471. 

§374.«. 

§374,«. 
§4fia 

§374.tf. 

§374.«. 

§374.«. 

§474. 

§539. 

§500. 
J 374. A 
§509. 

§553. 
§374,«. 
§458. 
§533- 

§536. 
§548. 

§374.«. 

§374,tf. 

§374.«. 

§374.tf. 

§374,tf. 

§374.«. 

§513. 

§374.«- 

§491. 

§374.tf- 

§547. 

§505. 
§466w 

§378.tf- 









The Verb. 






277 


eaoaadecex 


• . like carecer^ 


}374.tf. 




H. 






eaoannenti 


IT, - 


alentar^ 


[459. 


haber . . . 






f35X. 


eecameoer 


N 


cartcer^ 


J374.«. 


hacendar . 


. like alentar. 


J 459. 


esclareoor. 


M 


earecer^ 


J374.A 


hacer. . . 






}53o. 


esc^ocer . . 


M 


cocer 


}497. 


pp. hecho. 








eecolar . , 


M 


voiar^ 


i^T^ 


heder. • . 


M 


perder. 


J 470. 


esforsar. , 


M 


fontar. 


§486. 


helar • . , 




• 


$464. 


establecer 


M 


carecer^ 


f374.«. 


henoblr . . 




« 378.^1 


513. 


estar . . . 






}383. 


bender . , 


« 


entender^ 


}47i. 


estatuir . . 


« 


mshhiir. 


5524. 


benlr . . . 


M 


cefiir^ 


}5i8. 


estrefir&r 


M 


negar. 


{468. 


berbar . , 


« 


aceriar. 


U58. 


estremeoex 


t •• 


carecer^ 


$374. A 


berbeeer . 


« 


cdre'ceTf 


}374.«. 


OGttrofiir . , 


« 


cefiir. 


}5i8. 


berir . . , 






^500. 


excluir . . 


H 


Jiuir, 


{Saa. 


berrar . . 


M 


ctrrar. 


{460. 


ezpedir . . 


M 


Pedir, 


[512. 


bervlr . , 




• 


§503. 


exponer . . 


U 


poner. 


(533. 


bolffar • . 


M 


rogar. 


J 483. 


pp. expuesk 


'• 






bollar. . , 






$475. 


extender . 


M 


eniender. 


U7X. 


bulr . . 




■ 


5522. 


extraer . . 


M 


fraer^ 


J537. 


buxnedeoei 


• •« 


carecer^ 


4374.*. 


extrenir. < 


M 


c^ir. 


{518. 




I. 








F. 


■ 




Imbulr . . 


. like airihiir^ 


§523. 


faUecer . . 


, . like carecer, 


}374.tf. 


tanpedir . . 


M 


pedir. 


^ Sia. 


f avorecer . 


M 


carecer^ 


}374.«. 


imponer. . 


H 

\ • 


poner. 


{533- 


f en^Kser . . 


M 


carecer. 


}374.«. 


pp. impuest 


0, 






ferrar. . 


W 


oerrar. 


U60. 


bnprobar . 


«4 

• 


prohar^ 


$478. 


florecer . . 


M 


earecer. 


J374.tf. 


bicenear . 


M 


pensar^ 


§457. 


flulr . . . 


M 


kuir^ 


fsaa. 


inclulr . . 


•t 


huir^ 


^522- 


f oUar . . . 


M 


hollar^ 


U75. 


bidisponer 


M 


pOHer, 


*533. 


f ortaleoer . 


« 


carecer^ 


§374.«. 


pp. indUpUi 


fSio, 






forsar. • < 






i486. 


inducir . . 


M 


conducir^ 


$538. 


freffar . . 


« 


negar. 


}468. 


inferb: 


H 


herir^ 


{500. 


freir . . . 


W 


reir^ 


}s«. 


bifemar. . 


M 


acertar^ 


«458. 


YP^freido 


and/7-iV^. 




InfliiV , 


U 


huir. 


^529. 






■ 




biirertr . 


M 


kerir^ 


kSPo. 




G. 






pp. ingerto. 








irafiir . . • 


. XiVe plaHir, 


f 378. tf. 


Inbestar 


M 


atestar^ 


5462. 


(pemeeer . 


u 


carecer^ 


}374.tf. 


bijerb: . . 


U 


htrtr. 


§500. 


flremir. . . 


M 


pedir. 


fSia. 


pp. injerto. 








ffobemar . 


«f 


acertar^ 


}458. 


hiQuirir . , 


M 


adquirir. 


§507. 


ffruir . . . 


H 


Avir, 


JSaa. 


Insefirubr. . 


U 


stguir. 


?5i6. 


ffrofiir . 


M 


plaHir, 


(378,^. 


Instituir 






§524. 


ffuafiir . 


« 


plttfiir, 


1 378, c. 


bistrtdr . . 


It 


atribttir^ 


?523. 


iruarecer 


H 


carecer, 


5 374. «. 


biterdecir . 


M 


decir. 


f539- 


ffoameoer 


M 


carecer. 


J374.«. 


pp. mterdU 


JkQ. 







378 



Farm a$id Inflection. 



liit^rpoiMr . like /MP«r, 

p|i, imterfm€si0, 
Intorvvnir . * vttur^ 
inteo4uolr . '* condaeir, 
invaniar . . ** actrtar^ 
InTMTtir • • ** advtrtir. 



Ir . . . 



urvtr^ 



J. 
Jlmensar . . like tm^etar, 
juffar 



• • • 



le»r . . . 
liQuefaoer 
lo]M*egueoer, 
luoir . . . 



lulr . . . 

Uovar . . 

m»ld«cir • 
xnalherlr . 
malquerer 

maltraer . 



manifeetar 
mantener. 
mecer . . 
medlr . . 
melar . . 
mentar . , 
mentir . . 
merecer . 
merendar. 
moblar . . 
moliecer . 
moler . . 
morder. . 
morir . . 
pp. muerU* 
mostrar . 



" crfer. 



♦ 541. 

*4S8- 

§469. 
{485. 

♦374. tf. 

i549i^. 
iS5^ 

♦ 374. tf. 
i374.<<. 

§418. 
$540. 

Js«. 

$534- 

}47«. 

}S37. 

i474. 
§46a. 

§536. 
J373. 

$464. 

§459* 

J499- 

J374.«- 

J 459. 

§477. 

*374»«- 

i49^ 

§490. 

JS09. 



" castar, § 473. 



U 

M. . 

like btfuUcir^ 
Aerir, 

aUstoTt 



It 
«< 



M 



II 



" p<dir, 

" helar, . 

" alcntar^ 

** sentir^ 

contur^ 



muir . 
mulUr. 
muair. 



noffrecer . 
nevar . . . 



obedecer . 

obacurecer 

obstruir 

obtener 

ofrecer 

oir . . 

oler 

oponer 

pp. opuesto 
oscurecer 



*4»9u 
• like kmir^ \ sss. 
. " bulHr, $37«,tf. 
, " plaSiir, \jfi^c. 

N. . 

{374.^. 

. like carecer^ § 374, a. 
♦ 417. 

O. 

* 

, like carecer^ \ 374, a, 

. " carecer, } 374,^1. 

, ** huir, { 52a. 

, " ttner, §536. 

. " carecer, §374.^. 

§553. 

§494. 
, " poner, J533. 



carecer, §374,0. 



P. 



pacer, 
padecer. 
palidacer 
pareoer . 
pedir . 
pensar . 
P^Tdor . 
];>6reoer . 
pannanecer 
pemiQuebraTi 
persesruir . 
pertenacer 
pmrvertir . 
piznpoUacer 
plaoor . • 
pla&ir. • , 
plaatacer . 
plefirar . . 
poblar : . 
poder . . • 
podrecer . 



like tuLcer, 
*^ carfccr^ 

** carecer. 



w 



M 
(I 



carreer, 

carecer, 

umbrar^ 

seguir^ 

carecer, 

adv€riir, 

carecer^ 



carecer^ 
negar. 



far§eir. 



♦ 374.*- 

§374.^ 
§374.^ 
§374.«. 

§si». 

i4S7. 
J470. 

*374.«. 

}374.rt. 

§463- 
§516. 

§374. ««- 

§Soa. 

§374>#> 

iS4$. 

§378.^. 

§374.«. 
§468. 

i47«. 
§532. 
{374.A 



The VeH>. 



279 



pp. ptusto, 

kr . . . iSW.^. 

• . like /oicer, §533. 

. •* conoctTt §374f<^' 
. « decir. fs39» 
pp. jfiredicka, 
pr^edifipozier . '* /^»^r, 

I^« prtdi^utsto, 
pireferir. , . " A^Wr, 
prelucir . . • '* /««>, 
prexnorir . ^ •* morir^ 

pp. premuerto, 

preponer . . 

pp. prepuesto, 

pz*esentir . . 

presuponer . 

pp. presitpuesto, 
prevaJecer 



{533* 

§500. 

§374. '^• 
§509. 



/tf««-, §533- 



sentir, 
pon'er^ 



§499. 
§533- 



prevaler , . 

prevenir . . 

prever . . . 

pp. previsto, 

probar . , . 

producir . . 

ppoferlr . . 

proxnover. . 

proponer . . 

pp. propuesto, 

prosefiTuir . . 

prostitulr . . 

proveer . . 



II 
II 
«i 
i< 



carectr^ 

valer^ 

vetiir^ 



§374.'»- 
§547. 
§541. 
§548. 



§478. 
" conducir, §538. 

•• htrir^ §500. 
" ittover; § 489. 
" poHcr, §533. 



« segmr^ §516. 
'* instUuir^ § 524. 

§549.«. 
pps. proveido and provisto, 

provenir . . liketvncr, §541. 

§510. 



pudrir . . . 

quebrar . . 
querer . . . 

radr . . • . 
rarefacer . . 

pp. rare/echo. 



like stmbrar, . § 463. 
§534. 

§556. 
like satisfacer, § 531. 

•* carectr, §374, a. 



reapretar . 
reavantar . 
rebendeolr 
reblandeoer 
rebuUirso 



recalantar 



zecluir 



recolar . 
reoolegir 
reoomendar . 
raooznponer . 

pp. rtcompuesio, 
reoonduclr . 
reconocer . . 
reeonstruir . 
recontar . . 
reconve^acer, 
reoonvenlr . 
recordar • . 
reeoBtar . . 
racracer • . 
recrudecer . 
redariTuir . . 
redolar . . • 
reducir . . . 
raalegir . . . 
reancomandar, 
refarir . . . 
reflorecar . . 
raflalr . . . 
reforsar. . . 
refiregar. . . 
reftreir . . . 



bke careceTt 

** aprtiar, 

" alemiar, 

•* bendecif^ 

** carecer^ 

- buUtr, 

** caer^ 

** aUutar^ 

volar, 
regir, 
alemiar, 
ptnur. 



M 



conducir, 

kuir^ 

contar^ 

carecer^ 

vetur, 

acordar^ 

CDstar^ 

cancer^ 

carecer^ 

arguir, 

moler^ 

amducir^ 

negir, 

aUutar, 

herir^ 

carecer, 

huir^ 

forzar^ 

negar, 

reitr. 



pp. refreido and refrito. 



resafiir . 
regar . . . 
refflmentar 
raffir . . . 
regroldar . 
reirrunlr • 



like//tf«i>, 
•* negar, 
* aleutlr, 

** agorar, 
- piaBir, 



374. «. 
46X. 

459- 

540. 

374. tf. 

378. «. 

544- 

459. 

459. 

5l«. 

S^ 

497. 

47«. 

459. 
533- 

53«. 
374. <?. 
5M. 

477. 
374. «. 
541. 
474. 
473. 
374. «. 
374. «. 
5*6. 

49a. 

S3«. 
515. 
459. 
50a 

374r«. 

Saa. 

486. 

468. 
5«. 

378, c. 
468. 

459* 

515. 
488. 

378.*. 



28o 



Form and Inflection, 



rofaaoer. • . 


VikAkacer, 


§530. 


raaexttlrae . 


. Uke s^ftt^r, f 499. 1 


pp. rektckOt 


, 




reaolver . . 


. " volver, ^491. 1 


rehenchir . , 


. •• henchir. 


§378.^ 


pp. resuelio. 


1 


relMrir . . , 


, " kerir^ 


§500. 


resollar . . 


. " hollar, §475- 1 


reherrar . . 


, "• cerrar. 


§460. 


resonar . . 


, •* sonar, $472- 1 


reliervlr • , 


, " Aervir, 


§503. 


reeplandecer, 


, *• carecer, ^374«A 1 


rehoUar. • 


, " Aol/ar, 


§475. 


reaquebrar 


. •* sem&rar, ^ 463. 


rehttir . . . 


, •* Auir, 


§5M. 


reatablecer 


. " carecer, $374*<*> 


rebumedaoei 


% " carectr^ 


§374. «. 


restltuir . . 


. '* snstUmsr, § 524. 


relr. . . . 


1 


§5*. 


reatrefirar . 


. " negar, §468. 


rejuveneoer , 


► " carecer^ 


§374. «. 


reatrinir . . 


. •• plaMir, is7»,c. 


retontecer 


, " carecer^ 


§374.«. 


retallecer . . 


, ** carecer, §374.«- 


relucir . . . 


, ** lucir. 


§374. <<. 


retemblar . , 


. " Senear, ^ 463. 


remeodar . . 


, " aUntar^ 


§459. 


retener . . 


. •• tener, §536. 


rementir . 


, " s^fUir, 


§499. 


retentar . . 


. •* alentar, §459. 


romolar. . . 


, •* volar. 


§476. 


retefiir . . 


. " cenir, J 518. 


remoler. . . 


, *• moUr, 


§49* 


retinir . . . 


. " planir, k^Z,c, 


remorder . . 


, " moriUr, 


§490. 


retofiecer . 


. " carecer, {374.<». 


remover . . 


•* mover. 


§489. 


retorcer . . 


. " forcer, §496. j 


remullir. . 


, " du/Ur, 


§ 378. fl. 


retostar . . . 


" costar, §473. , 


renaoer . . . 


*• nacer. 


§374.*. 


retraer . . , 


. ** traer, §537. 


rendlr . . . 


" servir. 


§513. 


retribuir . , 


. " dtribuir, § 523. 


reneffar . . . 


, " negar. 


§468. 


retronar . . 


. •* sonar, §473. 


reDovar . . . 


, ** sonar. 


§472. 


retrotraer . 


. " traer, §537. ^ 


renir . . . , 


, - ce^ir, 


§518. 


revejeeer . 


. •* carecer, §374.^1. 


repacer . . 


, ** naeer. 


§ 374. *• 


revenirae . 


. " venir, \^i, \ 


repadecer. , 


, " canctr. 


§ 374. «. 


rerentar . 


, •* alentar, J 459. 


repadir . . . 


. " P^dir, 


§512. 


rever . . . 


. ** «f^ §548. 


repenaar . , 


, " pensar. 


§457. 


pp. revisto. 




repetir . . , 


. " pedir. 


§512. 


reverdecer 


, •• carecer, §374.«- 


replegar . . 


•• negar 


§468. 


reverter. . 


. " perder, §470. 


repoblar . . 


, •• sonar. 


§472. 


revestir . . 


, " sef^ir, $513. 


repodrir . . 


, " podrir. 


§510. 


revolar . . 


. *' volar, §476. 


reponer . . . 


, " potter. 


§533. 


revolcarae . . 


. " trocar, §482. 


pp. repuesto. 






revolver . , 


, " volver, §49Z. 


reprobar . . 


, •* probar. 


§478. 


pp. revuelto. 




reproducir . 


" conducir, \ 538. 


robustecer 


. " carecer, §374,«, 


repudrir . 


. •• podrir. 


§510. 


rodar . . • 


, " sonar, §472. 


requebrar . 


, " cerrar. 


§46a 


roer . . . 


§557. 


reauerer . , 


, ** querer. 


§534. 


rogar . • • , 


. . §483. 


reQuerir . , 


, ** Aerir, . 


§500. 






reaaber / . . 


. " saier. 


§535. 




S. 

■ ■ 


reaalir . . . 


. " saiir, 


§554. 


saber . • . . 


§535. 


reaeffar . . 


, " n<gar, 


§468. 


salir . . . . 


§554. 


reaambrar. 


, *• sembrar 


.§463. 


aalpimentar , 


. like akmiar, § 459. 









The Verb. 








281 


aalpuUIr . . 


like hdlir. 


J378;«. 


aubaxrandar. 


. like aieniar. 


§499. 


flarmentar. . 


u 


aientar. 


§459. 


aubentendar, 


M 


entender. 


§471. 


oarpullir . . 


M 


bullir, . 


f 378. a. 


aubaa^rulr . 


«« 


seguir. 


§516. 


satisfacer . . 






§531. 


aubatitulr . 


M 


imjtituir. 


§524. 


pp. saiis/eck^. 




• 




Bubatraer . 


<« 


traer, 


§537. 


aesrar .... 


H 


^ntgar. 


§468. 


aubtandar . 


M 


entender. 


§471. 


aesruir . . . 




« 


$5X6. 


aubvanlr . 


II 


venir. 


JS4«. 


aembrar . • 






§463. 


aubvertir . 


11 


advertir. 


}5oa. 


aementar • . 


.W 


aUntar^ 


§459. 


auffarir . . 


M 


Aerir, 


§500. 


aentar . . . 


a 


-aUtUar; 


{459. 


auparponar 


M 


poner. 


§533. 


aentir. . • . 






§499. 


pp. superptusto. 






Bor . • • • « 






§385. 


aupervenlr 


« 
> 


venir. 


§541. 


aerrar . . . 


M 


cerrar^ 


§46a 


auponar. . , 


t 


poner,. 


§533. 


aervir. . . . 






§513. 


pp. supuesto. 




• • • 




aimanzar . . 


u 


.empetar^ 


$469. 


auatitulr . 


w 

• 


WwW^W^WW^WW * 


§524. 


aobrecreoar . 


M 


careur^ 


§374.tf. 


auatraer 


« 


traer. 


§'>37. 


aobroontandar 


» 


entemder 


.*47l. 










aobrentender, 


M 


entender 


. § 471. 




T. 






aobreponer . 


M 


poner. 


§533. 


tallacar . . . 


, like carecer. 


§374.«. 


pp. sa^epuesio. 








tafiar . . , 








§ 378, *. 


aobreaaUr . . 


M 


saiir. 


{554. 


tamblar . , 




u 


semkrar. 


§463. 


aobreaembrar. 


M 


semdrar^ 


J463. 


tender . . 




M 


entender. 


§471. 


aobreaolar. . 


U 


volar^ 


§476. 


tener . . . 








§536. 


aobrevenlr . 


U 


• 


[541. 


tentar 




M 


alentar. 


§459. 


aobrevantar . 


M 


aientar. 


§459. 


tenlr . . . 




M 


eeftir. 


§518. 


aobreverterae, 


« 


perier. 


f470. 


torcer . . 








§496. 


aobreveatir . 


U 


uniir. 


{499. 


tostar . 




M 


costar. 


§473. 


aofreir . . . 


« 


reir. 


{sao. 


traducir 




« 


conducir. 


§538. 


pps. so/reido and so/Hio, 




traer . . . 








§537. 


aolar . . . . ] 


Ike voiar. 


{476. 


tranacander . 


M 


entender. 


§471. 


aoldar . . . 


u 


acardar. 


{474. 


tranafreffar , 


M 


negar. 


§468. 


aoler .... 






{559. 


tranalucirae 


«l 


Incir, 


} 374. * 


aoltar. . . . 


u 


acordar^ 


§474. 


tranaponer . 


M 


poner. 


§ 533. 


[aolver] . . . 


M 


voh/er. 


§491. 


pp. tramspuesti 


9. 






pp. ntelto. 








traaoender 


« 


entender. 


§471. 


aoUar. . . . 


M 


hollar, 


{475. 


traacolar . 


u 


volar. 


§476. 


aomover . . 


« 


mover. 


§489. 


traacordarae, 


M 


acordar. 


§474. 


aonar .... 






{47a. 


traaesrar . , 


M 


negar. 


§468. 


aonrelr . . . 


M 


reir. 


{5ao. 


traaferlr 


M 


kerir. 


§500. 


acmrodaraa . 


U 


volar. 


§476. 


traafk^ffar. , 


U 


negar. 


§468. 


aonar .... 


« 


sonar. 


§472. 


traalucir . , 


U 


lucir. 


}374,<'. 


aorrefirar . . 


M 


negar. 


§468. 


traaoir . . , 


a 


oir. 


{553. 


aoaefirar . . . 


M 


negar. 


§468. 


traaofiar . . 


M 


sonar. 


§472. 


aoatener . . 


M 


tetur. 


§536. 


traaponer . 


M 


poner. 


§533* 


aoterrar. • • 


M 


cerrar. 


§460. 


pp. traspue. 


1/0. 









zSz 



Form. 0n4 Inflection, 



txavvolAr 
traveaar 
trocar . 
tronar . 
tropeaar 
tuUir. . 



** volar, \ 476i 

" ofertw, \ 458. 

§48a. 

" J^4r, \ 47a. 

tumefaoerae, " sati^ac€r,\^^ 
pp. tumefecko^ 

V. 

yaler (547. 

venlr. . • . {541. 

vantar . . . like aUntar, \ 459. 

▼ar . . • • ^548. 
pp.vir/9. 



Tardaoer 
varter . 
▼aatir . 
volar . 
volcar . 
volvar . 
pp. vueltCk 



like career, \ 374 4 
" perder, ^470^ 
servir, 4513. 

trocar, §483. 
$491. 



Y. 



H 



<« 



yacer .... . , , {550. 
yuxtaponer . ^Sk&foner, $533. 
^'^,yuxtapuesto. 



zaboUlr . . . llke^fciZ/r, 4378.«. 
sabarlr ..." herir, ^5oa 
zambullirM . " bulUr, j 378,4. 



« ■ 



ft ■ 



The Adtmrb. 283 



The Adverb* 

\, Adverbs may be classed according to their fonn 
and signification. 

076. With reference to Xh^ir form, adverbs are simple 
or componnd. 

577. Simple adverbs are further divisible into primi- 
tive and derivative. 

57a A primitive adverb is one that is expressed by 
an originally single word, without affixes or etymological 
adhesions, as : — 

8i; no; bien; mal; luego, | yes; no; well; badly; presently. 

tf. Some adverbs* though simple in form, are etymolpgically 
compound ; -^ 



aeaso (from AenMo)^ perchance, 
amenudo (k menudo), often. 



despaolo (de ^mpsicio), slowly. 
ap^naft (A penas), scarcely. 



3. Many simple adverbs are properly neuter adjectives tempo- 
rarily used as adverbs: — 



alto, aloud. 
bajo, low. 
falBO, out of tune. 



mucho, much. 
poco, UttU. 
pronto, soon. 



86I0, only. 

Btibito, suddenly. 
temprano, early. 



579. Derivative adverbs are formed principally from 
common adjectives by applying to them the affix -mente 
(corresponding to the English ending 4y), agreeably to 
the following laws 5 — = 

a. Common adjectives in (fern, d) attach the affix 
to the feminine form: — 



284 



Form and Inflection. 



franco ; franounente, 
orgulloso; orgulloMmieiite, 
gracioso ; graoioaamente, 
acertado ; aoertadamente, 
cierto ; oiertamente, 



Remark. — Common adjectives 
end in -^, form their adverbs by 
manner^ never in -mente: — 



frank ; frankly, 

proud ; proudly, 

graceful ; gracefully, 
appropriate; appropriately, 
sure ; surely. 

of two terminations that do not 
a circumlocution with 



burlon, a, roguish — de una manera bnrlona, roguishly. 

one termination for both 
to the common form : — 



b. If the adjective be of 
genders, the affix is applied 



prudente; pmdentemente, 
cort^s ; oorttemente, 
f&cil ; fdcilmente, 

feliz ; f ellzmente, 

fiel ; fielmente, 



prudent; prudently, 
polite ; politely, 
easy ; easily, 
happy; happily, 
^thfiil; faithfully. 



Remark. — The affix -mente is originally the ablative singular 
of the Latin feminine noun mens, the mind^ which finally passed 
over into the popular signification of manner^ replacing the classic 
endings -/<r, -<, etc* Thus : — 

cert& nientey ciertamente, 
fiacili mentey facilmente. 



felici mente^ felizmente. 
fideli mente^ fielmente. 



At different periods of the Spanish language, the affix was vari- 
ously written mientre^ miente^ and mente^ and was generally separated 
from the adjective till about the beginning of the fifteenth century. 



580. The affix -entente is atozdCy and does not, there- 
fore, modify, in any way, the accent or structure of the 
adjective: — 



^peramente; fdcilmente, 
titilmente ; cortSsmente, 
dSrtamente ; certisimamente, 
fu6rtemente ; fortfsimamente, 



harshly ; easily, 

usefully ; politely, 

surely ; very surely, 

strongly; most strongly. 



The Adverb. 285 

When two or more adverbs in -mente follow one 
another connected by a conjunction, the affix is applied 
to the last adjective only: — 



clara y distintamente, 
justa 6 injustamente, 
prudente pero terminantemente, 



dearly and distinctly, 
justiy or unjustly, 
prudently, but decidedly. 



582. Adverbs in -^nente usually express manner, and 
in this sense may be equally turned into adverbial phrases 
by employing the adjective with the noun manera or 
modo, way^ manner: — 

seguiamente, de una manera segnra, or de un modo seipiro. 
tenninantementey de una manera {or de un modo) termlnante« 
justa y verdaderamente, or de un niodo Justo y verdadero. 



Adjectives derived from the names of countries, 
provinces, and cities, are made adverbs of manner by 
assuming the dative singular feminine with the definite 
article, agreeing with some noun understood like nsanza, 
usage ^ style ^ fashion : — 



h la espaiiola, 
d la francesa, 
A la valenciana, 
ii la andaluza, 



in the Spanish fashion, 
in the French style, 
after the mode of Valencia, 
in the Andalusian style. 



These forms correspond to the Latin more hispanico^ galtico^ 
Valentino^ bcetico. 

Remark. — The same idea may be rendered by the phrase al 
eatilo followed by the adjective, or al estilo de followed by the 
proper noun: — 



al estilo andalnz, 
al estilo de Castilla, 



in the Andalusian style, 
after the manner of Castile. 



286 



Form and Inflection, 



S0ft. Many common adjectives assume the femmine 
formula with d la^ when they express manner^ and adopt 

the adverbial affix when they indicate time: — 



d la antigua, A la moderna, 
antiguamente ; modernamente, 



in ancient — modern — style, 
anciently ; in recent times. 



585. A few adjectives derived from proper nouns also 
admit the adverbial formula d la^: — 



andar A la jineta,' 
vesddo A la maja,' 



to ride with short stirrups, 
dressed picturesquely. 



58a A very few derivative adverbs have the inorganic 
affix s^ which belongs to a comparatively late period in 
the development of the language : — 



Old. 

ante; 

dempues (^fW-^j/); 

dende (de-mde); 

estonge {ex tunc); 

mientre ([du]/« interim);^ 

quigab {quis sapii); 



MODBRN. 

intea, 

deapnes* 

djsjBde, 

entdnces, 

mientraa, 

quizia and quizd, 



formerly; rather. 

afterwards; since. 

since. 

then. 

while. 

perhaps. 



Remark. — In the adverb \6ioB,fary far offy the s is organic, the 
word being from laxius^ — by attraction, laixus and lexos, — the 
form in which it was written prior to the appeatance of the Acade- 
my's Dictionary in 1726-39. 



1 The jineie or ginete is a name derived from that of a Barbary clan,— the 
^^ni-Zeneta, — once the famous Moorish cavalry of Spain, characterized, 
aside from their armor, by their peculiar mode of riding, so that andar 6 la 
^eta now means to ride with short stirrups ^ alter the manobr of the " Zeneta ** 
^ainuly. • 

* The " Maja ** and " Manola " are Spanish types of women now only to be 
met with, as such, in the plays of Ramon de la Cruz, or on the boards of the 
Madrid theatres. • In their £atigue unifoi;ms of plain percalina^ their descendants 
are soberly employed in the government tobacco factories. 

* Compare Min^, old Spanish' for Dominiro, Dominit. 



Tk$ Adverb. 



287 



587. Compound adverbs consist of two or more words 
variously associated, as substantives, adjectives, aud 
adverbs with prepositions, adverbs with adverbs, etc. 



a. With the article: — 

d la clara, 1 .^ .. 
d las Claras, ) -^ ^ 
d la lafga, in the long run, 
d la ligera, superficially. 
d la moda, in fashion. 
d la verdad, trufy, 
al contado, in cash^ cask. 
al momento, instantly. 
al paso, at a wetlk^ slowly. 



al panto, immediately. 

al rev^s, ^tm the other side. 

al vivo, to the life, 

i. lo divino, in the sacred style. 

en el acto, instantly. 

en lo sucesivo, henceforward. 

por lo mds, 0^ nvos/. 

por lo m^nos, at least. 

por lo pronto, for thepreutU. 



b. Without the article, singular: — 



i. cahallo, on horseback. 

i, concienda, conscientiously. 

i, escape, in haste^ quick. 

i, menudo, often. 

i. pi^, on foot. 

i, porfia, persistently. 

£ una, together, 

con ligereza, superficially. 

coti todo, notwithstatuUng. 

de antemano, beforehand. 

de buena gana, willingly. 

de contfnuo, continually. 

de dia, by day. 

de etiqueta, in full dress. 

de fr^nt^, face to face. 

de goipe, suddenly. 

de hecho, de facto, truly. 

de improviso, off one'* s guard. 

de laiice» at a bargain. 

de molde, perfectly. 

de nocbe, i^ night* 

de nuevo, ^iriKn'. 



de paso, on on^s way. 

de prisa, in haste. 

de pronto, quickly. 

de propdsito; purposely. 

de raiz, radically. 

de seguro, surely. 

de snyo, of oner's own accord. 

de todo punto, whoUy. 

de tropel, pell-mell. 

de vista, ^ J^j^. 

en ^n, finally. 

en resunien,.i>f jA^tt^. 

en seguida, a/ <?^u:^. 

por alto, iw^r. 

por cierto, certainly, of course. 

por consiguiente, consequently. 

por mayor, <7/ wholesale. 

por menor, a/ retail. 

por supuesto, of course. 

por liltimo, i^tzi'/^. 

por Ventura, peradventure. 

sin novedad, eu usual. 



The Adverb. 



289 



b. Adverbs oi place: — 

sulelante; atrds, 

^ derecha ; d izquierda, 

sicjuf, allf ; adL, alii, 

axriba; abajo; encima; debajo, 

cerca; l^os; dentro; fuera, 



forwaid; backward, 
on the right ; on the left 
here, there ; hither, thither, 
up; down; above; below, 
near; £»*; within; without. 



c. Adverbs of manner 2^- 

asf; comot 
alto* or en alta voz, 
bajot or en voz baja, 
bien; mal, 
con el ab'ento, 
ine|or; peer. 



so; as* 

aloud, or audibly, 
low, or in a, low tone, 
well; badly <v ill. 
in a whisper, 
better; worse. 



and most adverbs in "menie. 



d. Adverbs of quantity: — 



mucho; muy; poco, 
m^nos ; por lo menos, 
mds ; por lo mis, 
demasiado, or sobrado, 
bastante; harto (asaz, ^j.), 
algo; como; ap^nas. 



much; very; little. 

less ; at least. 

more ; at most. 

too ; too much. 

enough ; sufficiently. 

somewhat; about; scarcely. 



e. Adverbs of affirmation and negation: — 



s( ; eso sf ; justo ; claro, 
por supuesto ; por cierto, 
ciertamente; verdaderamente, 
sin duda, 

no ; eso no ; nada, 
tampoco ; ni yo tampoco, 
nunca; jamis, 

f. Adverbs of doubt: — 

acaso ; tal vez, or qui«is« 
ap^nas; probaUemeAle, 
dlftdlmente. 



yes ;'that indeed ; true ; of course. 

of course; certainly. 

suiely; tnily. 

undoubtedly. 

no ; not that ; not at all. 

no ; nor I either. 

never. 



perchance; perhaps, 
hardly; probably, 
unlikely, improbably. 



2ga 



Form, and Inflection. 



89a There are also in Spanish a. great 
adverbial phrases like the following: — 



of 



A mim correr, at on^s utmost 
speed, \might, 

A mds no poder, wM all one*s 
i, mis tardar, at the latest, 
cuando m^nos, at least, 
cuanto dntes, as soon as possible, 
de acd para alld, hither and thither, 
de aquf para allf, here and there, 
de cuando eft cuando, ) now and 
de vez en cuando, j then, 
de hito en hito, (to look) through 
and through, ' {through, 

de parte i parte, {to thrust) 



en alguna parte, someTvhere, 

en cualquier parte, anyivhere, 

en ningiina parte, ) , 

f , ^ \naeuhere. 
en parte alguna, ) 

en otra parte, elsewhere. 
hby dia, ) at the present day^ 
hoy en dia, j now-a-^days. 
luego d Xxx'tgo^UttUbylietUtJamgi), 
paso d paso,<^^/ by step^slo^, 
poco d poco, Uttle by .tittle (de- 
gree), 
uno d uno, one by ofU^ one after 
another. 



591. Adverbs in -mente' are frequently replaced by a 
phrase composed of the preposition ooti, withy 2cci6. the 
appropriate noun : — 



francamente, . or . con firahqu6za, 

maliciosa.mente, or • con msilicia^ 

rdpidamente^ qt poa rapidSi, 

recelosamente, or con recSlo, 

enojosameatf^,. \ or conenejb, 

cautelosamente, or cpn cautila, 



frankly, r 
maljciQUsly. 

rapidly. . 
apprehensively* 
angrily.; -. - 
circumsp^ectly. 



Use of Certain Aa^erlM.' 



592. Some adverbs stand after nouns in the sense 
of ''up" and /* down," "out" and "in,** "before" and 
"after," etc : — 



escalera arriba, up stairs, 
escalera abajo, down stairs, 
cuesta arriba, up hill , 
ciudad abajo, down town, 
tierra adentro, inland. 



mar stfnera, seaward, 
camino adelante, onward, 
meses totek, months before, 
dias despueB) days afterwards* 
afios 9Ax^t years back, ago. 



The Adverb. 



291 



5M. The words acaso in the modern language, and 
▼entnra in the quainter style, both meaning fot" 
sootk, pray, are often mere interrogative signs, and as 
such need not be translated : — 



^ acaso soy yo el que tengo la 

culpa? 
^ acaso no me entiende V.? 
^es hora esta por ventura de 

hallar la puerta abierta? 
ly hab^isla visto algun dia per 

▼entiura? 



am I the one to blame (for- 
sooth) ? 

donH you understand me? 

is this an hour to find the door 
open? 

and have ye seen her at any time, 
pray? 



594. Aqni, ahf, and alii, with verbs of rest, bear the 
same relation to each other that the demonstratives este. 
esey and aquel^ do. With verbs of motion, they properly 
assume the forms aci, ahi, all&: — 



RXST. 


Motion. 




aquf. 


acd. 


here (where /am). 


ahf. 


ahf, . 


there (where ^'i?!/ are). 


allf. 


aili. 


there (distant from both). 


' por aquf. 


poradl. 


this way, here, hereabouts. 


'- por ahf, • 


■por ahf, 


that way, there, thereabouts; 


por allf, 


por alii, 


that way, there, thereabouts. \^ i- .• 


aqui estd, 
viene aio^ 




here he i$, ) , , _ . 
t- L } (where /am), 
here he comes, ) ^ . ' . . . 


abiesk. 




there he is, ) , ^ 

theiehegoes. 1(^'"^'*^'«"^>V ■■ 


ahi va. 




alUestd, 
aUd va. 




there he is, , ,. ^ ^^ u xi.\ 
^, 1 , (distant from both) p 
there he goes, ) ^ ' ■ 


^vive V. per aqui? 


do you live hereabouts ? 


coloque V. eso por ahl, 


set that there, somewhere. 



Remark. — Por ahf has also certain vague meanings referring 
to the whereabouts of persons and things, not easily translated. It 
is conveniently used when we do not know or wish to declare where 
a person or thing is, as well in a favorable as in an un&vorable 
sense : — 



292 



Form and Inflection. 



I d6adt estd fuhno ?-^estartf por 

anda por ahi como siempre, 
la cesta estd por ahi fuera. 



where is so and so ? — I preesme 

he^s off somewhere, 
he is at his old haunts, [where, 
the basket is out there some- 



a. We may say aqni en, Aere in (Madrid, where / 
am) ; ahi en, there in (ValparSiso, where yoii are) ; but 
wSUl an, there in (California, where neith€r is) — never 
alii fftL In good English, the adverb is usually omitted 
in such cases : — 



aquf en Filad^hia, 
ahf en Sevilla, 
alii en B<5ston, 



(here) in Philadelphia, 
(there) in Seville, 
(there) in Boston. 



b. By the same principle, da aqni means from here^ 
or hence (from what / have said) ; de ahi, thence (from 
what you have said) ; and da alii, from there^ thence 
(from what has been said). 

595. Donda, where^ is either an interrogative adverb 
of place, or a relative signifying which. Its meaning 
is rendered specific by prepositions like 4^ to ; an, in; 
i^yfrom^ and por, through: — 

Interrogative > 

where do you live ? (rest J) 
where are you going? {niotion*) 
where do you come from.? 
which way do you go ? 



^d6nde vive V.? 
^d ddnde va v.? 
^de d6nde viene V.? 
^ por ddnde pasa V. ? 



Helative. 

la calle donde, or en donde 

vive, 
la calle d donde va, 
la calle de donde viene, 
las calles por donde pasa. 



the street where or in which he 

lives, 
the street to which he goes, 
the street from which he comes, 
the streets through, which he 

passes. 



Tke Adverb. 



393 



Rbmark. — Doiide assumes llie graphic accent only when it is 
interrogative in a direct or indirect sentence : — 



^d6nde vive? 
no s^ d6nde vive, 
^A ddnde va? 
ignoro 4 d6nde vajra. 



where does he live? 

I do not know where he lives. 

where is he going? 

I do not know where he is going. 



596. The adverbs ago^ since^ are expressed by certain 
tenses of the verbs hac«r and hftbar used imperson- 
ally : — 

kacer habir 

liao« cnatro dias* cuatro dias bi, 

hacci mucbo tiempo, mucho tiempo Ii4 

bada un mes, un mes habla, 

hard seis afios, seis afios liabr4 



four days ago. 

long ago. 

(it was) a month ago. 

(it wiU be) six years ago. 



597. IkQsmo qualifies such adverbs of time and place 
as ahoruy hoy^ ayer^ mafiana^ aqui^ alU^ etc. : — 



ahora miamo ; hoy mlamo, 
ayer miamo; mafiana miamo, 
aqu£ miamo; allf miamo. 



this very moment ; — day. 
only yesterday ; to-morrow surely, 
in this — that — very place. 



59a May, very^ very mucky qualifies adjectives, 
adverbs, and adverbial expressions, in the positive 
degree : — . 

mny buenp ; mny bien, 



mny amado ; mny alegremente, 
mny d la ligera; 



very good ; very well. 

very much beloved ; very gafly. 

very rapidly, superficially. 



a. Likewise past participles of verbs conjugated 
with ser^ estar^ or their substitutes : — 



es mny amado» 
estaba may afligido, 
se quedd mny sadsfecho, 
may airado )• Jiray escaltado, 



he is very much beloved, 
he was very much grieved. 
he was very weU satisfied, 
very much angered—* excited. 



Form and Inaction. 



' 599. Miieho, much^ and mnchfiAiio, very mficA, 
qualify adjectives, adverbs, and adverbial phrases, in 
the comparative degree : — 



muoho mejor ; mucho peor, 
mucho mis ; mucho m^nos, 
mucho mds contento, 
muchiaimo mejor — peor. 



much better ; much worse, 
much more ; much less, 
much better pleased, 
very much better — worse. 



a. Likewise verbs, and past participles conjugated 



with haber: — 

lo siento muoho — muohliimo, 
no conviene hablar muofao* 
se ha quejado muoho, 
han 'sufrido muohiaima 



I regret it much — very much, 
it is not fitting to talk much, 
he complained a good deal, 
they endured very much. 



0. Muy cannot qualify mucho^ in the present state of the lan- 
guage ; . very much^ a great deal^ must be expressed by the super- 
lative muohisimo: — 



pide muohisimo, 
padece muohisimo, 



he demands a great deal, 
he sufiers very much. 



b, Muy can never stand alone without an adjective or an adverb; 
in such case it is always replaced by mucho in the signification of 
muy: — 



I es divertido el cuento ? — muoho, 
I estd muy triste ? — sf , mucho, 



is the story amusing? — very, 
is he very sad? — yes, very; 



but not mucho divertido, mucho triste. * 

600. Recientemente, recently, is reduced to reciSn 
when standing as an adverb before participial adjec- 
tives : — 



llegd recientemente, 
el reoien llegado, 
un nifio recien nacido, 
los reoien venidos, 
los reden casados, 
casas reoien construidas. 



he arrived recently. 

the newly-arrived person. 

a new-bom child. 

the new comers. 

the newly-married pair. 

newly-built houses. 



ThrAdvtrb^ 



^^ 



axL The conjunction «i, {/» is often employed adverb- 
ially to mean why^ expressive of wonder, surprise, or it 
may have the force of an expletive : — 

why, I did not say aoything. 
why, I just saw it. 
but, gentlemen, I have not men- 
tioned it yet. 



•i no he dicho nada« 
si lo acabo de ver, 
pero« sefipres, ai no lo he dicho 
todavia. 



60a» Si (with the graphic accent) signifies yes^ and 
may be strengthened and emphasized by adding par- 
ticles like tal^ que, or by its position. It is then trans- 
lated by yes, indeed, or by one of the modal auxiliaries 
do, did, would, etc. : — 



^loveV. ya? — 



■ital. 

•i qii« lo veot 
lo veo, si, 
r Altai, 

^ vendrd V. ? — i ■! que vendr^, 

[ vendr^, at 
^le conviene d V. esto? — o»o si 

que me conviene, 
^le gustan d V. los cuadros? — 

asoA af que me gustan, 



do you see it now? — 



will you come? — 



I do. 

indeed, I do^ 

yes, I do. 

I wiU. 

indeed, I will. 

yes, I will, 
does this suit you ? — that, indeed, 

does suit me. 
do you like ^e pictures? — those, 
I do, indeed. 



a. In contrasted clauses, si is likewise equivalent to 
indeed, I grant, I concede, or to any appropriate modal 
auxiliary : — . . 



pobre,' si; pero lionrado como 

ninguno,^ 
vendr^, st; pero no hoy, 
es licencia, b1; pero no po^tica, 

^ no lo quiso ; yo, wi, 
estos, si ; pero no aquellos, 



poor, it is true ; but second to 

none in integrity. 
I will come ; but not to-day. 
it is a license, I grant you ; but 

not a poetical one. 
he did not wish to ; I did. 
these, indeed ; but not those. 



1 In the dialect of the illiterate, /r^i^ H; pero houraa como den^rumOn 



»96 



Farm €md Inflection. 



b. After verbs of declaring, believing, suspecting, 
fearing, and so forth, the adverbs si and no are joined 
to such verbs by means of the conjunction qoe, tbat^ 
and are translated by yes or so^ not^ or by the appropriate 
modal auxiliary : — 

„ - (he says ** yes,** — •* no," or 

dice qii« •( — qu* no^ ^ '^ '' 

creo que ■( — que ao^ 






** that he will," *« — will not." 

{I think so, — not, or 
that I (he) will, — wiU not* 



y<f ttoit te l^paaUk. 



eoai Ro signifies not^ and always stands before the 
verb, or in default of the verb, after a subject-pronoun : — 

■otengo; ^notoigoyd? 
BO lo tengo; ^no lo tengo yo? 
yono; eUosno^ 



I haye not; have I not? 
1 have it not ; have I it not? 
not I ; not they. 



60t. Two negatives strengthen one another in Span- 
ish. Therefore adverbs like ni, neithery nor; nnnca or 
jamte, never; nada, nothings not awythingy require the 
verb to be made negative when they stand aftor the 
verb ; but, if they stand before it, the negative is not 
required: — 



no tengo ni pluma nl papel, ' 
no tengo pluroa ni papel, 
ni pluroa ni papel tengo, 
no le he visto nnnca, ) 
nnnca le he visto, / 
no me lo dijo jam^B,! 
\uaAm me lo dijo, J 
tal obra jamAs la tuvo entre sns 

Dbros, 
no nos hace &lta nada,! 
nada nos hace &lta, j 



I have neither pen nor paper. 



I have never seen him. 

he never told me so. 

he never had such a woric among 

his books. 
We lack nothing (nothixig b 

wanting to us). 



77(r Advirb, 



297 



a. Nunca and jamds may be associated in the same 
sentence to emphasize a negation : — 



ya no le hablar^ nanca JaniAa, 
zranoa JamAs se lo volver^ d 
decir. 



I shall neifer speak to him agaiii. 
I shall aever say it to him agaia. 



b. Instead of nunca or jamds^ the term mi ml vida, 

-without a negative expressed, is frequently employed 
for nevety never in my life : — 



en mi vida he dicho semejante 

cosa, 
en mi vida me habfa visto sefior 

de tanto dinero junto. 



I never said such a thing. 

never before was I master of so 
much money at one time* 



c. Nunca^jamdsy and en mi vida^ signify, on the other 
hand, ever, in clauses containing sin, without; ai or 
tampocOy nor; in interrogative and exclamatory sen- 
tences expecting negative answers, and after compara- 
tives or superlatives : — 



■in que diga nttnca lo que 

piensa, 
sin haberle visto janUfai, 
^c<5mo podr^ pagar nnnoa todo 

lo que le debo ? 
I podria yo ir janiAa A. un sltio tal ? 
tampoco se diga nimoa que yo 

le haya faltado, 
hoy esti peor que niinca, 
tiene la figura mte mala que en 

mi Tida he visto, 
(un animal) el m^ adomada 

que en mi vida he visto. 



without his ever saying what he 

thinks, 
without ever having seen htm. 
how can I ever pay all that I owe 

him? 
could I ever go to such a place? 
nor let it ever be said that I have 

slighted him. 
he is worse to-day than ever, 
he has the worst countenance 

that I ever saw. 
(aa animal) the most adorned 

with trappings I ever saw. 



605. Siqatera, even^ at least, may be e 
atively or negatively with no and ni: -^ 



?98 



Fomi and Infection. 



le rogutf me bicleae el finvor una 
vez aiquiera, [ra, 

no quiso rebajar un real aiquie- 
jd aiquittni una vez, or\ 
jd una vez aiquiMra, | 
ni un real alqniera, ar'h 
Hi aiquiera un real, ) 
no le ofreci ni uno alqniera. 



I begg;ed him to do me the &vor 

once at least. [(five cents)« 

he would not take off even a real 

not even once. 

not one real even. 

I did not promise him one even. 



606^ Tampoeo, nor — either^ no, can be used with no 
and ni when it closes a negative phrase, and without 
them when it begins one. In a series of two or more 
negative answers, it replaces the adverb no after the 
first: — 



ni yo tampooo, 

^quiere V. este libro? — no. Y 

ese ? — tampooo, 
no quiero ese libro tampooo, or 
tampooo quiero ese libro, 



nor I either. 

do you want this book ?-^ no. 

And that one? — no. 
I do not want that book, either,^ 
nor do I want that book. 



607. 7a, already^ now (Lat. jani)^ means, with a nega- 
tive, no longer^ not any longer, not — now : — 



ya no me habla, 
ya no hace &lta. 



he does not speak to me now. 
I dqn^t need it any niore. 



elDa Certain verbs, in association with others, are 
translated into English by adverbial expressions. Such 
are : volver A, followed by an infinitive, meaning again ; 
acabar de, followed likewise by an infinitive and equi- 
valent to to have just, while the infinitive is translated 
iby the past participle t — 



▼uelVe d hablar; d escribir, 
aoaba de salir ; de entrar, 
aoai>aba de llegar. 



he speaks again ; writes again, 
he has just gone out ; come in. 
he had just arrived. 



(Jiteralfyt he returns to speak ; he finishes to go iout;> 



Thi Adv«rb, 



299 



Oompartooik' of AdveriM* 

609. Adverbs, like adjectives, have the three usual 
degrees of comparison, but without variation for gender 
and number.:^ — 



Positive. 


Comparative. 


claroy clear fy, 
dootiamente; Uanukfy. 
ftelmoBte, faUk/ulfy, 


mAs oeroa, nearer, 

mds \b%9; farther, farther of, 

mAs claro, m^^r^ clearly, 

mds doetamente, mmt^ kamedfy, 

mds flelmente, more faithfklfy. 


Superlative Belatlve. 


Superlative Absolute. 


~ (lo) miU cerca, the nearest, 
(lo) inAs l^Jos, tkefarikest of, 
(to) mAi daro, ike most clearly, [edfy, 
(lo) mAs doctamente, tke most leam- 
(lo) m«« fielmente, tks most faiikfulfy. 


eerqoifllmo (J 180, *), v^/y nemr, 
UJIslmo, very far of 
clarUimo, very clearly, 
docti«lnmmente» %>ery leartudly, 
fldellslmamente, very faUkfidiy,. 



6ia Four adverbs have au independent organic com- 
parison : — 



BBtttlve. 


Comparative. 


Superlative 
Relative. 


Superlative 
Absolute. . ■ 


mucho, much. 
poco, little, 
blen, well, 
mal, haify. 


mAsy more, 
m^nos, less. 
mejor,! better. 
peor,< worsti 


(lo) mAs, the most. 
(lo) m^nos, the least 
(lo) mejor, the best, 
Ok>) peer,* the. ioorai. 


muchisimo, very much. 
poquislmo, very littlei 

matialm»» Vfry kadfy^ 



eii. Another form of the superlative absolute is con- 
structed by associating with the positive* one of the 



1 MAS blen, like Antes, means rather. 
s Occasionally niAs mal, worsf or worst. 



300 



Farm and Infiution. 



adverbs iniiy, bioi, very; bastante, harto, quite, suffi- 
ciently; 8iimaiii«nt0, exceedingly; etc.: — 

very near ; very clearly. 
a good way off, qtdte far. 
exceedingly well. 



miij ccrca ; bleu dare, 
bastante l^jos, 
sntnamanta bien. 



Remark. — A kind of superlative absolute is found in the repe- 
titioB of certain adverbs : — 



bien bien, very well, 
casi casi, very nearly, 
de par en par, wicU open. 



luegQ luego, very soon. 

lo m^nos lo m^noe, the very least, 

ya ya, very truly ^ quite so. 



612. Comparative formulae arc : ^ — 



aa Equality, with adverbs : tan — comOj as — as; 
no - ni6no8 — qne, not - less — tkan : — 



escribe tan bien oomo V., 
vive tan Mjos eomo nosotros, 
lee tan corrient ement e oomo su 

maestro, [yo, 

no viene m^nos amenudo que 
no trabaja con m^noa asiduidad 

qua el ofidal (§ 624), 



he writes as well as you. 

he lives as far oif as we. 

he reads aa fluently as iiis teach- 
er. [I do. 

he does not come less often than 

he does not work less steadily 
than the journeyman. 



a. With verbs : tanto como, or tasto cnaEnto^ as 
much as; no - mtooB que, not - less than: — 



estudia tanto. oomo (or cuan- 

to) su hermano, 
no trabajo mtfnoa que V., 



he studies as much as his brother. 
I do not work less than you. 



614. Superiority, with adverbs: mto — qne, more 
— than: — 



escribe m^ ripidamente qne el 

dependiente de banquero, 
vive mia cerca que V., 



he writes more rapidly than the 

banking-clerk, 
he lives nearer than you. 



Tk€ AAfsrb. 



•301 



a. With vert)s : mte que, mare than; mafor que, 
better t/tan: — 



escribe m^ que su hermano, 
vivird nUbi que nosotros, 
estd mucho mejor que dntes, 



he writes more than his brother. 

he will live longer than we. 

he is much better than formerly. 



Inferiority, with adverbs : mtoos — que, 
than ; no - tan — como, not - so ^^ as: — 



less 



escribe m^nos elegantemente 

que su maestro, 
no habla tan corrientemente 

como su hermano, [dntes, 
me visita m^noa amenudo que 
no me visita tan amesiide eomo 

dntes, [sol^t 

no obra tan de ligero como 



he writes less beautifully than 

his master, 
he does not speak so fluently as 

his brother. [than before, 
he calls on me less frequently 
he does not call on me so often 

as before. [used to. 

he does not act so giddily as he 



a. With verbs : mtaoe que, less than /no - tanto 
como, or no - tanto cuanto, not - so much as ; peot 
que, worse than:-^ 



sale m^nos que dntes, 
no sale tanto cuanto solfa, 1 
no sale tanto oomo solfa, J 
vive peor que sus vecinos todos, 
escribe peor que su hermana. 



he goes out less than formerly, 
he does not go out as much as 
he used to. [bors. 

he lives worse than all his neigh- 
he writes worse than his sister. 



616. The correlatives cuanto — tanto, the — so much 
the — y may be used with any comparative adverb. 
Tanto, so much, may be omitted from the formula in 
both languages, unless used alone : — 



cuanto mUbi habla, (tanto) m^ 

peijudica su causa, 
cuanto m^ estudia, (tanto) 

mim aprende, 
cuanto m^noa escribe, (tanto) 

peor sale su letra, 



the more he talks, (so much) the 
more he injures his case. 

the more he studies, (so much) 
the more he learns. . 

the less he writes, (so much) the 
worse his hand appears. 



30a Form and Inflection. 



oiuuito aiaoft, (tufto) m^ior, 
tanto peor para ^, 
tonto mejor para todos. 



the less, the better* ~ 

• 4 

SO much the worse for him. 
so much the better for all. 



617. Than before a numeral is expressed by de, in- 
stead of que, unless the verb in the first member of the 
comparison be negative : — 

se lo dije m^ de do» veces, 
hace mds de mes y medio que 

estoy aquf, 
no me dijo mis que dos pala- 

bras, 



I tokl him SQ more thaa. twice. . 
I have been here more than a 

month and a half, 
he did not say more than two 

words to me. 



6ia T/ian is expressed by do lo qua when the second 
member of the comparison contains a verb forming a 
complete sentence : — 

pide mds da lo que tengo^ | he asks more than I have. 

619. In the phrase, no poder mtooe de, to be able to 
do no less than^ the use of que is regarded in Spain a§ 
provincial : — 

no pudo m^noB de censurarle, | he could not do less than censure 

him. 

. 620. The use of the expletive adverb no, not^, may be 
admitted into the second member of a comparison after 
que, than^ provided the first member be not interroga- 
tive, or negative expecting a negative answer : — 



mils vale el contentamiento que 

no las riquezas, [nosotros? 

^no son ellos mds felices que 



contentment is better than 

riches, 
are they not happier than we? 



621. The relative superlative of adverbs is identical 
in form with the comparative : — 



The Adverb. 



303 



^ ^ qulen vive m§m o«roii, 
el que lee m^ distintamente, 
los que escriben m^ rdpida y 

elegaBtemente, [gozan, 

los reyes no soo los que m^ 
los que m^nos trabajan, 
el que come mejor es el que 

tiene buen apetito, 
^ lo que mtfnos le preocupa. 



he lives nearest. [dnctly. 

the one who reads the most dis- 
the ones who write most rapidly 

and beautifully. [most, 

kings are not the ones who enjoy 
those who toil least, 
he who dines the best is the one 

who has a good appetite. 
that troubles him least. 



a. If, however, the relative superlative is followed 
by a qualifying term, the neuter article lo, the^ may be 
iiscd:^- 



>poaibIe, 



lo mAs ceroa or \ 
cnanto naiifai cerca. 
acdrquese V. lo mis que pueda, 
se aiCercd Id mis que pudo, 
lo m^nos poflibl^' 



the nearest possible, or 
as near as possible, 
come as near as you can. 
he came as near as he could, 
the least possible. 



, , f que pueda, \ he 4Uts as firudenily 

obra lo mis cuerdamente< . jwi r t 

I que le eea posible, j as he can. 



Remark.— > We may also say, hixo lo posible para , . , <, or 
ouanto .estuTO de an parte para , , . ^ he did aU that he could 
to . . k 



When " most " means the greater party it is 
expressed by la mayor parte in the singular, and by 
I08 or las xniA in<the plural: — 



me dej6 en herebcia la mayor 
parte de todo cu^nto posefa, 
16a m^ de los hbmbres,- 
loa m^ no consintieron en ello, 
de las sefioras laa mia se que- 

daron en casa, 
£%bulQ^os wci: loa ' rojkak de los 
asuntos por los trigicos de 
todo tiempo itimbr^izadoa« . 



he bequeathed to me the most 
of all that he possessed* 

most men. [it. 

the greater part did not agree to 
. of the ladies, the greater part 
stayed at home." '^ 

the greater part of the subjettk 
immortalized' by tragic writers 
in every age are puce: £i^le« .. . 



304 



Form and Inflection. 



The absolute superlative indicates a very high 
degree, but without comparison : — 



vive tojiaimo, or mny Utos. 
escribe •l»gimti«inmiwnW, or 

con mwauL elegancia, 
se ha portado tnuy mal, or 

malfatiaawnW, 
el actor represenUS p<i1wa* 

iii«at«, or milfaimainente, 



he lives a great way off. 
he writes most beautifully. 

he has acted despicably. 

the actor played very badly 
indeed. 



eac Adverbs formed by the association of the prepo^ 
sitio'n eon with a substantive, insert between them the 
first term of the comparative : — 



Con freoaencia, 
con tanta frecuencia como intes, 
con nUUi frecuencia que dntes, 
con auma frecuencia, or 
con la mayor frecuencia, 



:ia,J 



Frequently. 
as frequently as before, 
more frequently than before. 

very frequently. 



But, aside from con : • 

Agnato, 
taa i gusto oomo siempre^ 
nUUi i gusto que nunca, 
mAa i, gusto ; muy d gusto. 



Satts/actorify. 
as satiflfactorily as ever, 
more satisfactorily than ever.- 
most satisfactorily; very satis- 
factorily. 



The lVep<Mitkm. 

625. Prepositions are simpla or comptez, according 
as they govern their object directly, or in combination 
with other words. 

626. The simple prepositions are : — 

4 to. i oabe» near^ by (ardiaism). 

ante, hrfore^ in presence of. oon, with. 

h9i\o, under. . coatm, agmnsi. 



The Prepodtien. 



30s 



Ae, ofy from, [usk^. 

desde (vulg. dsnte), from^ 
durante, during. 
•n, f>f, ^/, ^Mi. 

entre, bHween^ among. 

excepto, except. 

\iAc\n, towards. 

liasta, /fZT, lyn/r'A «/ /^» /^. 

mediante, throu^^ by moans of. 

Hftteos, except y hut. 



627. The complex prepositions are : — 



no obstento, 
ymxm^for^ m order tOt to. 
por, by, through . 
■aoado, a (part.), deducting. 
salvo, excepting^ save. 
•egnn, according to. 
win, without* 
so (sub)f under, on. 
sobra, on, upon, about. 
after. 



a. Those composed of simple adverbs followed by 
tie, that is, governing the genitive: — 



aceroa de» about, concerning. 
adenUbi de, beside. 
alrededor de, around. 
Antes de, before (time, order). 
oeroa de, near, about. 

de» under (place). 



delante de, before (place). 
dentro de, within^ in, into. 
despues de, after (time, order) . 
detr^ de, behind (place), 
encinia de, on^ over, 
fuera de, outside, beyond. 
l^os 6.9, far from. 

b. Those composed of simple adverbs followed by 
d^ that is, governing the dative : — 



oonforme i, according to. 
oontnurio 4 contrary to. 
frente 4 opposite, in front of. 



jTinto i, near, close by. 
respeoto 4 with respect to, 
tocante 4 touching. 



c. One composed of a single adverb followed by con : — 
Jnntamente oon, | together with. 

d. Those composed of compound adverbial expres- 
sions followed by de: — 



A oasa de, to the house of 
d oavsa de, on account of. 



bk exoepoiott de, with the exceP" 
Atw&naidBtbydintof \tionof. 



3o6 



Form and IhfltcHon, 



4 la Tiate d«, witkin sigki tf. 
al oabo de» ai ike exptration of, 
al lado de, by the side of, 
al trav^ de, across^ ihrougk^ 
A peaar da» in spite of 
A rason de, at the rate of 
de oaaa tib^from the house of 
de parte de* on the part of 
en oaaa.de, at the house of 
en f rente de, opposite. 



en lugar de, instead of* 

en medio de* in the mids^ e^ 

en vea de, instead of 

en Tirtud de, by virtue of^ 

en vista de, in view of 

mAa alliL de, beyond. 

por oauaa de, on account o/\ 

por el lado de, on the side c^^ 

por razon de, by reason of [Oeg;-, 

sin embargp de, notwithstan^ 



e. Those composed of compound adverbial expres- 
sions followed by rf ; — 

en onanto i, with respect to, \ en 6rden 4 "ivith regard to, 

f. Those composed of two successive prepositions : — 
de t^ofat^ — each, | para eon, towards^ to. 



USB OF CBBTAIN PBEPOSITION&L 
A, En, De. 

62a The leading signification of 4 is to^ with verbs 
of motion toward a given point ; that of eiit in^atl on^ 
with verbs of rest in a place : -^ , . 



Voy 

A Espaf&a, 6 Lisboa, al correo, 
al rio, 6 palacio, 6 casa, 
6 la tienda, 6 la plaza, 

Estoy 
en Espafia, en Madrid, 
en palacio, en casa, 

Vengo 
de Espafia, de Madrid, 
. de palacio, de casa, 
;de la tienda* del Museo, 



. I am going 
to Spain, to Lisbon, to the post ; 
to the river, to the palace, home ; 
to the shop, to market. 

• 

I am 
in Spain, at Madrid; 
at the palace, at home. 

I come 
from Spain, from Madrid ; 
from the palace, from home ; 
from the shop, from the Museum. 



The Prefasitwn. 



307 



Remark. — It will be observecl that the Spanish use of if atfd en 
differs materially from the French : je vais en Espagne, d Ushanne ; 
j^ai demeuri en Espagne, d Madrid. 



629. A is further used : — 

a. In general, in the dative relation — to: — 



al hombre ; al muchacho, 
A la mujer ; 6 los nifios. 



to the man ; to the boy. 

to the woman ; to the children. 



b. To mark a personal object when specific (§ y6) : — 



busco al criado ; busco uncriado, 

veo 4i la mujer ; veo una mujer, 
temen k Dios ; — al juez. 



I look for M^ servant ; — a ser* 

vant. 
I see the woman ; — a woman, 
they fear God ; — the judge. 



r. As a connective between certain verbs and a 
dependent infinitive — to: — 



voy 6 verle, 
empieza A. hablar, 
ech6 4i correr, 
se puso k llorar, 



I am going to see him, 
he begins to speak, 
he set out to run. 
he commenced to cry. 



d. Temporary situation — at: — 



4l la puerta ; A la esquina, 
A la mesa; al mostrador, 
al Ateneo ; ^ la Academia, 



at the door ; at the corner. 

at table ; at the counter. 

at the Atheneum ; — Academy. 



e. Time, price, rate, — at: — 



A la ndche ; al amanecer, 
A las doce ; A media noche, 
k dos reales el metro , 
A veinte duros mensuales, 
A dcbo reales diarios, 
ik cu^nto? — A tanto. 



at night ; at dawn. 
at noon ; at midnight, 
at two reals- per metre, 
at twenty dollars a mcmtfa« 
at forty cents per diem. 
at how much?-r-at so much. 



308 



Form amd InfltcHfm. 



/ Distance off — a/ - off: — 



6 una legua ; A veinte pasos, 
A tiro de ballesta ; A tiro de piedra, 



at a league off; at twenty paces, 
at a bow shot ; at a stone's throiv^. 



g. Distributively — by: — 

uno 6 uno ; dos ^ dos, 
gota 6 gota, 
poco Apoco, 



one by one ; two by two. 
drop by drop, 
little by little. 



h. Adverbially — on^ in, with : — 



Acaballo; Api^, 
A tiempo ; A palos» 



on horseback ; on foot, 
in time ; with blows.: 



I. After certain verbs — on, at, in, off, from : — 



las -ventanas dan al jardin, 
jugar k los naipes ; -;- al ajedrez ; 

-^ A la loteria, 
sabe ^ herejfa ; sabe ^ ajo, 
huele A dmbar, 
llevd al caballero una onza, 
robd al mozo su chaqueta. 



the windows face the garden, 
to play (at) cards ; — chess ; — 
(/«) the lottery. [gaiiic. 

it savors of heresy ; it tastes of 
it smells of amber. [dollars, 
he charged the gentleman sixteen 
he stole the lad^s jacket. 



{literally, be took from the gentleman [the price of] an ounce ; he 

stole from the lad his jacket). 



y. EUiptically : — 

ii que no lo tiene V.. 
A qtie s{ ; d que no. 



m bet you haven^t it. 
I have ; you haven^. 



Remark. — This ellipse, common in ordinary conversation, 
depends on the verb apostar 4 to wager that, expressed or under- 
stood. Apuesto {or apostar^) 6 qae me va V. 6 pagar lo que 
me debe, Pll wager you'll pay me what you ewe me, **- A que no, 
m bet I won't. — A que at you wiU, etc. So, d qua vendrA 
mafiana Fulano de Tal, Pll wager So and So will come to-morrow* 
— A qae no veudx^ PU bet he wotCt, etc. Not very elegant* but 
con&tantly heard. 



Tke PrepontioH. 



309 



63a Bb further signifies on^ in : • — 



en la mesa ; en la diimenfei; en 

la silla, 
en el cajon de la mesa, 
en la ciudad ; en el campo, 
en su ausencta^ en general^ 



on the table; on the mantel- 
piece ; on the chair. 
in the table-drawer, 
in the city ; in the country, 
in his absence ; in generaL 



631. "De primarily signifies of, and corresponds to the 
English possessive case : -^ 



las.tapias de la casa, 
los irboles del paseo, 
el palacio del rey, 
un amor de madre. 



the (outside) walls of the house, 
the trees of the j)romenade. 
the king\s palace, 
a mother^s love. 



a. It is often to- be translated by to." — 



el camino de h Cdrte ; — de la 

ciudad, 
la guia de Espafla, 



the road 4>r way to the capital « 

— to the city, 
the guide-book to Spain. 



i. It often connects words which are to be translated 
by compound expressions, or by an adjective and a 



noun : — 

un buzon de correos, 
un apartado de correos, 
un billete de ferro-cairil, 
un talon de equipage, 
un carro de mudanza, 
la estacion del mediod(a, 
el tren del Norte, 
una cuchara de plata, 
un reloj de oro, 



a post-box, letter-box (publi^. 

a letter-box (private). 

a railway ticket. 

a luggage«check. 

a furniture van* 

the southern station. 

the northern train. 

a silver spoon. 

a gold watch. 



c. It denotes cause — /or, witk: — 



UonS de goso, 

brined de contento, 

^aioMx de Mo ; — de miedo, 



he wept ibr joy. 

he leaped about with pleasiM. 

he trembles with cold ; -* lean 



3IO 



Form and Inflection. 



d. After certain participles and adjectives :?— 

laden with benefits, 
detested by all. 

e. It is often superfluous in English : — 

he forgets his friends. 



cohrado d« benefictos, 
aborreddo de todot. 



se olvida de sus amigos, 
abusa da la amistad, 
no me acuerdo de d» 



he abuses friendship. 
I do not remember him. 



f. After certain verbs — aSy in: — 



va de empleado, 
va de embajador, 
estd de luto, 



he goes as a govemment-cleik. 
he goes as an ambassador, 
he is in momntng. 



' ADte, PeUnto de» Aiitcw die. 

632. Ante signifies in th^ presenci ^ an authority ; 
and, in. an official sense, relating to p(^rsons, courts, » 
deliberative bodies, nations, the world, history, the con- 
science, etc., viewed as judges, witnesses, of interesfed 
spectators: — . • , - .. - 



ante el juez ; — el alcalde, 
axito el gobierho ; -^ una comi-. 

sion, 
ante los tribunales ; — la Ciihara^ 
ante la nacion ; .^-^ la historia, 
ante la conciencia ; ante todos, 



before the judge ; — tTie flaayor. 
before the , government; — a- 

committee; 
before the courts; ^— the House., 
before the nation ; — history, 
before conscience ; before all. . 



a. Also, in general, in presence of^ in view of: — 

ante esta actitud del pueblo, | in view of < this attitude of the 

people. 

b. Likewise order and preference : — 



ponen d cubierto ante todas 

cosas su responsabilidad, 
eote todp soy Espafiol, 



first of all, they put their respon- 
sibility out of danger. 
I am.a %>amard before all else. 



The Preposition* 



3U 



Dalante da denotes mere situation in front of 
things ; location before people, but without the formal- 
ity inherent in ante: — 



delante de la casa ; — del rey, 
delante del espejo; — del 

- mundo, 
habld delante de macha gente, 
lo dijo delante de testigos, 



before the house ; — the king, 
before the mirror ; — the world. 

he spoke before many people, 
he said it before witnesses. 



Remark. — Ante and ddanU de may, therefore, be used inter* 
cliangeably before persons, according as we attribute to them a 
judicial or critical attitude, or consider them as mere auditors. 



€34. Antes do denotes 
rank: — 

^bites de la comida; — de la 

reunion^ - 
4iiteB de la una ; — de las dos, 
Antes de un afio; 4ntee de sii 
^Jlpgada, 

V. estd dntes de mf, 
un marques es antes de un 

duque, y ^te dntee de un 

conde. 



priority of time, order, and 



before dinner ; before the meet- 

before one — two — o'clock. . * 
before a year; before his (hef/ 

their) arrival, 
you come before me. 
a ri^arquis is before a dUke, and 

the latter before an earl. 



'. I 



' ^ -^ KHiit DetrAs d«* Despuflft deb ' ' ? 

635. Tras is after in the sense of what immediately 
folloivs : — 

after me comes my friend, 
after the rope came the mule,^ 
after one misfortune came an- 
other, [come, 
after adversity a better time will 
one after another. 
I went after him. 
(immediately) after tlue* 



mf viene mi amigo, 
tras la soga viene la mula, 
tnui un mal vino otro, 

[suerte, 
tras la adversidad vendrd mejor 
Qnditnui otro, 
yo iba tras d» 
tras esto. 



a. T 
aside fi 



situatio 
front o 

detrted 
■e puso i 



deapaaa 
llegd doa 

el minist) 
bajadoi 

laigo I 



neath, i 
tM}olan 

a. F 

protect! 
etc. : — 
bajo sob 

bajollav 



The Preposition. 



313 



bajo ciertas ccmdidones, 
bajo palabra de honor, 
baijo un gefe ; bajo ayos. 



on certain conditions. 

upon honor. 

under a superior ; under tutors. 



Remark. — Bajo de is occasionally heard among the people, 
and frequently found in the older literature or modern qiiaint style. 

639. So (Lat. sub), formerly interchangeable with bajo 

in the second sense, is now limited to a few phrases 

only : — 

BO pena de la vida, 1 
l>ajo pena de muerte, J 
BO capa de ; so pretexto de. 



, J forfeiture of life. 
\ penalty of death. 



under the mask — pretence — of. 

64a Debajo do corresponds to onoima do, and de- 
notes mere material situation, under: — 

under the table. 



under the fig-tree. 

the fear of things underground. 



debajo de la mesa, 
debajo de la higuera, 
el miedo de las cosas debajo de 
tierra. 

Remark. — Bajo and debc^Oy like ante and delante^ are often 
used interchangeably. 

bajo or debajo de mis plantas, | beneath or under my feet. 



Sobre, Eaclina de. 

641. Sobro (Lat. super) and oncima do (en cima = on 
top) both mean on, upon, m the sense of location ; but 
endma has an additional application to things higher 
than we — up on. It also means over, higher than one's 
head : as, the birds fly over the house, oncima do la 



on the table. 

on the chair. 

on the top of the wardrobe. 

over the town or city. 



•obre or enoima de la mesa, 
Bobre <nr enoima de la silla, 
enoima del armario, 
enoima de la ciudad. 



3'4 



Form €md Inflection. 



a. Sobre has also tRe figurative sense of aver^ more 
than^ above : — 

amardDios sobre todas las cosas, | to love God above all things. 

b. It also signifies of^ concerning^ about: — 



^qu^ opina V. sobra esto? 
hablando sobre estas cosas se 
exalttf. 



what is your opinion about this? 
speaking about these things, he 
became excited. 



COBU 



642. Con denotes accompaniment, means, and instru- 
ment : — 



ir oon alguno, 

oon estos recursos se rehabilitan^ 

le hiri6 eon una porra. 



to go (atoog) with some one. 
by means of such expedients, 

they regain public £avor. 
he struck him with a dub. 



a. Con makes many idiomatic expressions with verbs, 
especially with dar, to give : -^ 



di6 oon €l en la calle, 
di6 con ellos por la ventana, 
le di6 con la puerta en los ojos, 
di6 con^go en el suelo. 



he met him in the street, 
he threw them out of the window, 
he closed the door in his £aice. 
he fell down. 



Itofldo* 



643. Desde signifies from^ as a starting-point of time 
and place : — 



desde entdnces, 
desde el principio, 
desde arriba hdcia abajo, 
desde la una en adelante, 
desde Ldndres hasta Parfs, 
desde muchos afios. 



from that time, since then, 
from the beginning, 
from above, downwards, 
from one o^clock onwards, 
from London to Paris, 
for many years. 



The Preposition. 



315 



E4cia denotes material direction towards : — 



los vi6 venir hAoia sf, 

la proa del buque se dirijid hAcia. 

el Mediodia, 
miraba hAda el puerto* 
lUkcia la noche. 



he saw them coming toward him. 
the ship^s bow was pointed 

toward the south, 
he was looking toward the port, 
towards night. 



a. It also is popularly used in the sense of moral 
direction toward one, like para con: — 

demuestra mucho carifio lUkcia 
nosotros. 



he displays a great attachment 
for us. 



Hastft. 



/ 



645. Easta signifies as far as, to, up to, till, until, of 
place, time, and degree : — 



luuita la puerta ; — la ciudad, 
liaata Paris ; hasta Ldndres, 
hasta entdnces : hasta ahora, 
kaata las doce ; — las dos, 
la acompafi^ hasta su casa, 
hasta no mds ; hasta lo ultimo, 



up to the door ; — the town, 
up to {or to) Paris ; to London, 
until then ; until now. 
up to twelve — two — o^clock. 
I went with her as far as her house, 
as far as I could ; up to the very 
last. 



Para, Por. 

646. Para represents the Latin dative and the prepo- 
sitions pro and ad ; therefore, its meaning \% for in the 
sense of destination, end, purpose ; and it also denotes 
the relation of one thing to another — for, to, in order 
to, for tk^ purpose of: — 



esta carta no es para V., 
no sirve para militar, 
se sentfa mis apto pcura la polf- 
tica que para las letras, 



this letter is not for you. 
he will not do for a soldier. 
he felt that he was better fitted 
for politics than for letters. 



3t6 



Form and Inflection. 



me marcho para fuera, 
me parece que no es para m^nos, 
para hacer eso se necesitaA 
tiempo y dtnero, 



I am going abroad, or out of town. 
it seems to me I could not do less, 
to do that time and mois^are 
necessary. 



647. Por, a confounding of the Latin /^r and/w, has 
the meanings of both — for^ in behalf of ^ for the sake of 
by, through, along, on account of out of as : — 



lo hago por un amigo, 
(lo hago para un amigo,) 

dan dinero por verlo, 
(dan dinero pcura poder ver, 
y lo consiguen,) 

lo dan por cosa extiffia, 

(5, por mejor decir, 

por miedo de las consecuencias, 

por (amor de) Dios, 



I do it for (in behalf of ) a friend. 

(1 am making it for a friend.) 
they give money to see it. 

(they give money to be able 
to see, and they «ucceed.) 
they represent it as a strange 

thing. [rectly). 

or, rather (to speak more cor- 
for fear of consequences, 
for Heaven^s sake. 



A caaa de, En casa de. 

64a The prepositions A casa de, to the house or shop 
of any one ; en casa de, at the house or shop of any one, 
are respectively translated by to and at with the pos- 
sessive case. The former is used with verbs of motion, 
and the latter with verbs of rest : — 



ha ido ii casa del Sefior de 

Herrera, 
viene de casa de Lhardy, 
ha ido k su casa ; — d oasa, 
estd en oasa de Murillo, 
no vive ya mds en oasa del sefior 

marquds. 



he has gone to Mr. Herrera's. 

he comes from Lhardy^s. [home, 
he has gone to his house; — 
he is at Murillo^s. 
he does not live at the marquises 
any more. 



^d d6nde va V.? — d oasa, <9r A 
oasa del sefior conde. 



where are you going? — home^ 
or to the earPs. 



The PreposittQU. 



317 



jde ddnde viene V. ? — de oaM, 
or de casa del seiior Moreno, 

^en ddnde ha estado V.? — on 
casa, or en oaaa de Lhardy, 



where do you come from ? -*- from 
home, or from Mr. Moreoo^s. 

where have you been? — home, 
or at Lhardy^s. 



649. De d (of, at) are employed to denote rate, de- 
nomination, or with adverbs to convert them into 
species of adjectives: — 



un guardia civil de A caballo, 
los de 4l caballo ; los de A pi6, 
veinte sellos (de correo) de A 
veinte y cinco c^ntimos, 

doscafiones de A veinte y cuatro, 
una moneda de A ocho (ods.), 
el patio de A mano derecha, 



a mounted rural guard, 
the cavalry'; the infantry, 
twenty five-cent stamps (twenty 

stamps at twenty-five centimes 

each), 
two twenty-four pounders (guas). 
a piece of eight (coin), 
the right-hand court. 

Remark. — The prepositions de, para, and per, are idiomatically 
associated with other pr^ositions to define more closely the direc- 
^on, time, or manner, expressed by the latter: — 



de entre los drboles, 

cada uno de per si, 

dntes los tftulos de condes se 

daban de per vida, 
para entre amigos se deja de 

complimientoSj 
pasar por delante de una casa, 
'* For entre unas matas, 
Seguido de perros 
(No dir^ corrfa) 
Volaba un conejo,'' 



from among the trees. 

each one by himself. 

formerly the title of a count was 

given for life (only), 
among friends compliments are 

to.be laid aside, 
to pass along by a house. 
" Through the thicket. 
Pursued by dogs, 
A coney flew 
(Not to say ran)." — Triarte, 



650. Para con, to^ toward^ signifies moral direction : — 
su conducta para con sus hijos, | his behavior toward his children. 

651. Many complex prepositions which contain a 
noun, transform their object into an adjective when 
that object is a personal pronoun: — 



3i8 



Farm and Inflection, 



al lado de» 

al lado mio, or^nl lado, 
de parte de» 
^ de parte auya, (;r da an parte, 

an oonformidad con esto, 
en eata conformidad, 



by the side of. 
at my side, by me. 
on the part of, from, 
on his part, from him. 

in harmony with this, or 
in this way. 



But the latter, I think, is originally dialectic, since it 
is largely used by Aragonese writers. 



The dn^unctUm, 

eS2. Pure conjunctions are few in number, while 
adverbs and prepositions temporarily employed as con- 
junctions, with or without que, are numerous. All 
admit the usual divisions into copulative, disjunctive, 
causal, concessive, conditional, temporal, adversative, 
etc. 

653. The pure conjunctions are : — 



pare, maa, aino, dut. 

ni, nor. 

6 (before another o, ti), or. 



qae, tAaf. 

al, i/^ whether^ I wonder if, 

7 (before i or Ai, tf), a$^d. 



654. Pero and mas are found at the beginning of a 
paragraph or a phrase, and in an adversative sentence ; 
but sino only in such a sentence when the first clause 
contains a negation that is contrasted with an affirma- 
tion in the second : — 



pero la historia dice otra cosa, 
asf io cuenta dl ; pero otros lo 

refieren de distinto modo, 
el nino sabfa perfectamente la 

leccion, maa no supo deciria, 



but history tells a different story. 

so he relates it ; but others give 
a different account. 

the child knew the lesson per- 
fectly, but could not recite it. 



The ConjuncJii \ 



319 



no fu^ 61, en verdad, el iioico 
intolerante de su siglo; mas 
iq^€ importa? [por lo serio, 
no lo digo en broma, sino muy 
no hay optimismo en lo que 
digo, sino pura imparcialidad 
y justicia. 



truly he was not the only intole- 
rant man of his time ; but what 
matt^fs it? [all sincerity. 

I do not say it jestingly, but in 
there is no optimism in what I 
say, but pure impartiality and 
justice. 



655. The conjunction 7, and^ assumes its ancient 
form 6 when a word follows beginning with the vowel 
i or the syllable hi: — 



Fernando ^ Isabel, 
padres ^ hijos. 



Ferdinand and Isabella, 
parents and children. 



Remark. — 7 and hy were anciently adverbs meaning there^ 
and the conjunction and was always expressed by ^ (Lat. et). In 
the latter part of the fifteenth century 7 and ^ became interchange- 
able, but a century later ^ had entirely disappeared : — 



^ murieron 7 muchos moros, 

^ tomaron los cuerpos delos 
reyes que 7 yazien enterrados 
6 lleuard los alas Asturias, 



and many Moors died there. 

and they took the bodies of the 
kings who lay buried there 
and carried them to Asturias. 



— Chronica General^ a.d. 1260, ed. 1541 ; ff. 260^, 261a. 



finco h7 sus tiendas, 
que nQ se partiria de h7, 



he pitched his tents there, 
that he would not go from there. 



•^Chronica del Cid^ fourteenth-century, ed. 1593; pp. 87, 95. 



que^ formed of adverbs and 



caso que, in case that. 
como quiera que, however. 
con que, so^ therefore^ so then* 
con motivo que, so that. 
con tal que, provided that. 
cuanto mis que, the more since* 
dado que, in case that. 



Conjunctions with 
prepositions, are : — 

d fin de que, in order that. 

d m^nos que, 1 , 
. f unless. 

a no ser que, J 

dntes que, before. 

asf que, so that, so. 

r*^' \aUAougk. 
bien que, J * 



320 



Form and Inflection. 



dado caso que, supposing thai* 

de manera que, ' 

de modo que, - so that, 

de suerte que, . 

desde que, since, 

despues que, after, 

en tanto que, while, in case that, 

en vez de que, instead of, 

entire tanto que, while . 

excepto que, excepting* 

hasta que, untU, 

luego que, as soon as, 

mi^ntras que, while, \}^g- 

no obstante que, notwithstand- 



para que, in order that. 
por — que, however, 
porque, because, in order that. 
por mds que, however much, 

porm^nosqucj 
por poco que, J 

puesque, 1 

> since, 
puesto que, J 

sea que, whether, while, 

siempre que, whenever, 

sin que, without, 

supuesto que, since, 

tanto que, so that. 

ya que, since. 



657. The principal correlatives are : — 



ap^nas — onando, scarcely — 

when, 
aai — oomo, both — and. 
ni — ni, neither — nor, {when, 
no bien — ouando, scarcely — 



no solo — aino, 1 not only 

nosolamente — aino,j — but* 
6 — 6, either — or, 
sea — sea, whether — or. 



The Interjection. 
t65a The interjections proper are : — 

a. Exclamations denoting any strong emotion,^ such 
as surprise, pain, disgust, encouragement, remonstrance, 
desire, etc. : — 



oh, ah, oh ! ah ! 

ay, oh! alas! ah! 

ha (exultation), ha! eh! 

h6 (shock, start), eh! 

ea (encouragement), come! 

ea ea (impatience) » come now! 

hny (pain, shock), oh ! dear me! 



puf (aversion) , ugh ! 
uf (weariness), oh! 
ca and qniii (expressive of in- 
dignant negation or doubt), 
capita, zounds ! 
chiton, hist! hush! 
ojal4 would thai ! O that ! 



Ola, or hola (recognition or discovery), ah! oh! 



The Interjectwn. 



321 



Remark. — Of these ay^ ta^ kuy, uf^ and tjalA^ are of Arabic 
origin, and consequently »/r-£uropean and characteristic, especially 
ay^ which indicates delight, as well as pain or surprise ; and, popu- 
larly, is as common as the trans-Pyrenean 0hl Chiton imposes 
silence about something forbidden, with the finger on the lips, well 
illustrated by the national proverb, Inquisioion . • . ohitonl when 
the Inquisition is mentioned^ hold your breath I 



b. Cries addressed to domestic animals, birds, etc. : — 

so, ]o, or cho, whoa ! 

ox (to frighten away birds). 

sape (to frighten cats). 



(to urge forward horses, 
mules, etc.). 



c. Words that serve to imitate sounds : — 



catapliUa, crash ! 



I tnw and w, thump ^ thump I 



' Remark. — These are very numerous, and differ with the indi- 
vidual character or province. Tras and zas may be repeated to 
represent rapping at the door, the sound of feet tripping along the 
hall, and many other movements and sounds. 

d. Idle or profane terms, common to all classed, with 

their euphemisms or evasions of the original word : — 

caramba 

cariU. 

carac61eB > ca{<txpxtsakDig\egadl 

c^naato 



and others ini 
i-ii- (expressing 
surprise). 



cieloB, DioB, por Dies, heavens ! 
Dios mio, dear me! 
ay DioB mio, Oh, dear me! 
JestU, O heavens ! 
v^game Dios, diess me ! 
▼Irgen santa, marry! 



canario 

diaqtre (to avoid diablo, demo- 
nio) , the deuce ! by Jove ! 

Remarks. — ";7<?'n^j'" '^lAve Maria!'*'' '*;Ave Maria purisi- 
ma!^'' are heard when anything heretical, exaggerated, or surprising, 
is told or seen; and the exclamation i Jesdsl alone, whien any one 
sneezes or gapes, is considered as a polite formula of exorcism, at 
which name evil spirits will forbear pursuing their advantage to 
possess the individual. 



1 From %n shd *llah, " if Allah please," written formerly oxald, and pro- 
nounced anciently oshald. 






322 



Form and Inflection. 



699. Other words used as exclamations are :— 
a. Verbs in the imperative mode : — 



anda (importunity, incredulity), 
come! pshaw! 

oalla or oalle (command, incre- 
dulity), keep still! nonsense! 

diga, say! 

oye and oiga, say! hallo! 



quita, or y^let nu alone! 
qoftese V',jgo away! 
toma, indeed! reallyl 
Tamos, come! why! well! 
vaya (surprise, to take leave, as- 
sent), indeed! well! ofcottrsel 



b. Nouns, adjectives, and adverbs : — 



al asaaino, murder! 
al ladron, stop thief! 
braTO, bravo! good! 
oaballero (indignation), sir! 



odmo, how! why! 
OQidado, take care! 
fxiB(;o, Jire ! 
socorro, help! murder! 



Remark. — Conversation is frequently rendered emphatic by 
introducing the words hombre, man; mujer, woman; as, i^ 
hombre, yes, of course; no, mnjer, not at all, sure. 

66a Adjectives employed as interjections are accom- 
panied by the preposition de when a personal pronoun 
follows : — 



\ necio de mf ! 

1 pobre de m( ! 

2 desgraciados de nosotros ! 



silly me that I am (I was)! 

alas for me ! 

unfortunate ones that we are! 



a. The interjection jay! is also accompanied by de 
when a noun or pronoun follows : — 



\ ay de m{ ! 

] ay de mi Alhama ! 

{ay de tf ! — de nosotros! 

\ ay del malhechor ! 



alas for me ! woe is me ! 
alas for my (city) Alhama! 
alas for you ! — for us ! 
woe to the transgressor t 



Remark. — With adjectives, exclamations may be introduced by 
qui: as, jqu^ desgraciada soy! how unfortunate I am! jqutf 
bueno ea I how kind he is! 



Section Third. 



■•«•■ 



THE ESSENTIALS OF SYNTAX. 

The Artieie. 

Use of the Definite Article. 

The expression or omission of the definite article 
e/, la, loSy las, depends, in general, on the degree of 
limitation we wish to assign to the accompanying sub- 
stantive. The laws that govern this article may be 
reduced to three, two of which correspond also with 
the English usage. 

662. First, The definite article is expressed both in 
Spanish and in English, when it designates a particular 
individual or a specific object, thought, or class, in the 
singular, and several particular individuals, or objects 
of a class, in the plural : — 



el hombre es soberbio, 

la casa es hermosa, 

el pafio es carisimo, 

el trigo estd vendido, 

loB hombres son soberbios, 

los caballos son fogosos, [nas, 

el estudio de las lenguas moder- 

la ensefianza de los j6venes, 



the man is haughty. 

the house is beautiful. 

the cloth is very dear. 

the wheat is sold. 

the men are haughty. 

the horses are fiery. [guages. 

the study of the modem lan- 

the instruction of the young. 



a. Consequently, the article is used in both languages 
before the epithets of sovereigns, poets, artists, and with 
facetious nicknames (afodos) : -r-r 



324 



Syntax. 



Alfonso el Sabio, 
Fernando el Catdlico, 
Pedro el Cruel, 
Cdrlos tercero el Grande, 
Boabdil el Chico, 
Herrera el Mozo, 
Pepito el Ciego, 



Alfonso the Wise. 
Ferdinand the Catholic 
Peter the Cruel. 
Charles III. the Great. 
Boabdeli the Less. 
Herrera the younger.' 
little Joe, the blind boy. 



Remark. — Under this law of particulars, the article (tflen has 
the force of a demonstrative adjective, and may be translated hyihai. 

eea. Second. The definite article is omitted in both 
languages, when the noun is taken in an indeterminate 
sense, involving a portion of a substance or a class : — 



d^me V. pan ; — queso, 
trdigame V. dinero ; — vino, 
me did oro y valores, 
ganoso de paz y tianquilidad, 
tiene casas y heredades, 
veo praderas y huertas, 
cargado con grandes paquetes, 



give me bread ; — cheese, 
bring me money ; — wine, 
he gave me gold and securities, 
desirous of peace and quiet, 
he possesses houses and lands« 
I see green fields and plantations, 
laden with large bundles, 
covered with rich stuffs. 



cubierto de riquisimos pafios, 

Remakk I . — This law of the partitive sense of substantives is 
expressed regularly in French by a special use of the definite article ; 



as: — 



donnez-moi dn pain, 
apportez-moi de Targent, [leurs, 
11 m^a donnd de Tor et dee va- 



give me some bread. 

bring me some money. 

he gave me gold and securities. 

2. — An echo of this construction is occasionally met with in 

Spanish : — 

•* — I ordered you 



** — te he dicho 
Que me des de lo afiejo 
Cuando te pida vino," 



To give me some of the old 
When I call for wine." 



— Cadalso, Obras^ Madrid^ i8i8, vol. iii., p. 37. 



es iv son de loe f amoBos, [hay, 
son de los xcAm c^lebres que 



it is <^ they are famous ones, 
they are some of the best known. 



1 To distinguish him from Berrera el viejo, the elder Ikrrera, 



The Article. 



325 



3. — In Spanish, as in English, the partitive substantiTe may be 
qualified by same tenn like aluuno, mi pooo de, same^ a kitk, for 
the singular ; and algnnoa, imoa, unos cnantos, unoB pooos, some, 
afewy for the plural : — 



d^me V. un poco de pan, 
trde TUUM cuantos paquetes, 



give me a little bread, 
he brings a few parcels. 



a. Also in a great many adverbial expressions : - — 



d pi^ ; i caballo ; en coche, 
con alegrfa ; con dolor, 
d casa ; en casa, 
llevado en triunfo, 



on foot ; on horseback ; by coach, 
with joy ; with sorrow, 
home (niotion) ; at home (resf). 
borne in triumph. 



664. Third. The definite article is expressed in Span- 
ish and omitted in English, when it designates an object, 
a substance, or a thought, in an universal, very general, 
or in an absolute sense, for the singular, and all the 
individuals of a class, for the plural: — 



la vida es breve, 

la juventud es pasajersi, 

el oro es preciosfsimo, 

el trlgp es abundante, 

la caridad es benigna, 

la muerte se acerca, [jenable, 

la libertad es un derecho ina- 

la buena administracion conduce 

i, la prosperidad, 
el hombre piensa ; -*^ habla, 
loB caballos son titiles, 
loB gobiemos son necesarios, 
loB hombres piensan; — * hablan. 



life is short. 

youth is transitory. 

gold is very precious. 

wheat is plentiful. 

charity is kind. 

death draws near. 

liberty is an inalienable right. 

good administration leads to 

prosperity, 
man thinks ; — talks, 
horses are useful, 
governments are necessary, 
men think ; — talk. 



Remark. — Nearly all these and similar comprehensive sentences 
•may be Uirned into particular odes, when the sense requires it, or t>y 
some slight modification* such as the insertiQa of an adjectivet an 
adjunct, or a relative : — 



The Article. 



327 



mi amigo pasa el veiano ^ los 
bafios de mar; el otofio en 
Madrid, y el inviemo en Se- 
villa 6 Mdlaga, 



my friend spends summer at the 
seaside, autumn at Madrid, 
and winter in Seville or Ma- 
laga. 



c. Before all titles of respect, digjnity, or office, when 
the individual is spoken of, not when he is addressed:- 

el sefior y la sefiora {or los se- 

fiores) de Moreno, 
Ifts sefioritas de Garcfa, 
al rey don Alfonso doce, 
el general Concha, 
al secretario Zurita, 
el cardenal Quiroga, 
el maestro Luis de Leon, 
el padre ffiigo {een''ye'go)y 
la madre Serafina, 



Mr. and Mrs. Moreno. 

the Misses {young ladies) Garcia. 
King Alfonso the Twelfth. 
General Concha. • 

Secretary Zurita. 
Cardinal Quiroga. 
Master Louis de Leon. 
Father Ignatius. 
Mother Seraphina {prioress). 



Exceptions are : the title of don (before the Christian name) ; 
fray (of an ecclesiastical order) and frey (of a military order) , brother) 
san or santo, saint; sor (of nuns), sister y but the more common 
word hermana takes the article ; as, sor Ang^ca, or la hermana 
AngAica, sister Angelica. 

d. Before the names of Italian classic writers and 
artists : — 

el Dante, el Bocacio, el Petrarca, el Ticiano, etc. 

So also with the names of Spanish authors when they 
represent their works : — 

bring me Garcilaso's works. 
I do not find that word in Covar- 
rubias {Dictionary, 161 1). 



tr^igame V. el Oaroilaso, 
no encuentro esa voz en el Co* 
▼armbias, 



The same with titles of well-known books : — 



la Raquel de Vicente Garcfa de 

la Huerta 6 la de UUda, 
estoy leyendo el Qnijote, 



Huerta's or Ulloa's Rachel {tra- 

g^dy). 
I am reading Don Quixote. 



328 



Syntax* 



e. With a few names of countries, provinces, and 
cities. Such are at present chiefly : — 



el Japon ; el Brasil, 

el Canada ; el Perd, 

el Paraguay ; la Florida, 

Z«a Mancha ; La Rioja, 

Castilla la Nueva ; — la Vieja, 

la Conifia ; la Habana, 

el Ferrol ; el Cairo ; el Havre, 



Japan; Brazil. 

Canada; Peru. 

Paraguay; Florida. 

{^provinces of Spcdn). 

New — Old — Castile. [vana. 

Corunna (/^ •'(xr^«^'^) ; Ha- 

Ferrol; Cairo; Havre. 



Remark. — With other names of countries and provinces it is 
not now common to use the article, save in the poetical or oratorical 
style, or when an adjective qualifies them. 



la Europa catdlioa, 
la Espafia liberal, 



Catholic Europe, 
liberal Spain. 



/. With the Christian names of women in familiar 
style : — 



la Maria ; la Juana, 
la Mercedes ; la Dolores, 
me lo regal(5 la Pepa, 
la Mariquita no ignoraba el con- 
tenido de la carta, 



Mary; Jane. 
Mercy; Dolores. 
Josie gave it to me. 
Molly was not unacquainted with 
the contents of the letter. 



Also with surnames, but generally vulgar : — 

me lo contd la Alvarez, | (the woman) Alvarez told it to me. 

g. With numerals to indicate the hour : — 

it is one — ten -:- o'clock, 
at one ; at ten (o^'clock). 
at twelve o^dodc, noon, 
before sunrise, at an early hour* 



es la una ; son laa diez, 
d la una ; d laa diez, 
d las doce (del dia), 
d la madrugada. 



h. With many adverbial and other phrases : — 



ii la noche ; d la chidad, 
4 la escuela ; ^ la iglesia, 
en la ciudad ; en la escuela, etc.^ 
al cuidado de ; las mafianas. 



at night ; to town. 

to school ; to church. 

in town ; at school ; — church. 

in care of; mornings. 



Tke Article. 



329 



The definite article is sometimes employed for 
the indefinite, in general, indeterminate, expressions and 
phrases: — • 



la fraganda de la rosa, 

me parece que la monarqufa 

tiene sus ventajas, 
me did laa buenas noches y sali<5, 



the fiagrance of a rose, 
it appears to me that a monarchy 
has its advantages, [went out. 
he bade me (a) good night and 



a. Also to denote rate, with words signifying weight, 
measure, and distance : — 



dos duros la libra, 

cuatro reales la botella* 

d tanto la vara ; i- la legua. 



two dollars a pound. 

four reals a bottle. 

at so much a yard ; — a league. 



667. The definite article is omitted in Spanish and 
expressed in English : — 

a. Before a number indicating the order of succes- 
sion of pontiffs and sovereigns: — 



Pablo cuarto, or Pablo IV., 
Cirlos quinto de Alemania y 

primero de Espafia, 
Felipe segundo ; — tercero ; tic. 
Fernando sdptimo, 
Alfonso doce, rey de Espafia, 



Paul the Fourth, or Paul IV. 
Charles the Fifth of Germany 
and the First of Spain. \etc. 
Philip the Second ; — the Third ; 
Ferdinand the Seventh. 
Alfonso XII., king of Spain. 



Except when speaking of the ancient sovereigns in whose times 
the article was employed, but even with these the use is not 
uniform : — 



Don Alfonso ddcimo, 
Don Alfonso el onceno, 
Don Enrique el cuarto, 
Don Juan segundo, ^ el s.. 



Alfonso the Tenth. 
Alfonso the Eleventh. 
Henry the Fourth (of Spain). 
John the Second (of Spain). 



Remark. — The ordinal numbers are used in such cases up to 
eleven ; thence onward the cardinals. See § 674. 



330 



Syntax. 



b. With nouns in the predicate modified by an ad- 
junct: — 

es hija de un conde, 

es comandante de la plaza, 

la necesidad es madre de la in- 

vencion, 
ha sido nombrado representante 

de Espafia cerca de la Santa 

Sede, 



she is the daughter of an earl. 

he is the commander of the fort 

necessity is the mother of inven- 
tion. 

he has been appointed the repre- 
sentative of Spain near the 
Holy See. 



c. With a word in apposition : — 



Don Quijote, obra del inmortal 

Cervintes, 
Madrid, corte de Espafia, 
Boabdil, liltimo rey more de 

Granada* 



Don Quixote, the work of the 

immortal Cervantes. 
Madrid, the dipital of Spain. 
Boabdelf, the last Moorish king 

of Granada. 



d. At the head of titles of books and articles : — 



Vida del arzobispo de Toledo, 

primado de las Espaftas, 
Historia del sitio de Gibraltar, 

Revbta Hispano-Americana« 



The Life of the Archbishop of 
Toledo, the Primate of Spain. 

The History of the Siege of Gib- 
raltar. 

The Spanish- American Review. 



e. In certain conventional phrases : — 



d esquina de tal calle, 

d orillas de un rio, 

d razon de cuatro millas la legna, 

ir i casa de ; — d palado, 
estar en casa de ; — en palacio, 

tener intencion de, 
dormir siesta (= hori sextd), 
de parte de su padre, 
en nombre de la religion, 
con objeto de, 



on the comer of such a street. 

on the banks of a river. 

at the rate of four miles per 

league. [palace, 

to go to the house of; — to the 
to be at the house of; — at the 

palace, 
to have the Intention of. 
to take the noon nap. 
on the part of his father. 
in the name of religion, 
with the object of. 



The Article. 



33 » 



Ute of the Indeflnite Aitlcto. 



66a The indefinite article un, una, is in general used 
much the same in both languages. Special divergences, 
however, are the following : — 



K The indefinite article is omitted in Spanish : — 

a. Before substantives standing in the predicate when 
they denote rank, class, occupation, and characteristic, 
in very general terms: — 



mi amigo es capitan, 

fulano es artista ingles, 

es caballero ; es tftulo, 

es sastre ; es albafiil, 

es cobarde ; es bolgazan, 

se ha hecho soldado, 

la i€ es don de Dios, 

dar la limosna es obra de caridad, 

es cat<51ico ; es protestante, 

es judfo ; es libre pensador, 



my fnend is a captain, 
such a one is an English artist, 
he is a gentleman ; — a noble, 
he is a tailor ; — a mason, 
he is a coward ; — an idler, 
he has become a soldier, 
faith is a gift of God. [charity, 
to distribute alms is a work of 
he is a Catholic ; — a Protestant, 
he is a Jew ; — a free-thinker. 



Remark. — But if the separate existence of the predicate sub- 
stantive is to be emphasized and particularized, the article may be 
expressed : — 



es nn cobarde ; — nn holgazan, 
esta nifia es una pobre hu^rfana, 
es nn oficial de grande m^rito, 
su madre es una catdlica de las 
mds fervorosas, 



he is a coward ; — an idler, 
this girl is a poor orphan, 
he is an officer of great merit, 
her mother is a most fervid 
Catholic. 



b. With nouns designating title, office, or attribute, 
preceded by the preposition de : — 



el empleo de secretario, 
va de embajador i. tal parte. 



the office of (a) secretary, 
he goes as an ambassador to such 
a place. 



332 SjHttar. 

el titulo de grande de Ecpafia, | the title of (a) grandi 
d nombre de libertsulor de la the name of libera 
patria, 1 country. 

c. With substantives that express an idea in i 
indefinite way: — 
tengo motivo para alirmarlo, 
tiene derecho de manifesurlo, 
poner precio ; — tasa or coto, 
poner escuela ; — tienda, 
buscar vida desahagada, 
llegd i pasar por ji5veD de espe- 



loa paladegot lo len&ui por 
iocomparable deagrada d ser 
dcsterrado de la OMte, 

maniiestd ddio eacaraizado con- 
tra la herejCa, [fe&tar, 

dia vendri en que lo he de mani- 



I have a reason for a 
be has a right to dec 
to fix a price ; — a 1: 
to set np a school ; - 
to seek an easy life. 
he came to be cons 

young man of ex\ 
palace peoide consii 

unequalled calami' 

iled from the courl 
be exhibited a fiui 

towards heresy, 
a day will come in « 



d. After the verb tetter with a substantive 
some quality of the mind or heart, when coml 
an adjective: — 

tiene buen coracon, I he has a good heart, 

tiene feliz memoria, [cerlo, he possesses a fine n 

tiene grande inclinacion de ha- I he has a great mind 

Remark. — So also in general a&tr teturmd t£ner p, 
rule c, in indefinite statements : — 
tener gana de, tiempo de, I to have a mind, time 

tener apetito ; — motivos, | to have an appetite ; 

e. With words in apposition : — 
Cidiz, ciudad de Andaluda, 
Calderon, poeta insigne, 
la Carta de Paiacuelkis, aitlTa 
. de Frandsco Sanchez, 
entrti su hijo, muchacho vi' 



Cadiz, a city of And 
Calderon, a celebrati 
the Paracuellos Epis 
by Francisco Sane 
Ills SOD, a bright lad. 



The Article. 



333 



f. With certain indefinite egressions, like otro, otra 
▼es, cierto, seme j ante, tal, como, gran ntkmero de, 



the following day another notice 
came. [stupid. 

another time I shall not be so 

a certain item came to my ears. 

I do not like such deception. 

such a day \ such a night. 

he proceeded like a master. 

painting as an art. [people. 

there was a large number of 

to such a conclusive explanation 
no one can reply. 



vino el dia siguiente otro aviso, 

otra vez no ser^ tan torpe, 
]leg(5 d mis oidos oierta noticia, 
no me gusta Bemejante engaflo, 
tal dia ; tal noche» 
obrd como maestro, 
la pintura como arte, 
bubo gran ntUnero de gente, 
ii tan concluyente explicacion 
nadie puede replicar, 



g. With nouns in negative sentences : — 



sin obtener respuesta, 
se fu^ sin decir palabra, 
sin que recibiese contestacion, 
no me ha de quedar consuelo, 
no tengo genio para eso, 



without obtaining an answer, 
he went off without saying a word, 
without his getting a reply, 
no consolation will remain to me. 
I have no talent for that. 



h. At the head of book titles : — 



Diccionario de la Lengua Cas- 

tellana, [Espafiola, 

Ensayo sobre la Legislacion 



A Dictionary of the Castilian 

Language. [tion. 

An Essay on Spanish Legisla- 



i. With nouns denoting weight or measure, accom- 
panied by the fractions thereof : — 



compr^ libra y media, 

anduve legua y cuarta, 

me midi6 dos varas y tercia, 



I purchased a pound and a half. 
I travelled a league and a quarter, 
he measured me oiT two yards 
and a third. 



y. In exclamations after qn6 : — 



i qn^ ruido ! \ qn^ dia ! 
I qa^ hermoso paisaje ! 
\ qn^ bobo eres ! 



what a noise ! what a day ! 
what a fine landscape ! 
what a dunce you are ! 



334 



SynUix. 



Uae of the Neuter Article I«o. 

67a The neuter article lo is only used in the singular, 
and turns an adjective into a substantive, for which a 
pure substantive may likewise be often employed (see 

§§83; 113,^): — 

dominaba en ella el sentimiento 

de lo maravilloso, 
no dejes de mandarles algo de 

lo mucho que vas d ganar, 



en lo sucesivo ; lo pasado, 

en lo mds escondido de an valle, 

contra lo dispuesto per las leyes, 



the sense of the marvellous was 
dominant in her. 

do not fail to send them some- 
thing of the much you will 



earn. 



for the future ; the past, 
in the most retired (part) of a 
valley. laws, 

against what is provided by the 



671. The substantive nature of the adjective with lo 
is especially manifest when they are accompanied by 
que with the verb to be^ or one of its substitutes. In this 
case, as we have seen (§ 113, <j), the adjective is varied 
anomalously, agreeing in gender and number with the 
noun subject to the verb. The formula then will be: — 

Lo — variable adjective — que — verb to he — noun-subject; or, without 
que : noun-subject — verb to be — to — variable adjective. 



lo amena que es esta pradera, 
lo caprichosa que es la imagina- 

cion, [ballero, 

lo pundonoroso que es este ca- 
lo fresc^j* que son estas aceitunas, 
lo desatendid^^ que habian sido 

sus suplicas, 
lo honrad^j que se considerarfan, 

si, etc, 
lo convenient^j que fueron en 

otros tiempos, y lo util^^ que 

pueden ser todavia. 



the amenity of this green field. 

the capriciousness of the imagi- 
nation, [tleman. 

the punctiliousness of this gen- 

the freshness of these olives. 

the deaf ear that had been turned 
to his prayers. 

the honor they would consider 
done to them, if, etc, 

the suitableness of them in other 
days, and their possible utility 
still. 



The NnmeraL 



335 



una pnieba de lo satisfactoruv 
que le son vuestros trabajos, 

ministro se propone que la 
discusion de los presupuestos 
sea todo lo ampli/i posible, 

una de esas reformas que por 
lo necesaru7j estdn fuera de 
toda discusion. 



a proof of his satisfaction with 
your labors. 

the minister proposes to give 
all possible latitude to the 
discussion of the budget. 

it is one of those reformatory 
measures, the necessity of 
which is too evident for dis- 
cussion. 



The literal version of a few of these examples, which are all taken 
from modem writers, will explain this extraordinary idiom : — 

The agreeable that this green field is; the fresh that these olives are; the 
honored that they would consider thetnselveSf if, etc. ; the suitable 
that they were in other times ^ and the useful that they may still be; a 
proof of the satisfactory that your labors are to him ; the minister 
proposes that the debate on the estitttates be all the broad possible; 
it is one of those reforms that by the necessary {on account of their 
necessity") are beyond all discussion. 



The Use of the Numerals. 

672. Order in a series is properly expressed as in 
English by the ordinal numbers : — 

el primer dia ; el segniido aflo, 

el tercer aniversario, 

la cuarta fila, 

el quinto artfculo, [cima, 

las lecciones d^ima y und^- 

los siglos d^cimo sezto y d^ci- 

mo s^ptimo, 
cl libro trig^simo tercio, 



the first day ; the second year. 

the third anniversary. 

the fourth row or file. 

the fifth article. 

the tenth and eleventh lessons. 

the sixteenth and seventeenth 

centuries, 
the thirty-third book. 



673. Popularly, the cardinals are more generally used 
than the ordinals to specify the number of a volume, 
book, chapter, lesson, century, or other word which, 
from its signification, naturally involves a series : — 



33fi 



Sjmtax. 



capHulo ▼Mute y iiao, 
leccion quince, 
pdgina oiento y una, 
el siglo dies y Buereb 



chapter twenty-first, 
lesson fifteenth, 
page one hundred and first, 
the nineteenth century. 



674. The ordinals are used up to elevetiy to indicate 
the order of succession of sovereigns ; but from that 
number, the cardinak are regularly substituted : — 

Charles the First of Spain and 



Cirlos pzlmero de Espafia y 

qninto de Alemania, 
Henrique cuarto, 
Fernando s^pttmo, 
Leon trace ; Alfonso dooa^ 
Luis catoroa, rey de Francia, 



the Fifth of Germany. 
Henry the Fourth. 
Ferdinand the Seventh. 
Leo XIII ; Alfonso XII. 
Louis XIV, king of France. 



675. The cardinal numbers are used instead of the 
ordinals, in datcs^ with the sole exception of primoro, 
first. In this case, the month and year, when ex- 
pressed, are always to be preceded by the preposition 
de: — 



Madrid, primaro da Enero, da 
mil ochocientos y ochenta, 

el doa de Mayo, de 1808, 

el dias 7 slata de Abril, 

el dia onca de Febrero, 

vi^mes, cuatro de Julio, da mil 
setecientos sesenta, 

vendrd el dia dies. 



Madrid, January firsts eighteen 

hundred and eighty, 
the second of May» 1808. 
April 17th. 
February nth. 
Friday, July fourth, seventeen 

hundred and sixty, 
he will come on the loth. 



Remark. — The word dia, day^ may be or not employed when 
the month is expressed ; but when the number stands alone, it is 
more common to give it: — 



el dia quince Junio, or \ 
el quince de Junio, J 
el dia cuatro, 

tenemos cita para el dia doce, 
falledd el dia dieciseis, 



the fifteenth of June. 

the fourth. [twelfth, 

we have an appointment for the 
he died on the sixteenth. 



The Numeral, 



337 



67a The question, What day of the month is it? may 
be expressed in Spanish by ^qa6 dia del mes tenemoB? 
or by ^ & cQtotos estamoB del mes ? and is answered 
in the first case by the cardinal number (except ih^ first) 
with the definite article ; and in the second case, by the 
same preceded by the preposition rf, with or without 
the corresponding verb : — 



temmos [saia* 

el primero; el dos; el diaol- 



estamas 
iL primero ; iL dew; iLdles jseU 



it is the first ; — the second ; — the sixteenth. 
Remark. — Indefinite or approximate expressions are : — 



d primeroB de (Enero), 

d prinoipios del (siglo actual), 

i, mediados del (afio pasado), 
d fines del (sig)o pasado), 

i ^timoe del (mes que viene). 

More definite are : — 

iior ^TL primero de (mes), 
d £7r en fin de (afio) , 



in the early part of (January), 
at the beginning of (the present 

century), 
about the middle of (last year), 
toward the close of (the last 

century) . 
about the end of (next month). 



on the first of (the month) . 
at the end of (the year). 



677. A week is more often expressed by ocho dias, 
and a fortnight by quince dias, than by the general 
terms una semana, dos semanas : — 



vendrd dentro de ocho dias, 

mafiana en ocho dias, 

hace mis de quince dias que 

no le veo ; quince dias hd, 
de hoy en ocho (quince) dias, 



he will come within a week. 

a week from to-morrow. 

I have not seen him in more than 

a fortnight ; a fortnight ago. 
a week (fortnight) from to-day. 



67a The hour or time of day is expressed by the car- 
dinals with the feminine article plural /as (except la una, 
one), agreeing with hora, horas, understood : — 



338 

iqa6 hora es? 

es la una ; la una y media, 

es la una y tres cuartos, (fr 1 

son las dos mdnos cuarto, j 

son las onoe; las dooa, 

son las diez y cnarto, 

A la una ; d las siete, 

d las dos de la madnigada, 

d las ocho de la maAana, 

A las cuatro de la tarde, 

i. las nueve de la noche, 

Remark. — To strike the 
tively : — 

las tres van i, dar, 
ya van i. dar las cinco, 
ban dado las doce ya, 
dada la una ; dadas las once* 
al dar las doce. 



Syntax. 

what time is it? [o'clock, 

it is one — half-past one — 

it is quarter to two. 

it is eleven — twelve — o''clock. 

it is a quarter past ten. 

at one o^clock ; at seven. 

at two o^clock in the morning. 

at eight, a.m. 

at four o'clock, p.m. 

at nine o'clock at night. 

kaur is dar la hora, used intransi- 



it is going to strike three, 
it is just going to strike five, 
it has already struck twelve, 
when it had struck one — eleven, 
as it struck twelve. - 



679. In stating age, the Spanish employs the verb 
tener, to have, with aftos, years^ preceded by the cardi- 
nal number : — 



I cudntos alloB tiene V. ? 
^qud edad tiene V.? 
tango veiaticinco afios, 
este jdven tendrd unos diez y 

ocho afios, 
su padre tiene cincuenta afios, 

y su raadre cuarenta, 
no es muy viejo, 
es todavfa jdven, 6 mds bien de 
. edad mediana, 
es un viejo (indelicate)^ \ 
es un anciano {courteous)^ / 
fu^ mi antiguo preceptor, 

Remark. — Viejo always signifies literally oid in years; old, 
meaning '' former,^^ is antiguo ; he is an old friend^ es un antfgoo 



how old are you ? 

what is your age ? 

I am twenty-five years old. 

this young man must be about 

eighteen, 
his father is fifty years old, and 

his mother forty. . 
he is not very old (in life). 
he is still young, or rather in 

middle life. 

he is an old man. 

he was my old teacher. 



Agreement 



339 



amigo. To be ** older ^^ than another is, tenar mis adad, mAt 
alios, que otro, although aged people might say of each other, mAt 
▼iejo que, older than, 

680. "To be just SO many years old," "to have com- 
pleted so many years " is tener — ailos cnmplidos, 
cumplir — ailos: — 

he is just twenty-six years old. 
when he had completed his thir- 
teenth year. 

* • • • 

Remark. — Idioms with expressions of age and time are : — 

d los dos dias, 

ii la edad de cinco aftos, 

d los cinco aflos de su edad. 



tiene vetntiseis afios cnmplidos, 
al cumplir los trace afios. 



d los veinte aflos de su reinado, 
d los cinco meses de su estancia, 
fallecid j'5ven de veinte afios. 



in two days, on the second day. 

at fivt, years of age. 

at the age of five years. 

in the twentieth year of his reign, 
f after a stay of ^y^ months, or 
\ when he had stayed five months. 

he died at the age of twenty years. 



The Laws of Agreement* 



The Adjective and Noun. 



Adjectives agree in gender and number with the 
substantive they limit or describe : — 

un hombre activo, 



una sefiora anoiana, 
personas emprendedoras, 
ciertas sociedades son fomen- 
tadoras de la riquezapdblica, 



an active man. 
an old lady. 
enteqDrising persons, 
certain societies are promoters 
of the public wealth. 



682. A plural substantive may be limited by two or 
three adjectives in the singular, agreeing in gender 
only, when they relate to distinct members of the same 
series : — 



340 



Syntax. 



las lenguas oastallaiia y fnm- 

oesa, 
los tomos primero y otiarto, 
los siglos sagnndo y taroero, 



the Spanish and French lan- 
guages, 
the first and fourth volumes, 
the second and third centuries. 



When an adjective relates to two or more sub- 
stantives of the same gender (whichever be the num- 
ber), it stands in the plural, and the gender will be 
determined by that of the substantives : — 



el padre y el hijo estdn maloa, 
la madre y su hija son muy para- 

ddaa, 
la madre y sus hijas son ballaa, 
la apHcacion y constancia en el 

estudio son naoaaarlaa al 

que quiere adelantar, 



the father and son are ill. 

the mother and her daughter 
look very much alike, [fair. 

the mother and her daughters are 

diligence and perseverance in 
study are necessary to one 
who desires to advance. 



684. When an adjective relates to two or more 
substantives in the singular number and of different 
genders, it stands in the masculine plural, provided the 
substantives have distinct meanings : — 



el padre y la madre son amboa 

caritatiTOB, [admiracion, 

el cielo y la tierra son dignoa de 

la plaza y el cuartel mis limpioa 

de la ciudad. 



the father and mother are both 
benevolent [of admiration, 
the sky and the earth are worthy 
the neatest square and neighbor- 
hood in town. 



Remark. — If, however, the two nouns are synonymous, or 
nearly so, in meaning, whichever be their gender, the adjective 
agrees in the singular with the nearest noun: — 



muestra una capacidad, un ta- 

lento aingular, 
con un alborozo, una satisfac- 

cion indeBcriptible, 
para solaz y desahogo oomun, 



he displays singular ability and 
talept. 

with indescribable joy and sat- 
isfaction, [lief. 

for common consolation and re- 



Agreement. 



341 



685. When an adjective relates to two or more sub- 
stantives in the plural number and of different genders, 
it agrees with the nearest noun in gender and number: — 

observaban ademanes y conver- they noticed excited gestures and 

saciones agitadas, [▼anos, conversation. [vain. 

sus esperanzas y temores eran their hopes and their fears were 

686. Adjectives of all kinds that stand before the 
noun they limit agree in gender and number with the 
nearest one: — 



nnestro atraso y decadenda, 
poca unidad y trabazon, 
con singular vigor y presteza, 
con mucha furia y denuedo, 



our low state and decline, 
little unity and connection, [ness. 
with marked eneigy and prompt- 
with great fury and boldness. 



687. With titles, the adjective agrees with the natural, 
not the grammatical, gender, when it stands in the 
predicate or as a participle past: — 



su majestad estd enfarmo, 
su majestad estd enferma, 
sus majestades, prevenidod, se 
levantaron. 



his majesty is ill. 
her majesty is ill. 
their majesties (the king and 
queen) being notified, arose. 



a. But adjectives that form part of the title agree 
regularly: — 



su sagrada majestad, 
sus majestades catdlioas, 
vuestra sefiorfa. 



his sacred majesty (Rom. Emp.) . 
their Catholic majesties, 
your lordship. 



TiM Verb with Its Saliiieei. 



The verb agrees with its subject, expressed or 
understood, in number and person : — 



yoleo; nosotros leemos, 
la hoja cao ; las hojas oaan, 



I read ; we read. 

the leaf falls ; the leaves fall« 



342 



Syntax. 



Collective terms in the singfular number require 
a verb in that number whether they involve the idea of 
unity or plurality : — 



el pueblo le Mcucha, 

el ptiblico se diviarta, 

la gente lo dice, 

el ej^rcito avansa, 

la tropa aondid, 

el oongraso se ratmid^ 

la Aoademia lo apnieba, 

la junta se disolvid, 

la multitud se impraslond, 

la poblacion quada tranquila, 

el rabafio huya ante el lobo, 



the people listen to him. 

the public amuse themselves. 

people say so. 

the army moves forward. 

the troops came up. 

the congress met. 

the Academy approves it. 

the committee was dissolved. 

the throng was moved. 

the town remains quiet. 

the flock flees from the wolf. 



690. Collective terms followed by an adjunct in the 
pluraly expressed or understood, require a plural verb : — 

crowds of people congratulated 
him. [agree to it. 

a large number of them did not 
the greater part know it. 
a part came without arms, 
one-half perished. 



multitud de personas le felid- 
taron, [tieron en ello, 

gran parta de ellos no cousin- 
la mayor parta lo saben, 
parte vanlan sin armas, 
la mitad paraciaron, 

la mayor parte de la ganta lo 

cree, 
gran parte de la poblacion ha 

quedado reducida i. cenizas, 



but 



the greater part of the people 
believe it. 

a large part of the town was re- 
duced to ashes. 



691. Nouns in the singular, connected by the correla- 
tive ni — ni, neither - — nor^ are now generally accom- 
panied by a plural verb : — 



ni el miedo ni el interns torcie- 

ron su f(^, 
ni un solo grito, ni un solo gesto 

ampafiaron aquella escena, 



neither iear nor interest swerved 
his faith. 

neither a single shout ncr a sin- 
gle gesture marred that scene. 



Agreement 



343 



Remark. — With 6 — 6, either — or, the use of the language 
does not seem to be fixed, both numbers being met with : — 



^ la ambicion 6 la ira ie moTid 
and le movieron, 



either ambition or anger im- 
pelled him. 



692. When there are two or more subjects in either 
number, the verb is regularly put in the plural ; but 
in vehement discourse, the verb is often found to agree 
in the singular with the first noun of a series, before 
ivhich the verb stands, as if the enumeration of char- 
acteristics were mere expansions of one thought; — 



la novela y las poesfas me han 

goBtado mucho, 
las cartas y el prdlogo me pare- 

ciaron muy bien escritps, 

nunca ivA tan expuesto su valor 
y constancia, 

decfa mi amigo, con la autoridad 
que le dii su palabra, su talen- 
to, su fntegro cardcter. 



I was much pleased with the 
novel and the poetry. 

the letters and the preface ap- 
peared to me to be very well 
written. 

his courage and firmness were 
never so tested. 

my friend said,with all the weight 
that his wordS)talent,and integ- 
rity of character give him ... . 



a, A singular verb may accompany a double subject when these 
are used synonymously, whichever be the position of the verb : — 



el contento y el aplauso fu^ 

grande, 
el disgusto y murmuracion no 

dej6 de hacerse sentir, 



the satisfaction and applause 

were great, 
dissatisfaction and murmurs did 

not (ail to make themselves felt. 



693. When a verb has two or more subjects of differ- 
ent persons, it is put in the plural and agrees with the 
first person rather than the second or third, and with 
the second person rather than the third : — 



ni yo ni mi amo la habemos 
visto jamds, [buenos, 

yo espero que td y ella aat^is 
ir^moB usted y yo. 



neither I nor my master have 

ever seen her. 
I hope that you and she are well, 
you and I will go. 



344 



Syntax. 



When the subject is a relative pronoun, the verb 
properly agrees in person and number with the person to 
whom the relative refers, that is, with the antecedent : — 

yo soy quien lo dlgo, 
aosotros somos los que lo hemes 
Tiito^ [mejor que yo, 

vosotros sois los que lo sabeia 
VV. son los que hablaron con 



I am the one who say it. 

we are the ones who saw It, or we 

saw it. [better than we. 

you are the ones who know it 
you are the ones who spoke to 

him. 



«. In ordinary language, however, and even in literature, it is 
not uncommon to find the verb in the third person : — 



yo soy quien lo dlc«, [fovor, 
ahora soy yo el que pide i V. el 



I am the one who say (says) it 
it is I who ask you the fevor now. 



695. The third person plural is often used in reference 
to a vague subject equivalent to the passive voice, or to 
the French on with a singular verb ; — 



vuelva V. mafiana, nos declan 

en todas partes, [casino, 

cuando cierran el caS6 voy al 



come again to-morrow, said they. 

everywhere. [to the club. 

when they close the cafi^, I jgo 



(that b, / was told everywhere to call the next day. French : tne 
dUaU'-on partotU I lorsqu'on ferme le cafi^je m'en vais au cercle,) 



The Use of the Tenses. 

IndicatlTe Mode. 



696. Present Tense. 

hablo ; estoy hablando, 
c6ino ; eatoy comiendo, 
▼ivo ; estoy viviando, 



I speak; I am speaking. 
I eat ; I am eating. 
I live ; I am living. 



a. Expresses what occurs at the time in which it is 
asserted : — 

esoxibo una carta. 



Juan lee el diarlo. 



I am writing a letter. 
John is reading the paper. 



\ 



The Use of the Tenses. 



345 



Remark. — In this sense, the Spanish may employ equally well 
the simple verb or the progressive form (§ 379) : — 



escribe^ or 






estoy escrlbiendo j 



una carta. 



Juan lee, or \ 

Juan estd leyendo J 



diario. 



b. Expresses habit, custom, and absolute fact, with- 
out regard to a determinate period : — 

my uncle is a journalist. 
I give Spanish lessons, 
we get up early. 

my sister draws well. [away. 
God gives wealth and takes it 
man proposes, and God dis^ 
poses. 



mi tio es periodista, 
doy lecciones de Castellano, 
no8 levantamcMi temprano, 
mi hermana dibuja bien, 
Dios da los bienes y los qnita, 
el hombre propone, y Dios dis- 
pone. 



c. Replaces the future in familiar language : — 



voy al instante, 

trtielTe en seguida, 

en ese caso no salgo, 

^qti^hago? ^oonsianto? 

no lo firmo, 

^me haoe V. el favor? 



ril go at once. 

he^ll be back directly. 

in that case Til not go out. 

what shall I do? consent? 

I will not sign it. 

will you do me the &vor? 



d. Replaces the past definite in lively narration : — 



coge su sombrero y sale, 
Uega, salnda, y me dice, 



he caught up his hat and went out. 
he came up, greeted me, and said. 



e. Used idiomatically after a clause with the imper- 
sonal verb hace, it is, with expressions of time : — 



hace mucho tiempo que no le 
▼eo, [en esta casa, 

hace cuatro afios que vivimoa 

hace ocho dias que rondan la 
calle donde vivo, 

^cudnto tiempo hace que eatA 
V. en Madrid? [rando? 

^hace mucho que estA V. eape- 



it is a long time since I have 
seen him. [house. 

we have lived four years in this 

for a week they have been prowl- 
ing about the street I live in. 

how long have you been in 
Madrid? 

have you been waiting long? 



346 



Syntax. 



€97. Imperfect Tense. 



habUba; astaba hablando, 
oomia; estaba oomiando, 
viyisL \ eataba ▼Iviendo, 



I spoke ; I was speaking. 
I ate ; I was eating. 
I lived ; 1 was living. 



a. Denotes progressive continuity in the past : — 



como deda ; como andaba, 
me haoia sefiales, 



as I was saying ; — walking, 
he made signs to me. 



b. Describes an action or situation that was going 
on or existing, when some incident, expressed by the 
past definite, was introduced or intervened. In this 
case, the progressive form must be employed in Eng- 
lish and may be also in Spanish : — 



eaoribla {pr eataba eacribien- 
do) cuando entrd Juan, 

eataba {or me encontraba) en 
mi despacho cuando oi el grito, 

midntras que nos paae4bamoa, 
einpez6 d Hover, 



I was writing when John came 

in. 
I was in my office (or study) 

when I heard the cry. 
while we were taking a walk, it 

began to rain. 



c. Denotes customary action or state during some 
previous period. In this case, it may be translated by 
the absolute imperfect (I spoke) or by the term "used 



»» 



to": — 

cuando vivla en Sevilla, visita* 

ba amenudo los jardinea del 

duque, 
me gustaba andar por el rio 

entre la Torre del Oro y el 

Puente de Barcas, 
le Tela todos los dias, 
los Griegos cultivaban las letras 

y los Romanos la guerra. 



when I lived in Seville, I often 
visited tlie duke^s gardens. 

I used to like strolling along the 
river, between the Gold-Tower 
and the Bridge of Boats. 

I used to see him daily. 

the Greeks cultivated letters, 
and the Romans war. 



The Use cf the Tenses. 



347 



Remark. — Custom may also be expressed by the imperfect 
tense of the verb •oler, to be wont to:-^ 



en aquella ^poca soliamos ir 
cada afio d los bafios, 

Bolian acompafiarnos muchos 
amigos y amigas. 



at that period, we used to go to 

the baths every year, 
many friends of both sexes were 

wont to accompany us. 



d. It is translated by the absolute past when it in- 
volves the idea of more or less duration over a series of 
moments or of years. In this sense, it is found in vivid 
descriptions and narrations, or to declare what a person 
or object was dinring a certain period in the past : — 



mlrdbale el muchacho con 

asombro, 
me deda muchas cosas que me 

causaban extrafieza, [casa, 
estaba de hudsped en dicha 
Ciceron era grande orador, 
Alejandro era rey de Grecia, 



the lad gazed at him with astoa* 

ishment. 
he told me many things which 

surprised me. [mentioned. 
I was a boarder in the house 
Cicero was a great orator. • 
Alexander was king of Greece. 



e. In the old language, especially in the ballad poetry, tlie 
imperfect occasionally takes the pface of the present when the verse 
requires it : — 



Si hallo el agua clara, 
Turbia la bebia yo, 



If I find the water clear, 
When I drink it it is roiled. 



— Ballad beginning **Fontefriday 



Que un Cristiano dejo muerto, 
Tras mf Tenia el alcalde, 



I have slain a Christian, 
The sheriff is pursuing me. 



— Ballad '* Yo m'era mora Moray ma, '^ 

f. In familiar language, the imperfect often replaces the condi- 
tional : — 



si le hubiera dicho la verdad, me 
ezponla i. un regafio, 

era tan amigo del padre Quieto, 
que no le movia un terre- 
moto^ 



if I had told him the truth^ I 
should have risked a. scolding. 

he was so partial to fether Ease^ 
that an earthquake would not 
disturb him. 



348 



Syntax. 



RsMARK. — The simple form of fhe English past tense (Tspdke, 
I wrote) is expressed then, in Spanish, by two distinct tenses — the 
imperfect, denoting prolonged past action or custom ; and by the 
past definite, denoting past action without continuity, a past inci- 
dent : — 



hablmba, / spoke, — that b, / 
was sneaking. 



habl^ /spoke, — that is, on one 
occasion past. 



Past Definite Tense. 
haLtil4, / spoke. | oomi, I ate. \ ^^ I lived. 

a. Indicates what occurred on one occasion in the 
past, whether a short time or ages before, of which no 
part is continued to the present, and without involv- 
ing duration or extension of time. It is, therefore, the 
tense of absolute past time, corresponding to the Greek 
aorist : — 



le vf hace un momento, 

lo dijo ayer, pero lo niega hoy, 

Juan Bali6 temprano, [corial, 
el mes pasado Mtttve en el £s- 
Alejandro mtirid jdven, 
Cain matd ^ su hermano. 



I saw him a moment ago. 
he said so yesterday, but he de- 
nies it to-day. 
John went out early, 
last month I was at the Escorial. 
Alexander died young. 
Cain slew his brother. 



b. Hence the past definite is the favorite tense for 
historical narration, in every case in which the action 
or state is devoid of the idea of repetition, custom, and 
prolonged duration, which distinguishes it radically from 
the imperfect : — 



hasta la mafiana del ocho no 
pudo el confesor enterar del 
edicto d Carlos III, quien sin 
demora mandd d su mlnistro 
despachar un correo al Inquir 
sidor genera]. 



until the morning of the eighth, 
the confessor was not able to 
inform the king of the edict, 
who immediately directed his 
minister to despatch a courier 
to the Inquisitor-generaL 



Ferrer del Rio, Cdrlos III, Madrid, 1856; I. z'^^. 



The Use of the Tenses. 






la dudad de Gtsuiada iutf po- 
blacion de los de Damasco, que 
▼inieron con Tsuif su capi- 
tan; i diez afios despues que 
los Alirabes echaron d los 
Godos del sefiorfo de Espafia, 
la Micogieroii por habitacion. 



the city of Granada was set- 
tled by people from Damascus, 
who came with Tarif their 
leader, and ten years after the 
Arabs drove the Goths from 
power in Spain, they selected 
it for their residence. 



— Mendoza, Guerra de Granada^ Lisbon, 16127 ; f. 2, b. 

c. In. the ancient language, the past definite was often replaced 
by the old pluperfect in ra (hablara, comi^ra, from the lAtjnfabu^ 
laram^ comedfram)t now limited mostly to the subjunctive mood : — 

El dixsra otra razon, | He gave a different message. 

— Ballad **J^osa fresca.^ 

For ah( fuera i pasar, | He passed that way. 

— Ballad • 'Fonte frida:' 



Las. cartas echd en el fuego, 
Y al mensagero matara. 



Into the fire he threw the notes* 
And slew the messenger. 



— Ballad ^^Pasedbase el rey moro^ 



6991. 'Past Indefimitb Tensk. 



hehablado, 

he comido, 

he vivido, 

he estado hablando» 

he estado comiendOf 

he estado viviendo, 



I have spoken. 

I have eaten* 

I have Uved, 

I have been speakings 

I have been eating. 

I have been living. 



a. Denotes what is absolutely past, but wholly unde- 
termined as to the specific period : — 



he escrito una carta, 

no digas nada d nadie de lo que 

hemos tratado, [cion, 

han cumplido con su obliga- 
^habeis qnedado en no ir? 
W. no han dioho nada, 
£spafia ha produoido grandes 

hombres. 



I have written a letter. 

do not tell anybody anything 

about what we have talked, 
they have discharged their duty, 
have you decided not to go? 
you have said nothing. 
Spain has produced great men. 



3SO 



Syntax. 



b. Indicates a determinate epoch in the past which 

has not entirely elapsed : — 

we have written some letters to- 
day. 

my brother went away last week, 
and has returned to-day« 

there has been a good deal of 
rain this year. [So? 

when have you seen Mr. So and 

{I have seen him this month. 
I did not see him last month. 



hoy h^mos esorito algunas car- 
tas, 

mi hermano se marchtS la semana 
pasada y ha Tuelto hoy, 

este afio ha habido mucha 
lluvia, [tal ? 

^cuindo ha Tisto V. d fulano de 

le he ▼isto este mes. 



no le ▼£ el mes pasadot j 

c. This tense is often used incorrectly at the present 
day in imitation of the French : — 



Popular. ' 

he Ido anoche al teatro. 

ha venido ayer y se ha alojado 

en la -fonda del Cisne. 



CORRBCT. 

anoche fxA al teatro. 
Tino ayer y se aloj6 en la fonda del 
Cisne. 



d. The progressive form is used the same as the 
common one, except that it can only stand when the 
time during which an action or state lasted U men- 
tioned or e^ily implied : — f 



^qu^ ha hechb V. hoy? [hoy? 
^qu^ ha estado V. haciendo 
he eatado esoribiando cartas, 



what have you done to-day? 
what have you been doing to-day ? 
I have been writing letters. 



700. Pluperfect Tense. 



I had spoken. 

I had eaten. 

I had lived. 

I had been speaking. 

I had been eating. 

I had been living. - 

a. Expresses an action or event that is absolutely 
completed, with reference" to another which was simul- 
taneous with or subsequent to it, expressed or implied : — 



habla hablado, 
habla comido, 
habla. yivido, 
habia estado hablando, 
habla eatado comiendo, 
habla etstado'vivieiido, 



The Use of the Tenses. 



351 



yo babla leKlo ya un traslado 

del libro, dntes que saliese. 

impreso, 
B, habla estado dnrmieiido 

durante la conversaciou, 
le pregunt^ si habia oido alguna 

cosa nueva. 



I had already read a transcript 
of the book, before it came out 
in print. 

he had been sleeping during the 
conversation. 

I asked him if he had heard any- 
thing nevr. 



70L Past Anterior. 



(cuando) habe hablado, 
(cuando) hube comido, 
(cuando) hube vivido, 



(when) I had spoken, 
(when) I had eaten, 
(when) I had lived. 



a. Expresses the same as the pluperfect, bat is al- 
ways preceded by some conjunction of time, such as, 
cuando, when; despnes que, after; luego que, asi 
que, tan pronto como, as soon as; no bien, fto sooner: 
ap6na8, scarcely ^ hardly ; etc. : — 



cuando hube leido el oficio, se 

lo devolvf, 
luego que hube esorito la con- 

testacion, la entreg6 al mozo, 
tan pronto como hnbimos pe- 

netrado en el anden, se puso 

en marcha el tren, 



when I had read the (official) pa- 
per, I handed it back to him. 

after he had written the answer, 
he delivered it to the waiter. 

as soon as we had reached the 
platform of the station, the 
train bearan to move off. 



702. A simple form of the pluperfect indicative is often met with 
in the exalted prose, or poetical, style, a form derived from the 
Latin original in ^aram, ^eram^ etc., and which is Aow chief!) con- 
fined to the imperfect subjunctive in --ra : — 

el pendon de Castilla pnded 
luego en una de las torres (de 
la Al^^i^t>ra) . donde tantos 



siglos tremolibra el estandarte 
del Profeta, 



soon the pennon of Castile float- 
ed out over one of the towers 
(of the Alhambra) where, for 
so many centuries, the Proph- 
et^s standard had waved. 



— Lafuente, Hist, de EspaHa, 1850. 



352 



Syntax. 



divorciado dd partido en cuyas 
ant lo aaorlfioAim todo, 

— Emilio Castelar, Ferdinand VII ^ 1864. 

abominado de la teocr&cia i 
quien ainriwra, 

Trayendo d nuestros pechos la 

dulzura 
Que perdiwran un tiempo ailn 

no olvidado, 



divorced from the party on whose 
altars he had $€urificed all. 



detested by the fanatics whom 
he had served. — Ibid, 



Restoring to our hearts the joys 

of peace 
That they had lost in days not 

yet forgotten. 



--^Sonnet te King A^onso^ ^^11* 



703; FuTQRE Tensb, 



bablar^ / shall speak. \ com«rtf, / shaU eat, \ vivir^ I shall live. 



a. Denotes future time : — 



escribirtf la carta mafiana por la 

mafiana, 
^qu^ harA V. en ese caso? 
la guerra acabarA pronto, 
habrA una cosecha abundante 

este afio, 
^cuando vendrd? sabes? 
aerA V. elegido diputado, 



I shall write the letter to-morrow 
morning. 

what will you do in that case ? 

the war will close soon. 

there will be an abundant har- 
vest thb year. 

when will he come, do you know ? 

you will be elected to Congress. 



b. It is employed in a potential sense in interrogative 
sentences that are undeniable in the estimation of the 
interrogator ; also in queries : — 



^habrA desgracia mayor que la 

mia? [mis ruin? 

^podrA manifestarse infamia 



can there be a greater mbfortune 

than mine? [light? 

can baser villainy be brought to 



c. Replaces the present tense, when something is 
affirmed of which there is a doubt. In such case, some 
adverb or phrase must be inserted like perhaps^ I sus- 
pect, I wonder; and when speaking of time or age, 
about : — 



The Use of the Tenses. 



353 



be is coming, perhaps, to pay me 

the amount he owes me. 
I do not know what he comes for. 
about how old is he ? [years old. 
he is somewhere about twenty 
what time is it, I wonder? 
it must be about ten. 



d. Denotes not so much future time as will^ moral 
consent or refusal : — 



▼endrA para abonarme la can- 

tidad que me debe, 
no s^ d qu^ vendr^ 
^cuintos afios tendiA? 
tendrA unos veinte afios, 
^qu^ hora B«rA? 
las diez. 



hartf todo cuanto V. quiera, 
no lo hartf de ningun modo, 



I will do all you desire. 

I will not do it by any means. 



70t. Idiomatic future forms are : — 

a* Haber de, to have to, to be to, to will, to be about to, denoting 
mild duty, intention, design, with reference to the future : — 



mafiana he de ir d comer con 

un amigo mio, 
ella ha de entregar el Idnes por 

la mafiana, [de ir, 

la aseguro d V. que no hemes 



to-morrow I am to dine with a 

friend of mine, 
she is to make her returns Mon^ 

day morning. 
I assure you that we will not go. 



b. Haber de also signifies possible possession, to believe that one 
has, must have: — 



he de tener en casa un ejemplar 
del libro que V. busca. 



I think I have at home a copy of 
the book you seek. 



c, Tener que, to have to, must, denotes necessity, positive obli- 
gation: — 



tenemoe los pobres que trabajar 
para ganar el pan de cada dia* 
^qu^ tiene V. que hacer hoy? 
tenemoa que hablar. 



we poor people have to toil to 

eari) our daily bread, 
what have you got to do to-day? 
a word with you {seriously). 



d> Tener que means also what remains to be said, done, or 
denotes expostulation : — '• 



^qud tiene V. que decir? 

dl no Uene nada que ver con eso» 



what have you to say? 

he has nothing to do with that. 



354 



Syntax, 



e. 



de, to have $o^ denotes provision : — 



^tenemoa algo de coroer? or 
^hay algo de comer? 



have we an^'thing to eat? 
is there anything to eat? 



f.lxAt with an infinitive, to be going to: — 



▼oy A visitarle, 
va A ver lo que sale, 
van d oir raisa. 



I am going to pay him a visit, 
he is going to see what will result, 
they are going to attend mass. 



705. Future Perfect. 



babr< liablado, 
habrtf comido, 
babrtf vivido, 



I shall have spoken. 
I shall have eaten. 
I shall have lived. 



a. This tense bears the same relation to the simple 
future that the pluperfect and past anterior do to the 
past definite: — 

ya babrtf terminado la tarea 

cuando llegue el verano, 
maftana i. estas horas ya habxA 

ooncluido todo. 



I shall have linislied my task 

when summer comes, 
to-morrow, about this time, all 

will be over. 



b. The same special rules belong to this tense as to 
the simple form (§ 703, b^ c) to express a conjecture in 
the tone of conviction or confidence : — 



^se habrd visto cosa viki% enre- 

dada? [chico? 

£qu^ vicio habrA tenido el 

ya habrda oldo decir eso 

muchas veces, [mente, 

no te habrda expresado clara- 

habr&n roolbido malas noti- 

cias, 



could anything be more in- 
volved? [have had? 
what bad habit could the boy 
doubtless you have often heard 
that said. [yourself clearly, 
probably you have not eicpressed 
they must have received bad 
news. 



706. CoNDmoNAL Present. 
hahlaxisit/^skouldspeak.l coiXLeiiAt/skoiMeat,\ 'vivitisL,/'sh/niidIive, 

a. Used chiefly in conditional sentences of which it 
naturally forms the apodasis or conclusion, while the 



The Use of the Tenses, 



355 



clause with Bi, if forms the protasis or states the 
condition : — 



leerla todo el dia, si tnviese 

tiempo, 
si no creia que me hiciese dafio, 

comerla dun mds, 
vivirla mucho mds tiempo, si se 

cuidase mejor, 



I should read all day, if I had 

time, 
if I did not think it would hurt 

me, I should eat even more, 
he would live much longer, if he 

took better care of himself. 



b. In the protasis the forms in -se and -ra are inter- 
changeable : — 



leerla todo el dia, si tuviera 
{or tUTie»e) libros. 



I should read all day, if I had 
books. 



c. The clauses in the protasis and apodosis may freely 
exchange places : — 



si tuviese {or tuviera) dinero, 

oompraria la iinca, [haria ? 

si eatuyiese V. en mi lugar i qu6 



if I had money, I would purchase 

the property, [would you do ? 

if you were in my place, what 



d. The protasis may be understood or implied : — 



yo no lo haria de modo alguno, 
dijo que vendrla, 
^1 consentiria en ello, yo n6, 
creyeron que habria una paz 
duradera» 



I would not do it by any means, 
he said that he would come, 
he would agree to it, I would not. 
they believed that there would 
be a lasting peace. 



e. To express a wish or modest request : — 



desearia ver las habitaciones de 
este cuarto. 



I would like to see the rooms of 
this apartment. 



Remark. — In this sense, the subjunctive form in -ra with the 
verb querer, to wish^ to like^ is more common : — 



quisiera ver lo que tiene V. en 
telas de algodon, 



I should like to see what you have 
in -cotton goods. 



/ To indicate an approximate or uncertain state- 
ment in narrations : — 



356 



Syntax. 



mHa la una de la madnigada, 
serlan las dos de la tarde, 
dicha sefiora aeiia muy hermosa. 



it was ab&ut oae A.if. 
it was about two p.m. 
the lady you mention was very 
beautiful, / suppose. 



g. To express possibility or fitness : — 

^•atia verdad eso? 
^d«b«ifa de hacerlo yo? 



could that be so? 

ought I to do it, forsooth? 



The U$e of the Subjunctive Mode* 

707. The subjunctive mode expresses necessity, doubt, 
or emotion, and is chiefly used in a clause dependent 
on a verb containing one of these ideas. 

70a In independent and principal sentences the 
subjunctive is used: — 

a. In the present tense to supply the imperative 
mode, affirmatively in the first and third persons, and 
negatively in all persons : — 



sea yo, 


kt me be. 


no sea yo. 


let me not be. 


(J//4), 


(be thou). 


no seas (/»), 


do not be. 


sea^l. 


kt him be. 


no sea (//), 


let him not he. 


sea v.. 


be (sing.). 


no sea V., 


do not be (sing.). 


seamos nosotroB, Ut us be. 


no seamos. 


let us not be. 


{sedvosotros)^ 


(be ye). 


no seals, 


do not be. 


sean ellos. 


let them be. 


no sean, 


let them not be. 


sean VV., 


be (plur.). 


no sean W., 


doftot be (plur.). 


haga yo. 


let me do. 


no haga yo. 


let me not do. 


(Jiaz), 


(do thou). 


no hagas. 


do nt^ do. 


haga, 


let him do. 


no haga, 


let him not do. 


haga v., 


do (sirig.). 


no haga V., 


do not do {^t^^ 


hagamos, 


lit us do. 


no hagamos. 


let us not da. 


(Jiaced)^ 


(do ye). 


no hagais, 


do not do. 


hagan, 


let them do. 


no hagan, 


let them not do. 


hagan W., 


do (plur.). 


no hagan W., 


do not do {^.). 



The Use of the Subjunctive Mode. 



357 



Remark. — Thus it will be seen that the imperative has only 
one proper form in each number, and that in the sUfirmative diction. 
In all the other persons, and throughout the negative inflection, the 
subjunctive must be used. Hence, we cannot say, no hax^ no haced; 
na si^ no sed; but only no hagas^ no hagais; no seas^ no seats: — 

do what I tell thee. 

do not do what I forbid thee. 

do what I tell you. 

do not do what I forbid you. 



lo que te digo, 
no hafi;as lo que te prohibo, 
haced lo que os digo, 
no hagais lo que os prohibo, 

And in polite address : — 

has^ V. lo que le digo, 
no haga V. lo que le prohibo, 
hagan VV. lo que les digo, 
no hagan VV. lo que les prohibo, 

b. To express a gentle 

gestion : — 

atfale la tierra leve, 

aUibente los cielos, 

hUgame V. el favor, 

pidan lo que quieran, 

{▼iva el rey! 

sepan cuantos estas cartas vie- 

ren, 
pongamos fin d la pldtica, 
sepamos qu^ es esto, 
itodeme yo caliente, y riaae la 

gente {Gdngara^ i627)» 



do what I tell you {sing J). 
do not do what I forbid you. 
do what I tell you ipiur,). 
do not do what I forbid you. 

command, exhortation, sug- 



may the ground be light over him. 
may the heavens praise thee, 
pray ^o me the favor, 
let them ask for what they wish, 
long live the king ! 
know all men by these presents 
(let alt know who shall see, etc.) 4 
let us end the discussion, 
let us know what this is. 
let me be warm, and the people 
may scorn. 



Remark. — With this use of the subjunctive, que may be added 
— an ellipse to be explained by understanding some verb expressing 
a command or wish : — 



que pase, let him enter, 
que saiga, let him come out, 
que venga otro, bring another. 



que bliile, let him dance, [out, 
qua no saiga nadie, let no one go 
que se quite, take him (or i() off. 



c. With indeterminate expressions involving indiffer- 



ence : — 






358 



Syntax. 



Tenga lo que viniere, 

Mdga lo que saliere, 

••« la que fiiere la contestacion, 

digan lo que quieran, 

donde quiera que vayan, 



come what may. 
be the issue what it may. 
be the answer what it may. 
let them say what they please. 
¥rherevcr they go. 



d. With correlatives that express alternative : — 



que lo sepa 6 no, 
que llueva 6 que no Uneva, 
que qoleras 6 no quieras, 
quisieaa 6 no quisiese, {otro, 
ya saa por un motivo, ya sea por 
altfgrese 6 no el pueblo. 



whether he knows it or not. 
whether it rains or not. 
whether you will or no. 
whether he would or not. f other, 
whether for one reason or for an- 
whether the people rejoice or not 



e. In the present or imperfect with verbs denoting a 
wish : — 



plague d Dios no saiga asf, 

[allf, 

plugoleaa d Dios me encontrdra 

ojald hnbieaa escuchado mis 

consejos, [obra, 

permita Dios que lo pongas por 



God grant that it may not turn 

out so ! 
would God I had been there ! 
would that he had listened to my 

counsels ! [practice ! 

God grant that you may put it in 



709. The subjunctive mode is employed in dependent 
sentences connected with the principal clause by the 
"conjunction qua, that: — 

a. When tRe principal clause contains a term that 
denies, doubts, or questions the assertion or possibility 
of the assertion contained in the dependent sentence: — 



no oreo que lo haya hecho, 
dudo que lo hayan dicho, [tado ? 
^ea verdad que lo hayan in ten- 
no pudo ser que lo negasen, 
ni puede sostenerse que fuera 

mds tirdnico que sus contem- 

por^neos, 
no se sabe que lo hayan variado, 



I do not believe he did it. 

I doubt whether they said so. 

is it true that they attempted it? 

they could not have denied it. 

and it cannot be maintained that 
he was more tyrannical than 
his contemporaries. [it. 

it is not known that they changed 



The Use of the Subjunctive Mode, 



359 



Remark. — If the dependent verb refers to the future, the 
appropriate tense is employed: — 

^ cree V. que tritmfartoos ? | do you think we shall triumph ? 

b. When the verb in the principal clause denotes 
hope, expectation, fear, apprehension: — 



eaperemos ^ que salgan todos, 
temo que no teya recibido la 
carta. 



let us wait for them all to go out. 
I fear that he has not received the 
letter. 



c. After verbs expressive of a command, direction, 
caution, wish, desire, entreaty, preference, concession, 
permission : — ^ 



mand6 que se hiciera, 
'dispuso que el rey asistiese i la 

junta, 
quiere que nos marcheinos» 
le supliqu^ que no se fuese, 
mire V. que no rompan el plato, 

[pregunta, 
permftame V. qtie le haga una 
admito que no lo haya dicho, 
prefiero que no dudes, 



he ordered it to be done. 

he took measures for the king to 

be present at the meeting, 
he desires us to go away. 
I begged him not to go away, 
see that they do not break the 

plate, 
allow me to ask you a question. 
I grant that he did not say so. 
I prefer you should not doubt. 



d. After terms denoting some strong emotion, such 
as joy, grief, regret, surprise, vexation : — 



me alegrard que no haya suce- 

dido desgracia alguna, [venir, 

siento que no hay^mos podido 

me admiro que no lo confieses 

con iranqueza. 



I shall rejoice if no accident 

occurred. [come. 

I regret that we were not able to 

I am surprised that you do not 

frankly confess it. 



e., After impersonal expressions, unless they imply 
positive certainty: — 



conviene que lo aepa, 
es Idstima que lo niegue, 
es £icil que no venga, 



it is propter for him to know it. 
it is a pity that he denies it. 
it is probable. that he will not 
come. 



36o 



Syntax, 



t% justo que oobremos nuesttx>s 

derechos, 
es necesario que lo luifa V. 

pronto, 
era preciso que la intolerancia 

se personifioAra ea alguDO, 
no es seguro que eat^n m^ obli* 

gados ahora que eatuviesen 

en vida i satis^uitr indlscretas 

preguntas. 



we secure our 



it is just that 
rights. 

you must do it soon (it is neces- 
sary that you ^ etc.). 

it was necessary that intolerance 
should take form in some one. 

it is not certain that they are 
more obliged now than they 
were in life to satisfy indiscreet 
inquiries. 



Tia The subjunctive is employed after certain con- 
junctions in sentences expressing possibility, uncer- 
tainty, and indefinite future time. Such are: — 



dntes que, before > 

d m^nos que, unless, 

d fin de que, to the end thai. 

aunque, although, 

bien que, although, 

como, when^ as, 

como si, 1 y 

cuaisi, j""'-^' [ing, 

como quiera que, notwithstand- 

con tal que, provided that, 

cuando, when, 

dado que, granted that, 

dntes que escribiese V. este 

libro, ni acaso imagindra 

escribirlo, 
aunque pierda la herencia, no 

consentir^, 
como si no comp^endiera^ 
con tal que lo haga, 
se lo dir^ cuando pneda, 
^que dird tu amo cuando vea lo 

que has hecho? 
hasta que venga^ 



en caso de que, in case thai, 
hasta que, until, 
hasta donde, as far as, 
luego que, as soon as, 
midntras, while, 
no sea que, lest, 
ojald, would thai, 
para que, in order thai. 
por — que, however, 
siempre que, whenever, 
sin que, without, 
supuesto que, supposing thai. 

before you wrote this book, or 

perhaps had an idea of writing 

it. 
although I lose the inheritance, 

I will not consent, 
as if he did not understand, 
provided he do it. 
I will tell him when I can. 
what will your master say when 

he sees what you have done ? 
until I (or he) come. 



The Use of the Subjuftctive Mode. 



361 



luego que hayan entregado el 

dinero, venga V. d mi casa, 
para que lo crea, 
por sabio que sea, 
sin que lo aupitfsemoa, 



as soon as they have delivered 
the money, come to my house, 
that he may believe it. 
however wise he be. 
without our having known it. 



711. The subjunctive is used in relative sentences, 
when the relative pronoun refers to a negative or re- 
strictive idea, or to an interrogation involving a negative 
answer : — 



no hay quien lo crea, 

no habfa quien le ganaae en mal 

genio, 
tampoco fii^ el dnico que en su 

siglo emprendieee guerras 

religiosas, 
no hay mal que cien afios dure, 
s<Slo dos personas hay que sepan 

mds de dl que V., 
^hay alguno que haga m^nos 

que ^1? 



there is no one who believes it. 
there was no one who exceeded 

him in bad temper, 
nor was he the only one who, in 

his time, engaged in religious 

wars, 
there is no ill that lasts forever, 
there are only two persons who 

know more of him than you. 
is there any one who does less 

than he? 



a. The subjunctive is further used when the relative 
refers to persons, things, and ideas, that are unknown, 
or are mentioned in a general indefinite sense : — 



si cayeras en manos de personas 

que te supieran manejar, ya 

trabajarfas bien, 
aguardaba el paso de algun al- 

deano que le diese buenos 

informes, 
si existe ^Iguien que haya leido 

todo lo que hemos escrito, 

habrd notado, etCy 
deudores serdn de VV. cuantos 

escriban sobre Felipe II, 
quien quiera que seaa, 
adonde quiera que vaya, 
venga lo que viniere, 



if you came into the hands of per- 
sons who knew how to manage 
you, you would work well. 

he waited for some villager to 
pass by who might give him 
reliable information. 

if there is any one who has read 
all that we have written, he 
has doubtless noted that, etc. 

all who write on Philip II will be 
your debtors. 

whoever you may be. 

wherever he goes. 

come what will [of may). 



362 



Syntax. 



of 



7X2. The present subjunctive corresponds to the 
present and future indicative: — 



qnlwro que venga, 

00 qnlMTO que se vaya, 

as praotoo que la historia liabla. 

le rogar^ que se abatanga, 
aarA praoiao que se qnada* 



I wish him to come. 
I do not wish him to go. 
history must speak {it is neces- 
sary that history speak"). 
I will ask him to abstain, [staj. 
it will be necessary for him to 



71A The imperfect subjunctive in either form cor- 
responds to any past tense of the indicative : — 



qnaiia que ▼iniesa (^t viniara), 
no quiaa que se fuasa (or se 

luara), 
fii^ preciso que hablasa, 
ha querido que se antandlaaan 

{or se antandiaran), 
habla aztgido que no volvla- 

aan (or volvieran). 



I wished him to come. 
I did not wish him to go, 

h was necessary for him to speak, 
he desired that they should come 

to an understanding, 
he had required that they should 

not return. 



714. The past indefinite subjunctive corresponds to 
the present or future of the indicative: — 

it is probable that he has gone. 
I do not believe anjihing was 
left. 



aa f Acil que se haya ido, 

no crao que haya aobrado 



715. The pluperfect subjunctive in either form cor- 
responds to any past tense of the indicative : — 

I did not suppose that he would 
have gone so soon. 

it was necessary for him to have 
informed himself at once. 



no penstf que se hnbiaaa ido 

tan pronto, 
fu4 preciao que se hubiera 

enterado cuanto dntes, 



716. The future and future perfect subjunctive are em- 
ployed in sentences introduced by si, if; cuando, when; 



The Use of the Infinitive Mode. 



363 



mi^ntrasy while^ or by a relative pronoun or adverb, 
'wUen reference is made to a future contingency : — 



si ^a-viere tiempo, vendr^, 
mientras durare la vida, 
cmando hubiere concluido lo que 
tiene que hacer, escribird la 
carta, [ren, 

^evolver^ todo cuanto me di«- 



if I should have time, I will come. 

while life shall last 

when he has finished what he 

has to do, he will write the 

letter. 
I shall return all they give me. 



Remark. — Instead of this tense, the present or past indefinite 
subjunctive may be employed : — 

si tensa tiempo. 



mientras dure la vida, 
todo cuanto me den, 
cuando liaya ooncluido» 



if I have time, 
while life lasts, 
all they give me. 
when he has finished. 



The Use of the Infinitive Mode. 

717. The infinitive, as a verbal noun (represented in 
English by the ending -ing), may be inflected precisely 
like any substantive in the singular : — 



hablar, ta sfeak^ speaking, 
de hablar, of speaking, 
d hablar, to speaking, 
con hablar, or\, ^ . . 
hablando.r^***'**^- 



vivir, 

de vivir, 

d vivir, 

con vivir, or 

viviendo 



to live^ living, 
of Irving, 
to living. 



\hy living. 



hablar roucho es un vicio, 
el arte de bien vivir, 
muy propenso d mentir, 
con hablar | la gente se en- 
hablando j tiende, 



el apetito viene 



{oomiendo, 
con comer, 



.} 



to talk much is a bad habit, 
the art of living correctly, 
much addicted to ^Isifying. 
by talking, people come to an 
understanding. 

appetite comes by eatii^. 



7ia Hence the infinitive stands after all preposi- 
tions : — 



$64 



Sjmfax, 



despues de 
sin presuntar, 



before getting up. 
after eating (or dinner), 
without asking or inquiring. 



Remark. — The preposition en, in, is, however, usually suocaair 
panied by the gerund when it signiies (i) afttr, (2) fy. In the 
latter caw, we may substitttte con with the infinitive, or the gerund 
may be used alone : — 



en comiendo, salgo i, dar un 

paseito, 
en entrando en el despacho es 

inaccesible d todos, [cultad, 
en pagtodole se zanja la difi- 



after eating, I go oat and take a 

short walk, 
after he enters the office, be is 

inaccessible to all. [ficulty. 
by paying him, you heal the dif- 



719. The definite article is usually employed with the 
infinitive as subject or predicate : — 



el aaber es siempfie dtil, [vida» 
el comer es indispensable i, la 
i, Pedro toca el gobemar, 
serfa curioso el oomparar esta 

doctrina con la otra, 
el mejor medio es el prober que 

hay un pensamiento propio 

filos<5fico en Espafia, 



but 



gaatar en un banquete la renta 

de un afio es locura, 
aunque sea repetlr lo que nadie 

ignora, los Espafioles estamos 

atrasados. 



knowledge is always useful, 
eating is indispensable to life, 
it is Peter's duty to govern, 
it would be curious to compare 

thb doctrine with the other, 
the best way is to prove that 

Spain has a philosophic idea 

of her own. 

to expend on a banquet a yearns 
income is folly. 

although it be to repeat what no 
one is ignorant of, we Span- 
iards are behind the age. 



720. The infinitive governs its case only when tiscd 
substantively; otherwise, its apparent object is. a true 
subject of the verbal idea : — 



el dulce lamentar de dos pasto- 
res (= el dulce lamento), 



the sweet lament of two shep- 
herds. 



The Use of the Infinitive Mode, 



36s 



oigo el mvirmiirar de 1^ fuentes 
(= oigo el marmullo)^ 

2il acabar de la vida (= al fin de 
la vida), [dia), 

al caer del dta (= d la caida del 



I hear the playing of the foun- 
tains, 
at the close of life. 

at the close of day. 



al alxane el telon, 
al acabazse la vida, 
al entrar el estrangero, 
al asomaive al balcon, 
al caer el dia, 



but 



when the curtain rises (or rose), 
when life closes (or closed). 
when the foreigner entered, 
on looking out at the balcony, 
when the day declined. 



721. The infinitive is ti^d in the dative with the 
article to replace a finite clause introduced by a con- 
junction of time» as when^after^ as; or a preposition, as 
in : — 

al hablar asf , 
al tooar d misa, 
al verle yo tan distraido, 
al cumplir Simon los trece afios 
perdid su ultimo hermano, 



in speaking thus, 
when the bell tolled for mass, 
when I saw him thus inattentive, 
when Simon was thirteen years 
old, he lost his last brother. 



a. Without the article, the preposition 4^ with an 
infinitive, often replaces the protasis of a conditional 
sentence : — 



A saber lo que resultarfa (= si 

hubiese sabido), 
A no oonfesarlo,. saldHa peor 

(= si no lo confesase), 
A no ser yo el que lo pedi, no 

tendria inconveniente, 



if I had known what would come 

of it. 
if he did not confess It, it would 

turn out worse, 
were it not I who asked for it, I 

should have no objection. 



722. The infinitive is governed directly, or indirectly 
by a preposition, according to the regimen of the noun, 
adjective, or verb, on which it depends. 



3« 



Syntax. 



7231 The infinitive depends directly on the verb when 
both have the same subject, except verbs of command- 
ing, causing, hindering, or forbidding, which may take 
the infinitive or a subjunctive. Such verbs are : — 



celebrar, to hegiadto. 
conviene, it is expedient to. 
deber, to ought ^ he to. 
dejar, to kt^ ailow to, 
desear, to desire^ want to, 
determinar, to resolve to. 
esperar, to kope^ expect to. 
gustar, to like to. 
hacer, to make^ cause to. 
impedlr, to prevent from. 
mandar, to have, order. 
m&A vale, it is better to. 

celebrarfa verle i, V. al)f, 
no conviene haoerlo, 
debo deoirle i V. que . • 
no me deja oonduir, 
deseo hablar con ^I, 
me gusta comer tarde, 
^qu^ me manda V. haoer? 
piensa partir pronto, 
ae prohibe fijar carteles. 



merecer, to deserve to. 
necesitar, to want to. 
oir, to hear. 

osar, to dare, venture ta* 
pensar, ttf intend to. 
poder, to he aMe to, €em. 
pretender, to claim, try to.. 
procurar, to try to. 
prohibir, to forbid to, 
querer, to wish to. 
saber, to know how to, can. 
temer, to fear to. 

I should be glad to see you there. 

it is not wise to do it. 

I must tell you that .... 

he will not let me finish. 

I want to speak to him. 

I like to dine late. 

what do you direct me to do? 

he intends to go soon. 

it is forbidden to post notices. 



724. The infinitive is governed by a preposition ac- 
cording to the signification or natural regimen of the 
noun, adjective, or verb, on which it depends: — 

725. By the preposition rf .• — 

a. With verbs of motion, and such as involve the idea 
of direction toward an end. Such are : — 



aprender d, to learn to. 
aspirar d, to aspire to. 
comenzar d, to commence to. 



dar d, to give to, 
echar d, to begin to. 
empezar d, to begin to. 



The Use of tJu Infinitive Mode. 



367 



ensefiar d* to teach to, 
enviar d, to send to, 
ir d, to go to^ be going to. 
obligar d, to compel to. 



pasar i, togo^ come to. 
salir d, /^/9 on/ /^. 
venir i, /<? ^^/m^ /^. 
volver i, /<7 — again* 



Together with many reflexive verbs expressive of strong 
moral assertion, effort, or decision, such as : — 



atreverse 4, to dare to, 
decidirse d, to resolve to, 
esforzarse d, to try to, 

aprende A leer y d escribir, 
me did ^ entender, 
echdse A reir, 
empieza A Hover, 
voy A verle pronto, 
vamos Oi dar un paseo, 
viene A decirle eso que sabes, 

vuelve A salir, 
no nos volverd A ver, 
se niega A aceptarlo, 
no se atrevid A decirselo. 



negarse d, to refuse to, 
ponerse d, to begin to, 
resisdrse i, to resist, 

he b learning to read and write. 

he gave me to understand. 

he began to laugh. 

it begins to rain. 

I am going to see him soon. 

let us go and take a walk. 

he comes to tell you that you 

know of. 
he goes out again, 
he will not see us again, 
he refuses to accept it. 
he did not dare tell it to him. 



b. In certain elliptical phrases, such as : — 
A saber ; A decir la verdad, | namely ; to speak truly. 

726. By the preposition de: — 

a. With nouns and adjectives which are followed by 
a genitive : — 



tiene el atrevimiento de decir- 

melo i, la cara, 
no tengo costumbre de mentir, 
tiene ganas de comer, 
no me da la gana de hacerlo, 
higame V. ei favor de decirme 

eto, 
tengo vergiienza de pedirlo, 



he has the impudence to say it 
to my fece. [falsehoods. 

I am not in the habit of telling 
he has a desire to eat. 
I don^t choose to do it. 
do me the fsLVOt to tell me that 

I am ashamed to ask it. 



368 



Syntax. 



no tengo el gusto de conocer 

4 v.. 

es diflcil de conseguir, 
soy deseoso de aprender. 



I have not the pleasure of know- 
ing you. 
it is difficult to attain. 
I am desirous to learn. 



b. With verbs represented by the following : 



acabar de, to have just. 
acordarse de» to remember to. 
alegrarse de> to be^ad to. 
arrepentirse de, to repent of. 
dejar de, to fail to^ leave off. 

acaha de salir, 

me acuerdo de haber dicho, 

se alegra de vernos, 

no deja de escribir, 

hemos de vivir, 

se me olvidd de decirlo, 

tratard de venderlos, 



desistir de, to cease frofn. 
haber de, to be about to. {with. 
ocuparse de, to busy one*s self 
olvidarse, to forget to. 
tratar de, to try to. 

he has just gone out. 

I remember to have said. 

he is glad to see us. 

he does not cease writing. 

we must live. 

I forgot to say so. 

I shall try to sell them. 



c. After the verb to be, used impersonally : — 



es de desear que no venga, 
es de esperar que sea pronto, 



it is desirable that he do not 

come. [soon. 

it is to be hoped that it will be 



727. By the preposition en : — 



se empefid en querer ir d verle, 
no tardard en venir, 



he persisted in his desire to go 

and see him. 
he will not be long coming. 



72a By the preposition con, or the gerund with or 

without en : — 

con hablar (en hablando, hab- 
lando) asf, crefa sacar algun 
provecho. 



by talking thus, he thought that 
he would derive some advan- 
tage. 



729. By the preposition para, in order to, to, for the 
purpose of, about to, expressing purpose, result, use, 
situation : — 



te Use of the Infinitive Mode. 



369 



se abriga uno para no tener frio, 
tiene bastante dinero para com- 
prar la casa, [para comer, 
se come para vivir, no se vive 
el hombre nace para morir, 
quien tiene oldos para oir, 5iga, 
no slrve para aprender* 
estoy para marcharme, 



one wraps up so as not to be cold, 
he has money enough to buy the 
house. [eat. 

we eat to live, we do not live to 
man is born to die. [hear, 

he who hath ears to hear, let him 
he is not fit to learn. 
I am about to set out. 



730. By the preposition per, for the sake of, on ac- 
count oft tOf expressing motive* result, reason, willing- 
ness, or anticipation : — 



trabaja por confundir d su con- 

trario, 
babla s6Io por hablar, 
no me lo dijo dntes, por no faltar 

i, un compromiso, 
me regafid por no haber hecho 

lo que d quer!a, 
Uevaba la cara embozada por no 

darse i, conocer, 
cstuve por escribirle, 
la casa estd por acabar. 



he labors to silence his adver- 
sary, [talking. 

he only talks for the sake of 

he did not tell me beforet so as 
not to break a promise. 

he scolded me for not having 
xlbne as he wished me to do. 

he kept his face muffled, so as 
not to be known. 

I was willing to write him. 

the house is yet to be finished. 



731. The infinitive may stand in sudden exclamations 
as an imperative, or as an interrogation of surprise : — 

\ callar ! \ no correr ! i negarlo yo? | hush ! donH run ! I deny it? 

732. The transitive verbs oir, to hear, and ver, to see, 
are followed by the infinitive, and not by the gerund as 
in English irr- 



me vi6 venir, 
le VI acercarse, 



he saw me coming. 
I saw him approaching. 



Remajlk. — With intiaosJitive, verbs, the gerund is used as in 
English: — 



vino corriettda 

se fxx& murmuraiido^ 



he came running. 

he went gff grumbling. 



1 



370 



Syntax. 



The e^erund* 

733. The gerund partakes of the nature of the verb 
from which it is derived, and has the same regimen. It 
is, therefore, invariable in gender and number : — 

▼itfndol* acercarse le salud^. 



[do una promesa, 
no quiso dedrmelo, pretwctan- 
los caballeros le recibieron con 
amables sonrisas, recono- 
oiindole el m^rito de haber 
conquistado el corazon de la 
dama, 
so doncella entrd en el comedor, 
y aottroAndoae i. su oido, k 
dijo secretamente algunas pa- 
labras, 
▼olvi^ndose i uno de los que 
Servian la mesa, aOadid, 



seeing him approach, I saluted 
him. [promise, 

he would not tell me, pleading a 
the gentlemen received him with 
pleasant smiles, recognizing in 
him the merit of having won 
the heart of the lady. 

her maid came into the dining- 
room, and, approaching her, 
she whispered in her ear pri- 
vately a few words. 

turning to one of those who 
served the table, he added. 



734. The gerund is freely used with certain verbs to 
form the idea of progression, of something going on in 
succession : — 



los que se iban reuniendo, 
86 f neron presentando los con- 

vidados, 
estaban comiendo cuando vino, 



735. The gerund is often 
present participle, or finite 
dy, in: — 

pero la que vive en delicias, vivi- 

endo estd muerta, 
creyd engafiarles aparentando 

estar dormido, [dad, 

haciendo esto muestra mi cari- 



those who were gathering. 

the guests came one after an* 

other, 
they were eating when he came. 

equivalent to the English 
verb, introduced by wAile, 

but she that liveth in pleasure is 

dead while she liveth. 
he thought to deceive them by 

feigning sleep. [chanty, 

in doing^ this, he displays his 



Tlte Use of the Past Participle^ 



371 



Tae. The gerund may have a definite or indefinite 
subject: — 



pudiendo mis con d la fuerza 
de la sangre que el atractivo 
de la corona, [cosa, 

no siendo posible hacer otra 
no habiendo tiempo para discu- 
tir la medlda, se suspendi<S la 
sesion. 



the force of blood havii^ more 
power over him than the lure 
of a crown. [thing else, 

it not being possible to do any- 
there not being time to discuss 
the measure, the session was 
suspended. 



737 The gerund, with or without the preposition en^ 
may have an indefinite personal subject, and is trans- 
lated by when^ if one /las^ is, etc. : — 



en habiendo dinero en el bol- 
sillo, se gasta sin miseria. 



when one has money in hb 
pocket, he spends it freely. 



738. The gerund has the same regimen as the verb 
from which it is derived : — 



gosando de buena salud, 
olTldiUidose de lo pasado, 
me iba afioionando d estas 
cosas, [yemo, 

quariendo dar i, conocer d su 



enjoying good health, 
ibrgetdng the past. 
I came to grow fond of these 
things. [known, 

desiring to make his son-in-law 



The Use of ihe Bast rarUeipie. 

739. The past participle of all verbs is invariable in 
the compound tenses formed by the auxiliary kaber: — 



los hombres han comido, 
habfamos Tivido alU, 



the men have eaten, 
we had lived there. 



a. The verbs Uevar and tenar, when used as substi- 
tutes of haber, require the past participles that accom- 
pany them to agree in gender and number with their 
object : — 



372 



Syntax. 



Uevan Morit— tret cartas, 
las cartas que tengo escritas, 



they have three letters written. 
the letters that I have written. 



d. In the tenses of the passive voice, the past partici- 
ple of the verb conjugated passively is inflected, while 
those of ser, estar^ and their substitutes, remain un- 
changed because dependent on haber: — 

hemos sido engaflados, 
han quedado satiaf eohos, 



we have been deceived, 
they have remained satisfied. 



74a Separated from the auxiliary, the past participle 
agrees, in gender and number, with the noun or pro- 
noun qualified, like any adjective : — 



d la hora eonvenida, ella se pre- 
sent(5 apoyada en el brazo de 
su padre, cubierta con un 
vestido bianco, 

el gabinete forrado de raso 
bianco y vestldo de guirnal- 
das de flores sirvid de capilla, 



at the hour agreed on, she came 
forward leaning on her father^s 
. arm, dressed in a white robe. 

the sitting-room, lined with white 
satin and decked with garlands 
of flowers, served for a chapel. 



741. The past participle may be used absolutely : — 



flrmado el contrato quedaba adn 

por legitimar la voluntad de 

los cdnyuges, 
dlsuelta la asamblea se retira- 

ron todos, 
reunidaa las Cdrtes se empez($ £ 

discutir el proyecto de ley, 



the (civil) contract having beea 
signed, the will of the pair yet 
remained to be legalized. 

the assembly dissolved, all with- 
drew. 

the Cortes having come together 
again, they began to discuss 
the biU. 



742. Relation of time in the absolute participial con- 
struction may be expressed by the preposition despues 
de, placed before it : — 



despues de firmada la paz 
ambas partes se felicitaron. 



after peace was signed, both par- 
ties congratulated each other. 



The Use of the Past Participle, 



373 



after all the doors and windows 
were locked, the keys were 
delivered to the porter of the 
next house. 



daapues de oemida« todas las 
puertas y ventanas se entre- 
garon las llaves al portero de 
al lado. 



74a The past participle with the preposition 
foTy is used to express capability or necessity after the 
verb to be, with a negative : — 



no es asunto para satisf eoho en 
corto numero de renglones, 

estas providendas no son para 
propoestaa, 

las artes de la polftica tampoco 
son tan para viatas por den- 
tro como las de la guerrat 



it is not a subject to be exhausted 

in a few short lines, 
these measures are not to be 

proposed, 
nor are the arts of state polity so 

transparent (easy to be scru- 

tii^ized) as those of war. 



744. Past participles may be used as nouns: — 



el oonvidado, the guest, 

los deapoaados, the espoused, 

muchos son los llamadoa , y 
pocos los escogidos, 



los convidadoa, the guests, 
los desgraoiados, the unfortU" 
note, 

many are the called, and few th^ 
chosen. 



745. The Latin future passive participle in -ndus is 
still preserved in a few substantives only: — . 

the pupils. 

the candidates for baptism* 

books to be' expurgated. 



los eddcandos, 
los bawtjgatadoa, ' 
los Hbros ezpurgandps, 



Remark. — In substitution, the Spaniards employ the verb haber 
de with the passive or reflexive : — 

los libros que ban de aer ez- 



purgados, [pacharse, 

los asuntos que ban de dee* 
este negocio no se ha de ter- 

minar tan fi&cilmente como se 

creep 



the books that are to be expur- 
gated, [posed of. 
the matters that are to be dis- 
this business will not be brought 
to a close so easiiy as they 
think.^ 



374 



Syntax^ 



7ML The present participle, as such, has wholly disap* 
peared from the Spanish, being replaced by the gerund. 
The few remaining forms are used as adjectives or 
substantives : — 



■Buote de la pfttria, 
ua caballero andante^ 
un hijo obediants, 
un traslado feliaolanta, 
las C6rtes oonatttnyantaa, 
los enseres partanaoiantea al 
almacen, pes orayantaa, 
lospartioipantaa; iosoyantaa; 



fond of one^ country, 
a knight-«rrant. 
an obedient child, 
an authentic copy. 
the constituent assembly, 
the fixtures belonging to the 
warehouse. [the believers, 
the participants; the hearers; 



Jta^men of Veth: 

litl. The object of a transitive verb regularly stands 
in the accusative case without a preposition, when it 
designates things or objects not endowed with life 
{Impersonal Accusative): — 



edified la oaaa, 
alcanzaron una viotoria, 
Cdrlos lee loa dlarioa, 
el horobre digno ama la Tirtud 
y aborrece al vioio, 



he built the house, 
they gained a victory. 
Charles reads the newspapers, 
the worthy man loves virtue and 
hates vice. 



74a The object of a transitive verb regularly stands 
with the preposition d, when it designates persons or 
animals {Personal Accusative): — 



Juan sigue A an harmaao, 
conozco k eata hombra, 
hemos visto A loa rayaa, 
debemos amar k Dioa y A nuea- 

troa semejantes, 
el espada mata al toro, 
el nifio acarida al gato^ 



John follows his brother. 

I know this man. 

we have seen the king and queen. 

we ought to love God and our 

fellow-men, 
the swordsman slays the bull, 
the child fondles the cat. 



Regimen of Verbs. 



375 



^Aqoi^n buscas? 

se debe recompensar A lo« que 

DOS strven fieimente, 
los hombres le acogieron como 

A us stfr afortttoacio. 



whom do you sedc? 

we ought to rewaid diose who 

serve us ^thfully. 
the men congratulated him as a 

lucky petson. 



accusative is found : — 
determinate, known person- 

I am seeking a servant of mine. 
I am waiting for my friends, 
they went to call a physician well 
known for his skill. 



749. Hence the personal 

a. To indicate definite, 
ality : — 

busoo A on eriado mio. 

aguardo A mis amigoti, 
fueron i. llamar k on mMico 

mny^ oono o ld o por su habili* 

dad, 

b. With pronoims in the redundant construction, and 
in antithesis : — 



cr^me A mi, 

OS ver^ A vosotros, 

A ml de todo se me p^, 

deja A mi triste por alegrar A A 

•0 miraron nao A otro, 

■e engafian unos A otros, 



believe me. 

I shall see you. 

a little of ever}rthing clung to me. 

he leaves me sad to cheer him. 

they looked at each other. 

they deceive one another. 



c. With words that explain a personal pronoun : — 



nos abraz<$ A todos, 
los vi6 A todos, 
nos acogienm muy bien A mi 
hermana y A miL 



he embraced us all. 
he saw them all. 
they received my sister and me 
very well. 



d. After a predicate adjective or past participle : — 

prosperity made my master 

proud, 
we saw our bene&ctor lie dead. 



la prosperidad hizo orgulloso A 

mi amo, [hechor, 

vimos muerto A nuestro bien- 



e. When the object is the proper name of a person 
or animal, or of a place without the definite article : — 



376 



Syntax. 



coaoscoAa«vllU; •— ACMIa, 
ios Moros oonquistaron k fis- 

pftfiii en el siglo octavo, 
sin esperar mis respuesta pico 

k Rootnante, 

Pizarro conquist6 el Pertl, 
he visitado Im CoruJIa, 



but 



I read Cervantes. 

I know. Seville; — Cadiz. 

the Moors conquered Spain in 

the eighth century, 
without waiting for a veplj, he 

put spurs to Rocinante. 

Pizarro conquered Peru. 
I have visited Corunna. 



78a The personal accusative stands with the names 

of things : — 

a. When they are considered as personified: — 



defiende A la patria, 
Uam6 k la muerte, 
las aves saludan k la aurora, 
recompensan al m^rito, 
temfa k au propia sooibra, 



he defends his country. 

he invoked death. 

the birds salute the dawn. 

they reward merit 

he feared his own shadow. 



Remark, — This principle is especially applied to. animals, birds, 
and insects in fables:. — 



]£ste k la Honnlga abba, aquA 

al Perro^ 
Qui^n k la Abeja, qui^n al 



This one praises the Ant, that 

one the Uogi ■ 
One the Bee, another the Parrot. 



Fapagayo, — Fdhulas de Iriarte^ Madrid, 1787, vol. L', p. 54. 

: t ♦ ■ 

b. To distinguish the object from the subject ;— 



el invierno sigue al otofto, 
la noche precede al diar 
el verbo rige al nombre, y el 
nbmbresal ▼erbo, 



winter follows autumn. 

night precedeauday. 
the verb governs the noun, and 
. the noun the v6rb. ' ' 



c. To distinguish the object of the verb from its 
predicate : — 



llama cardcter k an capricho, 
tree UAos anteojos que le hacen 
parecer riqueza k la pobxeiMi* 



he calls his caprice character, 
he wears glasses that make pov- 
erty appear to him riches. 



Regimen of Verbs, 



m 



75X The impersonal accusative stands even with a 
personal object: — 

a. When that object is indeterminate, unknown, or 
taken partitively : — 



busco un criado, 

fueron d buscar un mi^dico que 

fiiese experimentado, 
en ml vida he visto hombre que 

sea mis orgulloso, [so** 

hemos convidado algunos ami- 
coDOzcD sefioraa md» amables 

que ella, [capitanes, 

Espafia ha producido grandes 



I am looking for a servant. 

they went to look for an experi- 
enced physician. 

I have never seen anybody who 
is prouder. 

we have invited a few friends. 

I know ladies more amiable than 
she. [tains. 

Spain has produced great cap- 



b. When the object is qualified by a numeral : — 



veo ouatro personaa, [dea, 
el gobemador cit6 veinte alcal- 



I see four persons. [alcaldes, 
the governor summoned twenty 



c. After the verb toaar, when it means to have^ to 
possess : — 



tengo un bnen padre, 
es precise que el ej^rcito tenga 
ofioialea» 



I have a good father. 

the army must have officers. 



Remark. — But when tener means to hold a person fasty or 
when it is put for esiar in definite sentences, the personal accusative 
follows : — 



I d qui^n tengo ? — tengo A V., 
tei^o A mi madre enferma, 
tenemos k nueatro hermaao en 
el extrangero. 



whom have I ? — I have you. 
my mother is ill. 
our brother is abroad {we have 
our brother abroad) . 



but 



tengo una madre muy indul- 

gente, ' [trangero, 

tenemos un hennano en el ex- 



I have a very indulgent mother, 
we have a brother abroad. 



378 



Syntax, 



d. After the verb p«rdM:, to lose^ since pcrdtr & sig- 
nifies to ruin : — 



perdid an tUiico hijo, 
he perdido mi madre. 



he lost his only son. 
I have lost my mother. 



Remark. — Some modem writers, however, offend this rule : — 

perdid A su tUtimo hermano, | he lost his last brother. 

— Jos^ Selgas, Escenas FatUdsiicas^ p. 80, ed. 1876. 

€, After the verb qnerer, in the meaning to wish^ to 
want^ since qiierar & signifies to love^ to like: — 

I want an honest man to serve 

me. 
he loves his child very much. 



yo quiero on liombr« hoorado 

que roe sirva, 
quiere mnchfsimo k a« UJo, 



/ After words of naming, appointing : — 



el rey nombrd loa gobema- 

doreik 
el papa elige loa oardenalea, 



the king appointed the gover- 
nors, 
the pope elects the cardinals. 



g. When the same verb governs an indirect object 
with rf, or a personal pronoun without d: — 



prefiero el diaoreto al valiente, 
CerT^tea & Quevedo, Glbdia 
d Valencia, 

envia al jardinaro d la plaza, 

presentaron al aafior i la dama, 
ha sido forzoso dejar el oonda 

en rehenes al enemigo, 
me recomendd el general, 

enviaron el hijo d sn padre, 
abandonan el hombre i su des- 
esperacion. 



I prefer the prudent (man) to the 

brave, Cervantes to Quevedo, 

Cadiz to Valencia, 
he sends the gardener to the 

market. [the lady, 

they presented the gentleman to 
it has been necessary to leave the 

count as a hostage with the foe. 
he recommended the general to 

me« 
they sent the child to his &ther. 
they deliver the man over to his 

despair. 



For euphony, before the letter d very often, but not 
uniformly : — 



Regimen of Verbs. 



379 



busco amieos; — wHgan anifOb 

^conoce V. k este caballero?! 
^conoce V. aquel caballero?/ 



I seek friends ; — some friend, 
do you know that gentleman? 



752. Many transitive verbs admit two objects, — an 
indirect of the person and a direct of the thing: — 



df al moso una propina, 
envi6 ii fulano una esquela, 
le presto cinco duroa, 
dijo al juex la ▼ardad. 



I gave the lad a gratuity, 
he sent so and so a note. 
I lent him five dollars, 
he told the judge the truth. 



75a Verbs that involve the notion of taking away» 
winning, asking, paying, thanking, prabing, take in 
Spanish the dative of the person and the accusative of 
the thing, while in English the object is governed by 
some preposition other than to: — 

quitd al pobre todos sus aho- | 
rros. 



le quitd su hacienda, 

selaqultd, 

robd al obrero su jornal, 

se lo robd, 

gand d su contrincante la apuesta, 

el gand la apuesta, 

el pobre pidid al caballero una 

limosna, 
se la pidid, 

pagd al sastre el gaban, 
le pagd al sastre, 
se lo pagd, 

le agradeci su buena voluntad, 
se la agradeci, 
alabaron al capitan su valor, 
se lo alabaron, 
alabo d V. su aplicacion, 
se la alabo i, V., 
se lo pido d V. encarecidamente. 



he took from the poor man all 

his savings, 
he took from him his property, 
he took it frx>m him. [wages, 
he robbed the mechanic of his 
he robbed him of them, [ponent 
he won the wager from his op- 
he won the wager from him. 
the beggar asked the gentleman 

for an alms. 
he asked him for one. 
he paid the tailor for the coat, 
he paid the tailor for it. 
he paid him for it. 
I thanked him for his good will. 
I thanked him for it. [courage, 
they praised the captain for his 
they praised him for it. 
I praise you for your industry. 
I praise you for it. 
I earnestly beg you to. 



3*0 



Syntax. 



Remark. — MereoWk in the sense of to receive as a reward ef 
merits is similarly construed : — 



mereoer al rey un nombramien- 
to d un alto cargo, 

754. Some verbs require 
personal pronouns only : — 

persuadid i, su hijo que lo hid- 

ese, but 
■e lo persuadid, 
iropidid que lo hici^semos, but 
BOS lo impidid, 
preguntaron al mudiacho si haii 

verdad, but 
se lo preguntaron, 

lo prohibo & V., 



to receive from the king a high 
appointment. 

the same construction with 



he persuaded his son to do it, 

but 
he persuaded him to. 
he prevented us from doing so, but 
he prevented us from it. 
they asked the lad if it iraa 

true, but 
they asked him about it. 
I forbid you to. 

Remark. — «* To give any one anything," in the sense oiz Res- 
ent, is expressed by rsgalar algnna cosa k ^guien ; otherwise 
dar is used : -*- 



ue rogald un reloj nuevo, 
m% di6 un reloj nuevo, 



he presented me with a new 

watch. [watdi. 

he gave (handed) me a new 



755. In English, a verb often governs its object by 
means of a preposition, when, in Spanish, it is direct : — 



to look for anything, 

to listen to advice, 

to yi2it for the arrival of a train. 



buscar alguna cosa, or algo. 
escuchar )os consejos. 
esperar la Ilegada de un trexu 



75€. Verbs which express the notion of perceiving, 
often take with the accusative of the thing a dative of 
the personal pronoun rendered into English by means 
of the preposition in or from : — 

trae V. una cara que no le he you wear a countenance that I 
visto jamis, never saw in you. 



The Regimen of Verbs. 



381 



confieso que no le hallo ni chbpa 

ni sentido, 
cniando me oy6 la respmesta se 

puso furioso, 



I confess that I do not find any 

wit or sense in it. 
when he heard the reply from 

me, he became very angry. 



757. Many verbs signifying to rejoice, to boast, to be 
sorry, to pity, to remember, to forget, to trust, to dis- 
trust, to be ashamed, to laugh at, to want, to need, to 
deprive, to use, govern their object by means of the 
preposition de> of, for, at. Such verbs are : — . 



abusar de, to abuse, 
acordarse de, to remember. 
admirarse de, to wonder at. 
alegrarse de, to rejoice at. 
aprovecharse de, to avail one*s 
self of, to use, [of, 

avergonzarse de, to be ashamed 
burlarse de, to laugh at, 
carecer de, to want, to be without. 
compadecerse de, to pity, 
condolerse de, to pity. 
desconfiar de, to distrust 
dudar de, to doubt. 
fiarse de, to trust. 
gozar de, to enjoy. 
jactarse de, to boast. 

se acuerda de su juventud, 
gozamos de buena salud, 
se olvidan de sus amigos, 
usa de medios ilicitos, 
se sirve de los taleatos ^e^os, 
no dudo de ello, 
prescindiendo de eso, 
carecen de pan, 



lamentarse de, to lament. 
mo&rse de, to scoff at. 
necesitar de, /<? need. 
olvidarse de, to forget. 
preciarse de, to boast, 
prescindir de, to do without, to 

leave out of the account. 
privarse de, to deprive of. 
reirse de,, to laugh at. 
renegar de, to abominate, 
servirse de, to use, 
tener listima de, to pity, [of 
tener vet^iienza de, to be ashamed 
usar de, to use, 

valerse de, to avail one^s self of. 
za£cirse de, to get rid of, 

he remembers his youth. 

we enjoy good health. 

they forget their friends. 

he uses unlawful means, [others. 

he avails himself of the talents of 

I do not doubt it. 

leaving that out of the account. 

they are without bread. 



APPENDIX TO PART SECOND. 



jDinUnuUveB and AugmetUaHves. 

75a These consist of various endings applied chiefly 
to substantives to express dififerent modes of characteriz- 
ing persons, things, and qualities, as being smail or 
^KS^^f together with certain other subordinate circum- 
stances, involving attractiveness, burlesque, irony, and 
aversion. In view of the nice distinctions and shades 
of feeling they often suggest, it is scarcely possible for 
the learner to employ them appropriately; and they 
are, in fact, for the most part, a silent element in the 
northern tongues, unless rendered by some circumlocu- 
tion adapted to the context. They abound in domestic 
and popular language, and in humorous, poetical, and 
satirical writings, but seldom suit the grave style of 
history or serious compositions of any kind. Among 
the uneducated classes, they very commonly appear as 
a makeshift for a limited vocabulary, or to emphasize 
passionate utterances. 

DIMiMUTiVJfiS. 

759. The leading diminutives end in : — 

a. Ho, cito, ecito ; /em. ita, cita, ecita, applied to 
substantives, adjectives, and a few adverbs, to express 
smallness of size, quality, or degree, in connection with 
fondness, caresses, admiration, good humor, true sym- 
pathy, modest demand, respect (by servants), and irony 
stated without vituperation. Therefore this ending 



Diminutives and Augmentatives. 



383 



cannot be used with words having in themselves an 
unlovely, repulsive signification, save in satire or ridi- 
cule. The translation may be expressed with substan- 
tives, by little^ pretty little^ dear little ; with adjectives 
and adverbs, by quite^ very^ or all may be given by 
circumlocutions suited to the context : — 



papaito; madreoita, 

mi hermanito ; mi hermanita, 

son amiguitoo* 

mis primitos y pximitas, 

la cotorxita tiene dos patitas, 

\ qud caaita tan guapita ! 

agradezco i V. su regalito, 

; pobre hijita mia ! 

I me hace V. el favor de un vasito 

de agua fresca ? 
voy, saliorito ; — safiorita, 
con que {onidadito! 
es jOTencito y baen mozo, 
agua freaquita ^quien pide? 
\ bufiuelos calentitOB I 

d este caballero no le gustan las 

bromitaa, [titoa, 

yo aseguro que no faltarfan aso- 

i angeUtos ! qu^ pronto os avieza- 

ban d los sacrifkios de la came 

bumana ! 

Alfoiiaito; ManoUto, 
Carlitos; Merceditas, 
Dolorcitas; Juanita, 
Paqoito; Pepito; Periquito, 

vive por abf oarquita, 
se qued(5 algo lejitoa, 
arrfmate junto, juntito, 
tome V. un poquito, 
andaba pasito d paso, 



papa, do ; come, mother. 

my little brother ; — sister. 

they are dear friends (of children). 

my little cousins. 

the little parrot has two little feet. 

what a pretty little house ! 

I thank you for your nice gift. 

my poor child ! 

will you give me a glass of cool 

water? 
yes, sir; — ma^am (of service), 
so then, take care now ! 
he is young and good-looking, 
nice, cool water, who will buy ? 
fritters, nice and hot ! 

this gentleman is not fond of 

jokes. [foi^otten. 

ril warrant the stripes were not 

angelic ^irits ! how quickly they 

habituated you to sacriiices of 

human flesh ! 

little Alfonso ; — Manuel. 
Charley ; little Mercy, 
little Dolores ; Jennie. 
Frank; Josy; Peter. 

he lives near here. 

he kept some distance off. 

move up, close up. 

take a little, pray. 

he was going very slowly. 



384 



Appendix to Part Sectmd. 



b, mo, elllo, edBo ; fem. ilia, oUla, aeiUa, applied 
likewise to substantives and adjectives, to express 
smallness of size, quantity, or degree, either stated 
indi£Eerently without reference to fondness, etc., or in 
a tone of depreciation, rpguishness, ridicule, with or 
without good humor, and pity for an unfortunate 
person. It may be translated by little^ somewhat^ that 
(in contempt), or as the context suggests : — 



un ohiquillo me gui<5, 

ua ladronoUlo es, 

vaya V. d comprar un panecillo, 

estoy algo malillo, 

d^me V. un poqoiUo, 

^heme V. un traguillo, 

tiene un gustillo desagradable, 

hubo un olorciUo de ajos, 
habla coo el tonillo de un Cata- 
lan, 
es un pobre viejeoillo, 
una mujercilla que no tiene 

vergiienza, 
Julianillo el jorobado, 
FtanceslUo el gracioso, 
Sebastianillo el enano, 
el libro trae no pocos onente- 

oillos, 
la Juliana es una loqnilla, 
como me quiere tanto el ama, 
teme que mi madre le robe ese 
carifio jpobrecilla! 



a youngster directed me. 

he is a little thief. 

go and buy a loaf of bread. 

I am somewhat ailing. 

give me a very little (a trifle). 

pour me out a little (swallow). 

it has a somewhat unpleasant 
taste. 

there was a slight odor of garlic. 

he speaks with the (dialectic) ac- 
cent of a Catalonian. 

he is a poor old man. 

a woman who has no sense of 
shame. 

Julian, the hunchback. 

Frank, the (court) jester. 

Sebastian, the (court) dwarf. 

the book contains quite a number 
of short stories. 

Julia is a giddy girl. 

as nurse loves me so much, she is 
afraid my mother will rob her 
of that affection, poor thing! 



c, Uelo, melo, eznelo; fern, nela, mela, exnaliu 

applied to substantives and less frequently to adjectives, 
to express smallness in a depreciative sense, involving 
inferiority, lowness, ridicule, and disdain ; and also in 



Diminutives and Augmentatives. 



385 



a humorous, roguish, bantering style. Occasionally it 
replaces illo in its natural meaning of smallness with- 
out regard to other qualities : — 



cliicaelo; rapaznelo, 
moznelo; peqnefiluelo, 
cojuelo; tontaelo, 
cazaela; tinajuela, 
plaxnela; oaUejaela, 
pajtielaa; pedasuelo, 
arroyuelo; riachuelo, 
bombreznelo ; mujerxuela, 
autonuelo; piUuelo, 
JoTenzuelo; salonzuelo, 



urchin; youngster, 
lad ; little one. 
limping ; silly person, 
skillet; jar. 

little square ; poor street, 
matches ; a petty morsel, 
brooklet; streamlet, 
little man ; low woman, 
poor author ; little thief, 
vile youth ; little parlor. . 



Remark. — If a polysyllabic stem ends in a vowel, the letter h or 
g is inserted with this ending : — 

aldea, \ 

aldehuela, or aldegttela,/ 



judfo, 1 

judihuelo, ^ Judigttielo,/ 



a wretched hamlet, 
a despised Jew. 



d, Ete, cete ; fern, eta, ceta, applied to substantives 
in a diminutive and depreciative sense : — 



un mocete ; un pobrete, 
un librete ; un galsmoete, 
una aleta; una lenglieta, 



a small boy ; a poor fellow, 
a small book ; a ladies^ man. 
a litde wing ; — tongue. 



e, Bjo, fern, eja, is applied most commonly to words 
ending in / or n, and denotes decided contempt ; occa- 
sionally, however, it merely indicates smallness of size, 
quality, degree : — 



anlxnalejo, 
el alguacUejo, 
un Ubrejo, 

no cobro m^ que doce realejos 

diarios, [papelejo, 

como dijo el autor de cierto 



any troublesome insect, 
that constable (in disdain), 
a worthless book. 
I only get a pittance of twelve 
reals a day. [once said, 

as the author of a certain scrawl 



386 Appendix to Part Second, 

doflla Jmna la B^ltraaejs,* lady Jane, she of Beltran. 

iih arbolfto; una owudeia, a small tree ; a drioldng«troagh. 

Remark. — This endix^ is occasionally found with Arabic words 
hispanicized, to denote simple smallness or to distinguish the less 
fix>m the greater: — 

The little square by the Romao aqueduct at Segovia in Spain is called 
El ABOgiM(|o from the Arabic as-soq, "the market**' "square,'* and the 
Spanish diminutive ending. AlanideiMJo means '^ die leaser aaine^'* to 
distinguish it from Almaden^ Arab, al-ma^din^ "the mine.*! . . 

Tea Other diminutives are formed by means of tlie 
endings ico, in, ino, and iSo, all of which are local or 
dialectic, to wit : — 

a, leo, oico, ecico; fern, ica, dca, ecica, usually 
given as the synonym of ito\ was originally a local varia- 
tion proceeding from Aragon, and domesticated in the 
Castiles, to add a vein of sprightly humor impossible to 
characterize. It should not, therefore, be used, indis- 
criminately for ito^ but be held in reserve to season a 
choice diminutive wittily and warily : — 

little lad ; little youngster, 
little bird ; little dog. 
Johnny; Alfonso; Peter. 



mocico; Jcv-enoioo, 
aTeoico; perrico, 
Jiianico; Alfonslco;' Perico, 
el Emperador y FeUpico,^ 



the Emperor and little Philip. 



1 Tbe princess dofia Juana, daughter of the queen dofia Juana, wife of 
Henry IV (1462), by the courtier don Beltran de la Cueva, was popularly called 
par mipris la Beltraneja, and because of her notorious illegitinnacy, was set 
aside from the succession, at Henry's death, for the famous Isabella of Castile 

(1474). ' 

s For example, when the present king of Spain succeeded to the throne in 

1875, the Madrid people often spoke of him as Alfonslco, with a distmct mix- 
ture of irony and resignation; "Alfonsito" Would have been a grave political 
error, because of the adhesion it implies. 

s Actually said of Charles V and Philip, his son, about 1535, by tbe court- 
jtiUr^ Francesillo de Zdiiiga, in his BurUsqui ChronUU, 



Dimii$$iii'^es and Augm^ntaiives. 



3«7 



RsMARR. — The Aragpnese still use io>p in the natural sense. 
Cven in the old local ballad . which first appeared in print in the 
Cancionero General of Valencia, 151 1, we find the proper use: — 



Fonte frida,* fonte frida, 
Fonte frida y con amor, 
Do todas las vveolcaii ' 
Van tomar* consolacion, 
Sino es la tortollca 



Fountain cool, fountain cool. 
Fountain cool and winsome, too, 
Where the little birdlings all 
Gather Vound their mates to woo; 
Save the little turtle-dove 
That is widowed of its love. 



Qu* estcL viuda y con dolor, 

b, IxL^fem. i&a, peculiar to the Bable or Asturian dia- 
lect; iXkOf fern. iSiK, common in the .province of Estre- 
madura ; and ]SLo,fem, ifia, in the dialect of Galicia, are 
all Txiore or less used in Castilian to denote smallness 
merely : — 

tin nifio cliiqiiitln< • V 
una nifia chiquitina,/ 
caloetUi; caloetines, 
peluca; pelnqoin, 
baldosa; baldosin, 
bolsa; bolsln, 
padriQQ.; madrino, 
paloma; palomino^ 
recudrdoQie que era muy afido^ 
nadQ'4.l08 langPftCinoft,' 



a wee little child. 

sock; socks. . . 
wig; little wig. 
fiooring-tile ; fine flooring-tile, 
exchange ; evening exchange, 
god^ther; godmother, 
dove ; pigeon. 

I remember, that he was very fond 
of shrimps. 



cuerpo, oorplfio, b/:>dy of a dress. 

Form. 

•- t I 

761. All these endings are attached to the stem of 

a word found by rejecting the terminal vowel, unless 

accented, even in diphthongs: — 

abeja, ab^tta, lUtk bee. 
pdjaiao, pajarete, m&in bird. 
mozQ» moxfielo, ycung lad. 



cuchara, ouohaiita, ieasptfOH* 
libro, Ubxillo, Utile book. 
jovenztielo, a youngster. 



rubio^ a, nibito, a, of light complexion. 



1 In CastiHan, Puenie/ria, < A Gallicism for vatt & tomar, 

* A sense not found in the Spanish-English dictionaries ; Fr: ^r§vhses. 



3«8 



Appendix to Part Second. 



TS2. The final radicals c, g (^gu)y Sy become respec- 
tively quy gu (^gif)y c, when the ending is introduced by 
one of the vowels ^ or i : — 



frac, fraqu-ecito, dress-coat. 
fresco, fresquito, gu^e cooL 
amigo, aini|;aiUo, lUtle friend. 
ciego, oiegaexaolo, blind boy. 



lengua, lengtL-eoita, little tongue. 
pez, peoeoillo, little fish. 
cruz/omoecita, little cross. 
pedazo, pedacillo, little piece. 



a. With regard to radical diphthongs that are mova- 
ble (jie, ue)t usage generally requires them to be retained 
at the present day, except in primitives of more than 
two syllables : — 



huevo, hnev-eolto, little egg. 
caliente, calentito, nice and hot. 



nieto, niet-eoUlo, little grandson. 
valiente, valenton, a swaggerer. 

Still we say : puerta, porteznela, door (of a carriage). 



763. The second forms of the diminutives, namely, 
oito (cico)y cillo, saelo, cete, are required with words 
of more than one syllable ending in « or r : — 



■aloa-oillo» a small parlor. 
gratiflcacionoita, smaU gratuity. 
Udroooillo, littU pilferer. 
jovenoete, a youth {contempt). 

Jardin makes jardinito and jardincito, smaU garden. 



amor-clUo, sli^ affection. 
autorolco, boy^uthor. 
mujersaela, silly woman. 
Doloroltas, little Dolores. 



764. The third forms of the diminutives, namely, 
ecito (ecico)> ecillo, eznelo, are to be used : — 

a. With monosyllables: — 

8oL-eolllo, little sun. 
flor-eclta, little flower. 
pan-eoiUo, loaf of bread. 



fraqn-esnelo, dress-coat. 



red-eoilla, net {for the hair). 
nuez, nueoeoioa, little walnut. 
cruz, omoecita, little cross. 
pez, peoeoillo, tittle fish. 



Fi6 makes pleoecito, a charming little foot ; and mano, hand, 
manita or maneolta. 



Diminutitfes and Augntentatives, 



389 



b. With words ending in ^ or ^ : — 



fraile, frail-ecico, little friar, 
ave, aveoilla, little bird, 
alegre, alegredto, jolly, 
ainable, amableoillo, kind. 



viaje, viaj-ecito, short trip, 
rey, reyezuelo, petty sovereign, 
grande, grandeoito, rather tall, 
pobre, pobremuttlo, sadly poor. 

But proper names in e are excepted : — 
Pepe, Pepito, Joseph, \ Felipe, Felipioo, Philip, 

c. With words ending in a or 0^ only when they have 
a diphthong in the stem : — 



piedra, piedreoilla, little stone, 
cuerpo, cnerpezuelo, little body, 
ciego, ciegueoillo, bUnd, 
nuevo, nuevecioo, new. 



pleito, pljeiteeillo, law-suit ^ 
viento, vlenteclto, slight breeze, 
quieto, quietecillo, still, 
viejo, viejesuelo, M, 



Except abuelo, a, abuelito, a, grandfather ^ 'mother^ and perhaps 
others. 

AUGMENTATIYES. 

765. The leading augmentatives are : — 

a. On, fern, ona, denoting large size, grotesqueness, 
and in general an extraordinary degree of what is conr 
tained in the primitive. Feminine nouns usually be- 
come masculine in assuming this ending, unless natural 
gender is indicated : — 



calavera, oalaveron, rascal, 
ala, alon, wing^ofafowl, served y 
cuchara, oucharon, ladle, 
jarra, jarron, large vase, 
barba, barbon. thick beard, 
migaja, migajon, large crumb. 
mnjer-ona, big woman. 



cigarro, cigarron, big cigar, 
encuentro, encontron, shock, 
pfcaro, picaron, great rogue, 
sefior, BefLoron, great gentleman, 
tunante, tunantoni scotmdrel, 
autor, autoron, big author, 
valiente, valenton, a brave. 






tan de sopeton, so suddenly y unexpectedly, 

b, Azo, fern, aza, has a similar meaning applied 
according to the gender of the primitive : — 
boca, bocaxa, big mouth, \ hereje, herejazo, great hetetic. 



390 



Appendix to Part Second, 



Remark i. — The ending aao invariable^ 13 oftenest used to 
represent a blow or discharge of something Indicated in the primi- 
tive : — 

a blow with a fan* 

a blow with a cane. 

a beating of drums. 

a cudgelling. 

a thrust with the clasp-knife. 

report of a cannon, cannon-shot. 

a rifle-shot. 



abanico, 
baston, bastonaao^ 
bombo, bombaxo, 
porra, porraxo, 
navaja, navajaxo, 
cafkota, oaflonaso, 
fusil, fiudlmmo, 



Remark 2. — The ending ada has a similar meaning; often a 



thrust with a sharp weapon: 

una Imniada (lanza), 
una pnfialada (puftal), 
una eatocada (estoque), 
una andanada, 
dar manotadas, 
una bulonada, 
una oampanada, 



thrust with a lance. ■ 

a stab with the short dirk. 

thrust with a long, thin sword. 

a broadside. 

to throw up the hands as in ^ling. 

a piece of buffoonery. 

stroke of a bell. 



c. Ot^ifem. Ota, has a depreciative sense sometimes, 
and others only the augmentative : — 

hereje, herejote, great heretic. 
an old folio volume, 
rich and pretentions. 



amigo, amigote, old friend, 
un librote de d folio, 
rico, rioote, rioota, 
grandote, f eote, f •ota, 



Dompous, ugly old person. 

d, Acho and Qcho have the more definite sense of 
disdain, contempt : — 

el populacho, the masses, \ animalucho, an insect, 

una oaaucha, a poor house. 



1 



766. Combinations of diminutives and augmentatives 
are very frequent to lend an accumulative force to words. 
Such are : — 



Diminutives and Augntentatives. 



391 



a. Ito with ito and In : — 

chico, small; chiquito, <^qixitito, oMqnitln. 
los pi^s ohiquirrititos, little mites of feet. 

b. nio with on : — 

grande, large ; grandillon, rather InggisA. 

c. Ete with on : — 

mozo, lad; mocete, mooeton, quite a tall lad, 
pobre, poor; pobrete, pobreton, a poor old fellow, 

d. Ejo with on : — 

calle, street; calleja, oallejon, a lane^ alley. 

e. Acho with nelo : — 

no, river; riacho, riachuelo, rivulet. 

f. Acfao with on : — 

hwtxio^good; bonacho, bonachon, easy-goings ** clever,'^ 

g. On with azo : — 

pfcaro, rogue; picaron, picaronazo, //V^^ of knavery, 
encuentro, meeting; encontron, encontronazo, crash. 



lei. Occasional forms 

nube; nnbarron, 
bobo; bobarron, 
bobalfas; bobalicon, 
limpara; lampion, 
nariz; narigon, 
raiz; raigon, 
vivo; vivaracho, 
mamarracho, 
ave; aveohnoho, 
pillo; pillastro, 
gente; gentuza, 
migaja (pop. miefa)^ 
latin, latinajo, 



are: — 

cloud ; threatening cloud. 

stupid ; great dunce. 

dolt ; great blockhead. 

lamp ; large lantern. 

nose ; big nose ; big-nosed. 

root; snag. 

lively; sprightly. 

grotesque ornament, botch. 

bird ; bird of ill-omen. 

rogue ; great rogue. 

people; rabble. 

crumb, grain. \ous), 

Latin; Latin quotation {humor- 



392 



Appendix to Part Second. 



76a Diminutive and augmentative endings often 
express independent ideas : — 



scfiora, {married) lady; 

pafio, cloih ; 

pan, dread; 

manta, blanket, wrap ; 

aziicar, sugar; 

calzas, knee-breeches; 

calle, street ; 



sefiorita, young lady, 
pafiuelo, handkerchief. 
panecillo, loaf of bread. 
mantilla, Spanish veil. 
azucarillo {a confection). 
calzoncillos, drawers. 
callejon, lane. 



769. Many words have endings that are only appar- 
ently diminutive and augmentative : — 



varon, a man, male, 

tornillo, screw. 

sencillo, simple, plain. 

pantonilla, calf of the leg. 

vajilla(vasilia),/Z^^(^<7/Z;^/.). 

ladrillo, brick. 

bosquejo, sketch. 

cotejo, collation of a book. 

azulejo, Dutch tile. 



conejo, rabbit. 
guedeja, lock of hair. 
madeja, skein. 
oveja, sheep. 
anzuelo, fish-hook. 
cazuela, skillet (earthen). 
billete, ticket. 
bigotes, mustachios. 
escondrijo, lurking-place. 



escondite, hiding-place. 



Section Fourth. 



■•o—- 



DRILL-BOOK. 

^Pronunciation* 

[The accentuated syllable that should not bear the graphic accent is here 
noted by a long mark placed over the vowel that has the principal stress ; thus, 
papil^ but dnimo.'} 

Simple Towels. 

Ama, ala, amira, amigo, amistad (31), almenara, dnima, 
anden, abal5rios, amapola. Era, ^poca, epistola, escala, escalera, 
mandadero, embarcadero, sombrero, sombrerero, es, estd, escuela, 
eslabon, alfiler, elemento, elefante, ^bano, ingMs, cordobds. Libro, 
fila, tira, timbre, tinta, cortlna, triste, visita (40), baladf, papelito, 
tilin, bailarin, motin. Olor, opaco, reld, autor, mediador, corredor, 
con (never ^ifti), conmigo, contento, confiado, consonante, narigoo, 
pasion. Pluma, uso, usted, gusto, busto, susto, busca, bulto, duda, 
buria, gula, nulo, tinico, ambigd, abuso, adulacion (28). 

Diphthongs. 

Aire, airoso (40), baile, caigo, traigo, fraile, vaiven, maitines. 
Auto, aula, bautlsmo, aun (even), caudal, caudaldso, raudal (39), 
autor, fautor, auditorio. Aureo, durea, empfreo, Ifnea. Peine, 
veinte, treinta, afeite, deleite, aceite (28), reino, reinado, ley, rey. 
Feudo, neutro, deudo, leudo. Euro, Europa. F€ria, amplio, ampUa, 
limpio, limpia, nimio, nimia, indio, india, vicio, ciencia, servicio, 
paciencia, codlcia, albncias. 

Hielo, grieta, nieto, viene, consiente, doliente, teniente, bien, 
tarobien, sienes, bienes, siempre, tientan, sienten, vientos. 
Cfudadino, vludo ; cdima, oigo, estdico. herdico; Cuando, cuanto, 
guardia, agua, estdtua» contfnua. Fu€go, duelo, vuelo, suelo, 
fiierOt agii€ro» nuevo> muero, trueno, grueso. Cuidadoso, ruidoso, 
arruinado, huirdis ; ambiguo, tortudso, virtuoso. 



394 Drill-Book. 

laapropar DlphtlioDgs. 

C2e, tr&e, caida, traldo, caf; baOl, ataud or atahud, aun {jet, 
still) ; galantea, alanc€a, hebrea, marea ; cree, lee, alancee, galantee ; 
ref, creimos, creido, leido; toreo, bebr^o^ liceo, j^lanteo ; galeria, 
alegria, tropelia, tonteriia, herfa, comfamos, vivian ; rie, avie ; rio, 
varfo; oldo, old; hulda, imbiudo; continiia, fdua. 

donaonuitt. 

BiSnes, vienes, bota, voto, bebe, viye, bata, vate, tubo, tuvo» 
bacfa, vada, balido, valTdo, baron, varon, hombre, nombre, bribon. 
Casa, caido, carid&d ; queso, quema, qoepella, paienque, alcomdque, 
albaricOque ; qiii€n, quiso, quieto, qudnica, alqiuta, tranquilo ; cosita, 
coro, cordna; curioso, cubo, alcuza; escuilido, cuantioso, cuait; 
cuestion, cuela, cuero, Cuenca; cuita, cuidado; cuota, infcuo. 
Muchacho, leche, Elcfae, noche; cuchillo, cbico, marchito; ocho, 
ducho, chorro, dicho, ricachon, caehorro; cfaucbo, higo-chiunbo, 
chttio, chusma. 

Gato, galgo, ganga; guerra, aigue, albergue, droguerfo, guedeja, 
Agueda; guia, guion, gukana, erguido, ^guila, guisantes, seguia, 
borceguf; hidalgo, gozo, hago, sirgo, higo, consigo; gula, gusto, 
arguyo, regular. Guapo, guaiida, agua, fragua, averigua; fragile, 
desagtie, aveiigiie, antigiiedad ; argiiir ; antiguo, avenguo, santiguo. 
Hallazgo, ahora, habSis, halagiiefto, tahur, desahucio, haba, hdroe, 
hilo, horadado, hule, huso. Jaula, alhaja, baraja, jaleo; mujer, 
general, ajeno, rige, aflige, gesto, genio, ingenio; giro, gitano, 
dijiste, registn) ; tasajo, atajo, trabajo, inilujo, trujo; ju^o, enjuto, 
jura ; Juan, enju&gue : juego, majuelo, t^juelo, juez ; juido. 

Halla, batalla, llama, Uanto ; . calk, valle, Ballecas, calleja ; alH, 
cepilllto; huello, murmullo, gruUa, orguUo ; Uuvia, velludo. Nifia, 
rifia, sefta, vifia, engafta; ensefie, eoga&e; refilr, cefiir, teftido; 
sefior, engafio, aflo, bafto, da^Q ; safiudo, fiudo. Vara, toro, moro ; 
hablar, comer, decir, llegar, placer, dolor ; arte, tarde,.hurto, guardia ; 
rota, rueda, ruego, rasgo^ rindo; chorro, torre, burra, afaorrar; 
enredo, es regular, irregular, corro. Santo, eso, pasa, pasado, 
lloroso, odioso, Toboso, cosa, musa. Yema, yedra, yeso, yugo, 
tuyo, suyo, arguyo. Kaza, taza, caza, haz, feliz, desliz; hice, cena, 
dice, alaucear; cita, civil, ciudad, Ifcito; mozo, gozo, zozobra; 
panzudo, zumbar, azul, azucena. 



Pronunciation, 395 

Faccioso, coleccion, diccionario, accionista. Desdicha, dardo, 
humilde, muerdo, ardiendo ; dedo, hablado, arboleda, comida, 
soldado, embudo, greda; maldad, caridad, verdad, hablad, corned, 
usted, merced, red, ved, acudid, MadKd, sacudid, ardid, virtud, 
ataud, almud; odre, pudrir, vendrd, tendrd, albedrfo. Inmenso, 
inmortal, inmarceslble. Sexo, exacto, mdxime, prdxtmo, exhortar, 
exultar. Naranja, lisonja, gengibre. 

Cteog^raphical Names. 

Alava, Albacete, Alcalde AldLntaray Alcdzar, Almerfa, Alora, 
Alsdsua, Aranjuez, Ar^valo, AvUa. Backijoz, Barcelona, Bazt§Q, 
Beasoain, Burgos. Castillejos, Ceuta, Ciudadreal, Cuenca. 
Darincharinea. Elizondo, E^corial. Fuenterrabfa. Gijon, Granada, 
Granja, Guadalajara, Guadalaviar, Guadalhorce, Guadalquivir, 
Guipuzcoa. Hellin. Irun,Jabalquinto,Jaen,jdtiva, Jerez. Medellln, 
Menjfbar, M^rida, Montilla, Murcia. Pamplona. Quintanapalla. 
Saritander, Santiponce, Sevilla, Socu^llamos. Tdnjer, Terue|, 
Trujillo. Valencia, Valladolld, Villalba, Vitoria, Vizcaya. Zarsigoza. 

Proper Adjecthres* 

Asturiano, Valenciano, Murciano, Guipuzcoano, Toledano, 
Sevillano, Jerezano, Gaditano,Vallisoletano, Zaragozano, Castellano; 
Alicantino, Granadino, Vizcaino, Akalaino, Bilbaino ; Madrilefio, 
Estremefio, Malaguefio ; Matritense, Conquense, Tudense,Vascuence ; 
Catalan, Aleman ; Gallego, Manchego ; Alav^s, Aragonds, Leon^s, 
Cartagin^, Cordob^s, Tudds, Frances, Inglds, Irlandds, Escoc^s; 
Navarro ; Espafiol, Andaluz, Flamenco, Marag^to. 

Family Names. 

Alvaro, Alvarez, Arderfus, Benftez, Bermiidez, Carvajal, Cervdntes, 
Diaz, Dfez, Dominguez, Eguflaz, Est^banez, Fernindez, Garcia, 
Garcds, G6mez, Gonzdlez, Gutierrez, Hervds, Ibdflez, ffiigo, 
fftiguez, Jimenez, Lodisa, NufLez, Pdrez, Ramirez, Rodriguez, 
Sdnchez, Sanchiz, T^Uez, Veldsquez. 



396 Drill-Book. 



"^P 



FIRST SERIES. 
BssenHaMa of Form and InfleeH&n, 

[The words will be found in the vocabulary at the end of the book. Worc]s 
in parentheses are to be expressed in Spanish. Hyphens connect Eng^lish 
terms which are to be given in Spanish by one word. The small figures at the 
top of the line indicate the order of the words in Spanish, Words to be left 
untranslated are placed between brackets.] 

Bxerclae Tint, 

Uarn and Recite §§79, 81, 82, 84, 85, ioi>i04, io7-iiOfJ$7 

I. The friend of the king, or the king^s friend. 2. The queen^s 
room. 3. The captain^s ships. 4. The boy^s pens. 5. The estates 
of the gentlemen, or the gentlemen^s estates. 6. The ladles* pres- 
ents. 7. The leaves of the trees. 8. The palaces of the king-and- 
queen (106). 9. The houses of the prince-and-princess. 10. The 
master-and-mistress of the servants. 

II. A tree of the garden. 12. A door of the house. 13. The 
verdict of a judge. 14. The counsels of a mother. 15. The water 
of the sea. 16. The child's hunger. 17. The stir of a town. 18. The 
girl's needle. 19. Th^ birds of the air (Span. j/tj'). 20. The flight 
of the eagle. 

21. The joy of the house. 22. The judge speaks to the prisoner. 

23. The captain gives (to) the sailor the command of a vessel. 

24. The lady lends a book to the girl. 25. A gentleman gave money 
to the errand-boys. 26. The queen gave the jewels to the ladies. 
27. The souls of (the) men. 28. The laws of the commonwealth. 
29. The crosses of the generals. 30. The servants of the judges. 

31. (The) trees have leaves. 32. (The) vessels have sails. 
33. Charles has money. 34. Agnes has sisters. 35. Lewis' £ather 
has houses and lands. 36. A town has streets. 37. A house has 
doors and windows. 38. A man has friends and enemies. 39. (The) 
nations have government and laws. 40. (The) wild boars live in., 
the mountains. 41. The ministers wear crosses. 42. (The) part- 
ridges and quails live in the woods. 



Essentials of Form and Inflection, 397 

Kxercise Second* 
Learn and Recite §§ Ii2-ii8y JS^", 

I. The rose is a beautiful flower. 2. (The) roses are beautiful 'VZ/ 
flowers. 3. The garden has high* walls.* 4. (The) benevolent* 
ladies' are always beautiful. 5. The water is (estd) cool ; it-comesi^ \ 
from a living' spring.* 6. My friend lives in a white* house.* 

7. The Spanish language is rich and harmonious. 8. The [ladies] 
of*Cadiz are beautiful. 9. The boys and girls have roguish* eyes.* 
10. The streets of the city are broad. 

II. The German* literature^ is modern, the Castilian is ancient. 
12. (The) wise* men* are good companions. 13. The French* 
rail-ways* are (estdn) well made. 14. (The) Spanish* laws* are 
very ancient. 15. (The) Andalusian* customs* are very graceful 
and picturesque. 16. The houses in Spain are generally low, but 
spacious. 17. Madrid has the characteristics of a French* town.* 
18. The men wear tall* hats,* and the young-men caps of curious* 
shape.* 

19. You will-find English* and French' goods* in the Spanish* 
shops.* 20. A good memory is necessary in-order-to learn a lan- 
guage. 21. The Andalusian* wit-and-humor* is known everywhere. 
22. The young-man directed treacherous* glances* toward his 
opponent. 23. The highland-women of Spain serve as (de) nurses 
in the capital. 24. They wear tall* head-dresses* and picturesque* 
costumes* with much jewelry and bright* colors.* 25. Charles gave 
(to) his sister a new* book* illustrated with many engravings. 

Exercise Third. 

Learfi and Recite §§ 119-122. 

I. An easy* lesson.* 2. Spain has many religious* festivals,* 
and few national [ones], 3. (The) parents are faithful' friends. » 
4. We spent many happy* hours* at {en) his house. 5. (The) rainy 
days are dull, but useful. 6. There-are noble* men* and vile* 
men.* 7. A common* interest* unites* them.* 8. Agnes gave 
(to) her sister a blue* ribbon.* 9. (The) young-men are capable 
of doing (to do) many things which are impossible to the old. 
10. The customs of-Morocco are very different from those (Jas) 



J 
1 



398 Drill-Book. 

of-Europe. ii. All his remarks were courteous. 12. Spain b a 
wine-growing* country.' 

.13. (The) Spanish* villages* generally* have* one broad* street.* 
14. A large* house* has many rooms of different sizes. 15. A 
palace has public* and private' apartments.* 16. The sweet* 
orange^ is for Mary, and the sour* lemon* is for John. 17. The 
gentlemen understand many different languages. 18. The official* 
buildings* of a capital where* the government' resides* are usually 
large and magnificent 19. The Catalonian* manufacturers* fiimtsh 
all Spain with (de) common* fobrics.* 20. All (the) wars, are 
serious, and are contrary to the spirit of (the) Christianity. 



Ezeroiae Fourth. 

Ltarn and Rtciie §$ 123-127. 

I. A good man always has good friends. ^. Lewis wants a good 
pen» the-one that (Ja fus) he has is poor. 5. (The) good books 
are good companions, and much more convenient than (the) living 
[ones] . 4. One twd * boy ^ can do much harm. 5. This ^ has ^ been * 
{a] bad* year* for the formers. 6. One bad thought may engender 
a bad habit. 7. A poor book is [a] poor companion. 8. The bad* 
boys* cherish bad designs. 9. The last moment of (the) life. 
10. The last day of the'&ir. 11. The first month of-the year. 
12. My friend lives in the first white* house* on the right. 13. In 
the three first centuries the Latin* language* was spoken (Jem^) 
over all Spain. 14. The campaign began in the third month of-the 
third year of the emperor^s reign. 

15. The third man. 16. The third week. 17. The first and 
third row. 18. One book read with care is-worth more than many 
read {m, pi,) carelessly. 19. One day a friend* came* to our 
house. 20. One week has seven days. 21. Some day we-shall-go 
to Spain. 22. Some time after he-read the newspaper. 23. I-saw 
the (§ 76) man some weeks before. 24. Some oranges are sour. 
25. No occasion is better than the present (J^em,). 26. No day is 
free from cares. 27. No friends are so faithful as those (the) of our 
own household. 28. A great danger threatened* him.* 29. In a 
great house there-are many servants. 30. A great man has many 
friends. 31. A great general is often [a] guarantee of (the) peace. 



\ 



■^^^■Hk<,^ 



Essentials cf Form and Inflection. 399 

32. The blow may iaA. any day. 33. Better is no book than any 
book. 34* The father gave (to) hjis son [one] hundred dollars. 

35. I-saw [one] hundred sokliers drawn-up in the public-square^ 

36. [One] hundred and one is [an] odd* number.' 



Szercise Fifth* 

Learn and Recite §§ 12^^131. 

I. He^briags an important piece-of-news. 2. He^is an influential 
man. 3. The parable of«the prodigal son. 4. The poem of (the) 
Paradise Lost. 5. The young^^man^s threatening looks. 6. The 
measures of (the) foreign governments. 7. The iron-clad ships of 
the French and English (§ 655). 8. Madrid society (the society 
of-Madrid) b gay in (the) wmter. 9. He^-speaks the Spanish 
language. 10. Cabrera was [a] Carlist chieftain. 11. Espartero 
was the principal general of the Constitutional party. 

12. The definite decision of- the government. 13. The innocent 
lambs. 14. (The) entangling alliances. 15. The producing classes. 
16. The active and passive service, that is, the employed and pen* 
sioned officers. 17. The second and third chapters. 18. (The) books 
first and fifth. 19. He-gives good advice (//.)• 20. He-undergoes 
a just' punishment.' 21. He-writes with a bad pen. 22. He-leads 
(Jleva) a bad life. 23. In (the) ancient times the selectmen repre- 
sented [representaban) the {at) third estate, that is to say (//-/j to 
say)t the {al) people. 24.. He-has a great defect, which (que) is 
almost a vice. 25. My father has a large house. 26. The doctor 
lives in the new street. 27. The poor man has the sympathies of 
all (the) charitable persons. 28. He-placed several volumes on 
the table. 29. I-fouhd that poem in a volume of miscellaneous 
papers. 30. The messenger brought reliable news (//.)• 

BzerclM Sixth. 

Learn and Recite §§ 132-139. 

I. The building is as large as a palace. 2. The window is as 
high as the ceiling. 3. The toys are as amusing as the books. 
4. The pens are as poor as the paper and the ink. 5. The women 
are as tall as the men. 6. The house is as white as (the) snow. 
7. John is as small as his brother. 8. Agnes is as gentle as a lamb. 



400 Drill-Book. 

9. The merchant is as rich as the banker. lo* The paper is* not ' 
80 fine as the envelopes. 11. The house is not so large as the 
palace. 12. The streets of Toledo are not so broad as those (the) 
of Madrid 

13. Paul has as-much courage as Peter. 14. Mary has as-much 
diligence as her sister. 15. The boys have as-many projects as the 
men. 16. The tables have as-many legs as the chairs. 17. Julia 
has as-many pens as her friend Louisa. 18. The merchant has* 
not ' so-much money as the banker. 19. The horse has not so-much 
patience as the ox. 20. John has not so-many friends as Peter. 
21. The farmer has not so-many houses as the judge. 22. The cat 
is not so useful as the dog. 

23. The horse is more useful than the ox. 24. (The) gold and 
(the) silver are more precious (684) than (the) iron or (the) Itud. 
25. The houses of-the king are more spacious than those (the) of 
(the) citizens. 26- The merchants are richer than the scholars. 
27. The wise are happier than the ignorant. 28. Tlie tables are 
taller than the chairs. 29. John is less amiable than his sister. 
30* The laborer has fewer books than the mechanic 31. The fanner 
has less money than the shop-keeper, but he-is more contented than 
the-latter (^ste). 32. We-have more than (§ 137, b) [one] hundred 
acquaintances in this town. 33. The royal palace is larger than any 
(125) of the houses in (of) the capital. 34. It-is difficult to say 
which is (sea) better, (the) riches or (the) wisdom; both are-im- 
portant to the state and to (the) society. 

BxerclM Serenth. 

Learn and Recite §§ 140-148. 

I. The count^s palace is the largest' building ^ in (147) the city. 
2. This is the widest' street* in the capital. 3. He-gave the wisest' 
counsel* of all. 4. He-is the best friend (that) I have. 5. A dulled 
conscience is our worst enemy. 6. He-took the smallest* coin* that 
/ had (tenia), 7. The wisest [men] err sometimes. 8. The love- 
liest' women* are* not' always the most beautiful. 9. The best 
schools in (the) town are the public [ones]. 10. The most enter- 
taining' books* for (the) children are those (the) which have pictures. 
II. He-gave* me* [some] of his poorest (peores) pens. 12. The 
fleece of the lamb was of the whitest' color.* 



Essentials of Form and Inflection, 401 

13. The justest judgments are always the wisest. 14. The 
shortest* road' is* not* always the best. 15. (The) Spanish pro- 
verbs are full of the profoundest* truths.* 16. The earliest collection 
is of- the marquis of Santillana. 17. The Broad' Street* of St. 
Bernard is one of the longest in the Spanish capital. 18. The street 
of Alcald is the most beautiful in Madrid. 19. The Gate of the Sun 
is the most spacious* square* in that town. 20. The* shortest* 
street,* or' rather* lane,* is that (the) of Seville. 21. The city of 
Cadiz is the most ancient in Europe. 22. Seen (Jem.) from the sea, 
4t-appears [to be] a mass of [the] whitest clouds (suptrL ads,)* 



Bzerolie Xigbtb* 

Learn ami Recite §§ 149-159. 

I. The day is very fine. 2. The night was {estuvo) very dark. 
3. He-is a most* congenial' person* (with muy), 4. His arrival 
was most-timely {ya-isimo), 5. The benches are very-low (or very 
low), 6. The review was most-brilliant. 7. We-have very-many 
friends in this town. 8. There-is very-much fruit this year. 
9. The houses of Cadiz are vei^-white. 10. The Phoenicians were 
a very-ancient people (151). 11. This is a most-beautiful bird. 
12. The boy is exceedingly diligent. 13. The ring is of [the] finest* 
gold* {absol,), 14. The lecture YidiS (estuvo) very-well-attended. 

1 5 . He-is a very-learned • man . * 1 6. H is manners were very-mild . 
17. Some of the streets of London are very-long. 18. His conduct 
was (/»/) most-shocking. 19. The occasion was most-happy. 
20. Last-night occurred a most-shocking ^ attempt* against the 
king^s life. 21. This afternoon the attendance at the Cdrtes was 
very-slim. 22. The way is very-long and the night very dark. 
23. The countess is a very-amiable lady. 24. Our neighbor's 
father-and-mother are very-old. 25. The envelopes are very-poor. 
i26. The question is [a] very-diflScult [one]. 27. The news is quite 
certain. 

28. The dog is a very-faithful' friend.* 29. It- was a very-devout 
action (reg. of piadoso), 30. The inside room is more quiet than 
the front [one].. 31. This gentleman is my most intimate friend. 
32. He-is quite young, but he-has considerable experience. 33. He 



402 Drill-Book. 

bas a very* pretty' A^«/' oa the '^CasteUana.^* 34. He-is very 
[much of a] gentleiiian. 

]Bz«r«ise Nlafli. 

Ltam and RecUe §§ 160-165. 

I. Two men and three boys. . 2. Four books and five pencils. 
3. Seven churches and six schools. 4. Ni^e windows and eight 
doors. 5. Ten oranges and twelve pears. 6. E^hteen ships aad 
three*hundred men, 7. Fifteen trees and thirteen statues. 8. Twenty 
horses and fifty sheep. 9. Five-hundred houses and twelve thousand 
residents. 10. Ninety-nine cents and nine mills. 

II. Eight and six are fourteen. 12. A year has twelve months. 
13. A month has thirty or thirty-one days. 14. A year has 
three-hundred [and] sixty-five days. 15. A Spanish real is-worth 
about ^v^ cents, and a Cuban [one] ten cents. 16. There-are 
nineteen ships and twenty-six steamers in the port 17. A set of 
twelve chairs, two sofas, and three or four easy-chairs iorcd^LsilUria. 
18. The permanent* army' of Spain in time of peace consists of 
more than seventy-five thousand men. 19. They-have fifty thou- 
sand men in the Basque provinces since the peace of 1876. 20. The 
year (of) 1492 was [a] very notable [one]. 21. The capture of 
Constantinople in the year (of) 1453 was coetaneous with the inven- 
tion of (the) printing in Europe. 

Kzerctoe Tentibu. 

Learn and RtciU %% 166, 168-170. 

I. The first day of the Week. 2. The second month of the year. 
3. The third Saturday of the month. 4. Three is the fourth part of 
twelve. 5. The seventh exercise is easier than the eighth. 6. The 
first lessons of a new language are more difficult than the last. 
7. The second half of the nineteenth' century.' 8. The twenty- 
third * chapter ' of the book. 9. The thirtieth ' volume ' of the history 
of Spain. 

10. The Arabs entered (into) Spain in the eighth century. 
II. Alfonso the Tenth was a wise and enlightened king. 12. A 

* The name of a lishionable drive ia Madrid, the extension of the J^mdo 
and RecoUiot. 



Bsa 



Essentials of Form and Inflection. 403 

Spanish real is the twentieth part of a dollar. 13. He-spends one 
(the) half of his time in the streets. 14. He-lost three fourths (the 
three quarter parts) of his income. 15. Nine tenths of them were 
favorable tp the project. 16. He^gave (to) his son one fifteenth 
(the fifteenth part) of his receipts. 17. (The) four fifths of the 
soldiers were raw-recruits. 

18. The servant bought a quarter of flour, a quarter of wine, a 
little beef, and [some] lettuce for the salad. 19. The farmer gave 
(to) the parish-priest his tithe of whe^t. 20. Last-night the con- 
scripts disturbed the neighborhood with their shouts and songs. 
tzi . At the fntrodttctioft of -printing into Spain at the close (d Mimos) 
of the fifteenth' century,' all (the) books were printed in folio or in 
quarto. 22. (The) ancient* Spanish' books' in 8vo are usually of 
the size of our bodks in i6mo, or smaller still. . 



Sxerelse EleTenth* 

Learn and Recite §§ I7i-i75. 

I. Five and three are*^ eight and ten are eighteen, and seven are 
twenty-five. ,2. Three times nine are twenty-seven. 3. Four times 
eight are thirty-two. 4. Twelve times twelve [are a] hundred and 
forty-four. 5. Twice thirteen are twenty-six and nine are thirty- 
five. 6. A day and [a] half. 7. An hour and [a] quarter. 
8. He-gave one (the) half of his goods to the poor. 9. He-worked 
half [a] day. ro. He-will-wait half [an] hour. 

II. I -spent a couple of days in the country. 12. He-bought half 
t[a] dozen {pi) oranges. 13. He sold a dozen and [a] half (of) 
boxes of raisins. 14. He-has a score of acquaintances. 15. He-lived 
there a score-and-a-half of years. 16. He spoke once or twice (two). 
17. He-plays sometimes. 18. (The) children cry many times or 
often. 19. (The) thoughtful* men* jest seldom. 20. Some (2/;iaj) 
times he-wrote, other [times] he-read. 

21. He-plays every day. 22. He-goes to the country twice a (a/) 
year. 23. He-writes every month. 24. He-visits (to) his parents 
every two months. 25. He attends (to) the church every week. 
26. He studies (at) every moment ; he-is very diligent. 27. Every 

three months I-go to (the) town. 

--■■■-■- - - ■ ■ - -- — ■ ' ■ ■ ■ — - ■ - -■ — 

* Are is usually omitted in ordinary calculations. 



It 



404 Drill-Book. 

28. 6 + 3 + 9— 8 = 10. 29. f attd ^ are how-many? 30. In a 
couple of hours he-will-be here. 31. I have visited the palace of 
the Alhanibra a score of times. 32. Sometimes he-comes in i^Por) 
the morning, and others in (por) the afternoon. 33. Every day 
I write three or four letters. 34. Every time that I-see* him* 
he-pleases' me* less. 



]Ez«r«lse Twelfth. 

« 

Learn and Recite p. 90 ; Read pp. 91-93 ; and Learn Pres. Ind. of 

§ 536, p. 254- 



yo tengo J 
V. tiene, or \ 
tiene V. } ^^ '^' 



ftengo yo? (tr\ 
ftengo? I *^' " 

£ tiene V.? or\ 
iV. tiene? ) ^'^""^ 



no tengOy or^ /Aave no/, or 
yo no tengo j I have no. 
V. no tiene, or \ you have not, or 
no tiene V. J you have no. 



ITiO tengo yo7 or ^ have I not? or 
I no tengo ? J have I not 

I no tiene V. ? or'\ have you not ? or 
i V. no tiene? j have you no ? 



So all the persons in all the tenses throughout the verb. 

I. I have a book and a pencil. 2. Thou hast more knives than I. 
3. He has many houses, and she has many [lady] friends. 4. You 
have fewer oranges than I. 5. I have better presents than you. 
6. We boys (189, a) have more time than you girls. 7. Agnes' 
sisters have prettier dresses than she. 8. They have also bracelets 
and necklaces. 9. Mary and Jane have rings ; we have no orna- 
ments. 10. Charles and Peter have no rings. 11. John has new* 
shoes ^ and a new* hat* 12. Ye (2d pL) have a good father and 
a good mother. 13. Children, have ye no toys? 14. Peter and 
Manuel have a top and a drum ; but they havenH L<uiy] hoops. 

15. We have good friends; they have no friends. 1 6. Have you 
no needles, Julia? 17. What have we? 18. You have kind* parents 
and relatives.* 19. Has 2 the poor boy' no* kite*? 20. Have* the 
boys' [any] friends*? 21. What have you (//.)? 22. We have a 
ball and a hoop. 23. Who has my brother^s slate ? 24. We have 
his slate. 25. You have my sister^s paper and pens. 



7 



Essentials of Form and Inflection, 405 

26. Have I a pen? 27. You have not [an] inkstand. 28. Have 
you a sister? 29. We have cousins, but we have not [an] uncle 
and [an] aunt (§ 106). 30. Have we no paper? 31. Have' the 
children' no* toys*? 32. Have they [any] letters? 33. Hast thou 
a pencil and a rule? 34. Here is (have you) a pencil, but I have 
no rule. 

Exercise Thlrtoentli. 

Learn and Recite §§ 184-186, 205, and Pres. Ind. of § 362, p. 171. 



yo le hablo i i. her, 

\you speak to \ 



le habla \. r ^ \ htr. 



no le hablo, "^ | / ^ ^ ^^ ^ / ««». 
yo no le hablo J y?ier, 

V.nolehabia Xy^j^^tsptaktA'^'"- 
no le habla V. J \?ur. 



£lo hallo yo?|^^^^^.^, 
elo hallo? / -^ 
elohallaV.?!^^ ^^^^^.^, 
eV.lohalla?/ "^ ^ 

I no lo hallo yo ? 1 do I not find 
enolo hallo? J it? 

I DO lo halla V. ? \ do you not find 
iV.nolohalla?/ it? 

So all the persons in all the tenses throughont the verb. 

like hablar, conjugate : bosear, to look for^ to seek; hallar, to find; 
alabar, to praise; engafiar, to deceive, 

I. I-am-looking-for something (379). 2. What are-you-looking- 
for? 3. I-am-looking-for a needle, but I do not find it (Jem,), 
4. Do you not find it? 5. You deceive yourself (398), you have it 
in your (the) hand. 6. Does he speak to thee? 7. He does not 
speak to me. 8. You deceive him. 9. / do not deceive him; he 
deceives me {pleon,, 185). 10. We praise them because they are 
{son) diligent. 11. Do they praise us? 12. Do they praise usf 
13. Do th^^ praise* us*? 14. You deceive yourself. 15. You 
deceive yourselves. 16. They find what (Jo que) ihey-are-looking- 
for. 17. Do you find what [you] are-looking-for (218) ? 18. We 
do not find what we-are-looking-for. 

19. The boys deceive themselves (176, a), 20. Do the boys' 
deceive' themselves*? 21. Does he not speak to us? 22. [He] 
speaks to them, not' to* us.' 23. Why does he not speak to us? 
24. Because we do not praise him. 25. Does ^^ praise us? 26. He 
does not praise us, he deceives us. 27. Have you the boy's top? 



406 Drill-Book. 

28. I havenH it, his brother has it. 29. Who has Janets bracelet? 
50. Her sister has it. 31. She is-looldng-for it everywhere. 32. Her 
sbter deceives her. 33. Do (the) brothers-and-sisters' deceive* 
each-other*? 34. They praise each-other, but they do not deceive 
each-other. 



Xz«reiae Fourteenth. 

Read pp. 96-105 ; Ltam and Recite §§ 217-224, and Pres. Ind. of 

§1 363. 364. 

Like oomer, conjugate: aprender, to team; l6-«r» t« readr iemer, 
to fear f to be afraid of. 

Like viTir, conjugate: Meribir, to write; oumplir 009, to fulfil^ to 
discharge (a duty, etc) ; permitir, to allow, permit, 

I. Are you learning a new language? 2. What are you reading? 
3. Are you not afraid to talk to him (con //).* 4. I do not fear him. 
5. He is reading the newspaper. 6. Where do you live?. 7. Are 
you writing a letter? 8. At what o^clock do you dine? 9. [We] 
usually* dine* late. 10. We discharge (cpn) our obligations as ^ell 
as (the) time' and (the) strength* pennit* (it to^us^), 11.- Do you 
allow it? 12. I do not allow it. 13. We have a house in the 
country, and we live there during the summer. 

14. In the winter they live in the city, because the weather ddes 
not permit (to) them to live in the country. 15. I am writing a 
letter to my cousin who (fue) lives at (in) Rome. 16. The children 
do not allow us to write ; they are learning to (d) read with their 
blocks of wood. 17. If you discharge your duties feithfully up-to 
the measure of your capacity, you will have (teHdrd) your reward. 

18. We do not live (in-order) to eat, but (st'no) we eat in-order-to 
live, 19. We are reading in a most amusing book. 20. You are 
writing with a pencil, and I am writing with a pen. 21. My brother 
writes more than (de) fifteen letters a (at) day. 22. The weather 
does not allow us to go-out. 23. The good do not fear their 
fellow-men (§ 76). 24. He does not allow me to write with his pen. 

* Hablar followed by the dative signifies fo address a person, to speak to 
him ; to talk with a person, involving conversation, is babUur con una persona. 



Essentials of Form and Inflection* 407 

Exercise Ftfteentlu 

Learn and Recite §§ 235-238, and Pres. Ind of §§ 539, 543. 

I. He gives it to me. 2. He sa3rs it to him. 3. He writes them 
(Jem> and m,) to us. 4. They permit him to (it to him). 5. I tell 
you; I tell it to you; I tell it to yon {pieon.), 6. I give you; 1 
give it to you; I give it to you {pleon.). 7. John has three oianges 
and- he-gives' them' alP to-me:* '-.^S. The children give us their 
play-things; they give them to us. 9. Agnes has a story, and she 
is rttiiding it to us. 

' i9si-.The old>people {andanos) have a letter from their children, 
and a lady is reading it to them. 1 1 . The boys and < giris are. look- 
ing-for their toys, but their parents do not allow them to (it to theni)i. 
12. If I find tiiem, I [dhali] give them to you, 13. They tell it^ t<^ 
them. 14. They give them to them. 15. I do not say so (it) to 
him. 16. We do not say so to them. 

Bxerelte Sixteenth. 

Learn and Recite %% 243-254, and the past definite of hablar, 
comer, and viyir (pp. 171, 175, 178). 

. ■ ' *. ' 

I. My father spoke to him. 2. My brothers found a treasure. 

3. Thy friend deceived us. 4. His servants feared his anger. 
5. Your fiiends praised the artist (§ 76). "6. Their pens were (/«fr 
ron) poor. 7. He did not learn his exercises. 8. They did not 
look-for their money. 9. Did you not fear (the) punishment? 
10. He fulfilled his duties. 

II. They allowed us to see our (§ 'jG) friends. 12? We did no^ 
write our letters. 13. You di4 jnot learn your lessons. 14. Di4 I 
not praise (§ 76) my teachers? 15. They deceived theu* friends. 
16. Didst thou find thy knife, my son? 17. A friend of mine found 
it, and gave (diS) it to me. 18. Did you write the letter to your 
uncle? 19. John did not allow me to (it to me). 20. Did you 
speak to me? 21. Who allowed them to go-out? 22. We did not 
deceive you. 23. Where did they dine last-night? 24. We. lived 
in his house many years. 



408 Drill-Book. 



Learn and Recite §§ 254-258, and the past indefinite indie, of 
hablar, oomer, and vivir (pp. 173, 176, 180). 



The past participle of eacribir is escrito (§ 561). 

I. Have you found your book? 2. I have not found mine, but I 
have found my sister^s (fhe of). 3. My friend and yours. 4. Thy 
house and mine. 5. His pictures and ours. 6. Their parents and 
mine. 7. My sister and thine. 8. Our cousins and yours. 9. Yoor 
houses and ours. 10. Their hats and mine. 

II. I have spoken to my friend, but not to yours. 12. Thou hast 
not deceived (§ 76) thy friend, but {sifw) mine. 13. He has not 
found my slate, but his-own. 14. We have written letters to our 
parents and to his. 15. You have looked-for your paper, and not 
[for] ours. 16. They have feared my anger, and not thine. 17. I 
have read their letters and yours. 

Szerolse ElKbteentb. 

Learn and Ruiie §§ 259-269, and the imperative of the three 

conjugations. 

SiNCULAlt. 



h&blale (familiar) ) 



no le hables (fam.) ^ €lo not speak to 



hablele V. (polite) / ^^^ ^ ^^' no le hable V. (pol.) / kirn, 

Plukal. 



habl6mosle, let us speak to kim. 
habladle (fam.) -k ... 

fa&blenle W. (poL) / '^'"^ ^ ^""- 



no le hablemos, let us not speak to kim, 
DO le hableis (fam.) -k do not speak 
no le hablen VV. (pol.) j to kim. 



Singular. 



c6melo (fam.) 



no lo comas (fam.) 



comelo Qtam.; 'i no 10 comas ^^lam.; -i 

c6malo V. (pol.) | '*' '^' no lo coma V. (pol.) / ^^ '^ ^^^ '^ 



Plural. 

no lo comamos, let us not eat it, 
comedlo Qtam.; ^ no lo comais (fam.) -» 

c6manlo VV. (pol.) / '""^ ''' no lo coman VV. (pol.) / ^^ «^^^«'- 



comimoslo, Itt us eat it, 
comedlo (fam.) 



The third conjugation take -id instead of -id, otherwise the same as the 
second, — vivid, vivan VV., etc. 



Essentials of Form and Inflection. 409 

I. Speak to this man (£aim. and pol.). 2. Speak to him. 3. Per- 
mit (to) this lady. 4. Permit 'to) her. 5. Praise these boys (§ 76). 
6. Praise them. 7. Read this letter ; read it. 8. Read these letters ; 
read them. 9. Fear this punishment ; fear it. 10. Fear these pen- 
alties ; fear them. 

II. Do not speak to that man ; do not speak to him. 12. Do not 
praise that girl ; do not praise her. 13. Do not deceive (§ 76) these 
gentlemen ; do not deceive them. 14. Do not learn those lessons ; 
do not learn them. 15. Do not write that letter so badly. 16. Do 
not write it so badly. 17. Do not look-for (§371) those books; 
do not look-for them. 

18. Let us speak to these gentlemen. 19. Let us not deceive 
these children. 20. Let us not fear them. 21. Let us praise them. 
22. Let us not live in this house. 23. Let us fear God (§ 76), and 
keep his commandments. 24. Let us not deceive our (§ 76) parents, 
because they are {son) our best friends. 25. Let us live in peace 
with all (the) men. 26. Let us not live (in-order-) to eat, but 
(shuf) let us eat (in-order-) to live. 



Bzerdse Nineteenth. 

Learn and Recite §§ 271-276, and the present indicative of 

■er and eatar (pp. 190, 193). 

ser is absolute being; estar, accidental being or state. 

I. This is the boy who lives in my house. 2. These are the 
persons who deceive (§ 76) their friends. 3. The book which I have 
read is on the table. 4. The inkstands which I have bought 
are not good. 5. The papers of which I spoke are in the table- 
drawer. 6. The ladies whom I seek are not here. 7. The friends 
with whom I live wrote me a long' letter.' 8. The boys to whom I 
read the exercise are diligent. 

9. The days on (in) which he writes are (the) Tuesdays and 
Fridays. 10. The books of which he speaks are* unknown to-me.^ 
1 1 . The rule with which he makes the lines belongs to (is of) my 
brother. 12. The exercises that we write are more difficult to-day 
than those (the) of yesterday. 13. You are my friend. 14. Are 
you tired? 15. Where is the inkstand? 16. Do you know (sabe V.) 



4IO Drill-Boek,. 

where' my pens are^f 17. I have" not seen them. 18. I am the 
person (whom) you deceived. 19. We are the artists whom they 
praised. 20. Thou art the boy to whom I spoke yesterday. 



Exerotte Twentteth. 

Learn and Recite §§ 277-282, and the past def. of eatar and 

I. The table near which he W€is» 2, The balcony irom which he 
spoke to-me. 3. The chaise with which he hpnored me. 4. . The 
judge before whom he stood. 5. The books about which they 
deceived us. 6u The conditions on (jhijo) which they ¥rrote. 
7. The limits beyond which he did not wish (guiso) to go. 8. The 
measures against which we spoke. 9. The individuals among whom 
we were. la The city toward which he-was*going (t6a). 11. The 
rools upon ifdiich the birds * alighted.* 

12. He. says what he thinks. .13. He writes what he wishes. 
14. I praise what pleases me. 1$. They ^d iwhat ^hey.seek. 16. 
They fulfil what they promise. 17. They read what they find. 
18. We eat what we like (pleases us). 19. We praise what we read. 
20. We know what we write. 21. He finds all that he looks-for. 
22. He praises all that / do (Adgo). 23. He does not fulfil all that 
he prpmisfcs. 24. He does not praise all that .you do (fiacf). 25. 
He allows me to do all that. I like (guiere). . , 



Exercise Twenty-First. 

Learn and Recite §§ 284-287, and the imperfect indicative of 
estar, ser, hablajr* oomeri and TiTir. 

I. That is the gentleman in whose house / was-livlng. 2. The 
young-man whose father is 111 was-kx)king-for a physician. 3. This 
is the teacher (d) whose scholars we-were-praising so-much. 4. He 
is the-one-who was- writing when we-came-in. 5. She is the-one 
who found what we-were-Iobking'-for. 6. Ydu are the one who 
deceived us about what we-were-asking. 7. They are tire ones who 
were-reading while we were-speaking to them. 

8. He who seeks finds, and be who asks receives. 9. Those 
who study, learn. 10. They do not praise him who deceives {Al 
que engaHa no le alaban), 1 1 . They do not always believe him who 



Essentials cf Form and Inflection, 411 

praises* \i^ Him who fears they do not honor (him). 13. Him 
who dischai^es his duties they honor. 14. He who wrote the letter 
which we have received lives in London. 15. They who deserve 
rewards are those who have written* their exercises well.' 16. She 
who deceived her sister is worthy of blame. 



£xerel|M Twenty-Seoond. 

LiarH and Recite §§ 288-292, and the future indicative of 
hablar, comer, Tivir, eatar, and ser.. 

I. Who is-looking-for a book? 2. Whofee pen is this? 3. Whose 
toys are these* that are Pying] on the floor? 4. Whom will-you- 
deceive? 5. What will he fear? 6. Whom will-they-praise ? 7,. 
What shall I learn? 8. What wilt-thou- write? 9. What shall-we- 
find? 10. To what [purpose] will-they-write ? 11. To whom shall 
I speak? 12. What will-it-be? 

13. What house is that? ' 14. What is the number of this house? 
15. What day of the week is-it? 16. What is the object of the 
visit7 ' i^- What measures have you taken? 18. What ar? the 
lessons that he-is-learning?' 19. Which of these houses is yours? 
20. With which of these pens will you write the letter? 21. What 
day will you dine #ith u^? ' 22. tto# prottd' they are ! 23. What 
a misfortune [it is]! 24. Where will you live in Paris? 25. They 
VrHI praise what pleases (to)- them. 26. Thou wilt arrive to-morrow 
night {m, par la n.). 27. When shall we dine? 28. I do not know 
when it'i^in be. 



Exercise Twenty-Third. 

Learn and Recite §§ 393-308, and conjugate all the simple forms of 

the verb hablar. 

I. The true master praises ahother^s work, but not his-own; 
2. The thief seeks the treasures of others. 3. The unjust [man] 
speaks freely of others^ lives, and does not consider his own. 
4. Somebody is calling us; do you not hear a voice? 5. I hear 



413 Drill'Book. 

(sufito) steps; some-one is-coming (viene), 6. Somebody will 
praise the master (J 76) whose works deserve it (mereMcany^ 
7. Has' anybody' found' what I lost? 8. Somebody wrote him 
a letter which gave him (a) great offense. 

9. Some-one of our acquaintances spoke ill of him. 10. Some 
of these trees do not grow. 11. Are you looking for anything? 
12. Is-there (hay) anything more troublesome than to listen-to the 
twaddle of the vain? 13. Every day has its duties. 14. Every coun- 
try has its language and its customs. 15. Every year we go to the 
baths. 16. The Spaniards go to the drive every day. 17. I-met' 
so-and-so' yesterday,' and he- told (^<^) me that you were-looking- 
for [a] house. 18. When he had {hubo) spoken he sat down. 
19. He would not speak to me if I were not {estuvitse) with influ- 
ential friends. 2a They spoke of the grand dinner at {en) [the] 
palace. 



Xzorcite Twmity-FoiirUi* 

RidU §S 309-321, and Learn the compound forms of the 

verb hablar. 

I. He told me nothing, 2. I had not eaten anything. 3. He 
would not learn anything. 4. He-who knows* nothing' fears' 
nothing.' 5. He has found nothing. 6. Nobody has written more 
than the great dramatic author. Lope de Vega. 7. He praises no 
one. 8. No one will deceive him. 9. He was-looking-fbr no one. 
10. [Let] no one deceive you (ji^*.). ii. No one would find it 
(cond,) even if he-should-search (subj\) all the year. 

12. In no house do-they-do (Jiacen) this. 13. None of these 
things moves me. 14. None of these things move me. 15. None 
of the trees grows more than this [one] . 16. He has deceived none 
of them. 17. They have looked-for [a] house, but have found 
none. 18. We have not received any news from our friends. 19. 
No house in (of) the city is as large and beautiful as the royal' 
palace.' 20. None of these ladies is as amiable as the marchioness. 
21. I cannot {no puedo) write with any {neg.) of these pens. 22. 
No paper is so good as (the) hand-laid paper. 



\ 



Essentials of Form and Inflection, 413 



Bxereise Twenty-Fifth. 

Redte §§ 323-335, and conjugate all the simple forms of the 

verb comer. 

I. Have' you no* time? 2. The poor people have (has) no 
home. 3. We eat no meat [on] (the) Fridays. 4. They have no 
friends. 5. Others toil in-order- that I may-eat (subj\), 6. I shall 
write the letter another day. 7. That (eso) is another thing. 
8. The other day I dined with a friend. 9. In Spain some dine at 
(d las) two in (of) the afternoon, and others at (d las) six. 10. Do 
you want these books or the others? 11. I will take these and you 
may (^puede) have the rest. 

12. Some went (Jueran) to the country, others to the baths, and 
the rest staid home {refl.), 13. I shall dine with any one who invites 
{subj.) me. 14. Give me {dime F.) any book. 15. I cannot (no 
puedo) write with any pen. 16. I-am-looking-for any house that is 
{sea) comfortable and convenient. 17. Such-a thing might {podria) 
happen to any [one]. 18. Such men are-not-accustomed {nosuelen) 
to be idle. 19. The history of such-a period is full of interest. 20. 
Such books are very useful to {para) the young (youth). 

Bxerelse Twentj-Sizth. 

Recite §§ 336-349, and Learn the compound forms of the 

verb comer. 

I. I have been-reading all (the)da^. 2. We had been-watching 
an night. 3. He has been {estadd) in the National' Library* all the 
morning. 4. Have you' ever** travelled* over all Andalusia? 5. I 
had been-waiting-for him all that afternoon. 6. All (the) days are 
alike {iguales) to {para) him {or dat. pron.). 7, All classes praise 
him. 8. The whole battalion entered into the fight 9. This is 
that Light that lightens every man who comes into {d) this world. 
10. We see the same [thing] everywhere. 11. They arrested them 
all (§ 76). 12 He had eaten it all. 13. They had read it all 
before. 

14. Every one who learns Spanish must {ha de) begin with {por) 
the grammar. 15. All those who do {hacen) such things receive 
their reward. 16. All that we learned was profitable to us (during) 



414 DrilLBook. 

all [our] (the) life. 17. All that the best, men approve is good. 

18. In the school the teacher gave (some*) very* severe* lessons.* 

19. Having dined he went to the gardens with some friends. 20. We 
have two houses, one (of) stone, and the other (of) wood. 21. He 
was looking-for a number of good paintings with which he wished 
to adorn the wal}s of his drawing-room. 



Kxerol«« Twenty^Serenth* 

Rtcite the conjugation of the entire verbs TiTlr, lialier {p. i6a), 

and §§ 354'-35S. 

I. Living in (de) this ^ay we spent little money. 2. Having 
writt^i a* very' long* letter,* he went-out to take (d dar) a walk in 
the gardens, 3. (In-order) to have friends, it-is necessary to be 
friendly. 5. (The) to have lived soberly in our youth is a pleasant 
reflection for our old-age. 6. We-used-to-live (p. 346, c) in the 
country, but now we reside in (the) town. 7. In-order that we may 
.discharge (with) all our obligations, it-is necessary to have principles 
of honor. . 8. He was-fearing that I should write tp bis parents. 
9. He does not wish me to live {that I may live) in the capital, sur- 
rounded by (del) pageant and luxury, until my moral forces and my 
judgment are (sudj.) more* developed.' 10. I-feared {imperf,) that 
he would not find what he-was-looking-for. 11. I wrote him in- 
order that he might permit me to-do what I-wished. 

12. There-are days in which one cares (not) neither to read nor 
to write. 13. There-were more than three hundred persons at the 
dinner. 14. There-will-be no school to-morrow. 15. There is no 
one who does not know (sepa) what is just. 16. There-has been 
much rain this year. 17. There have been occasions of great in- 
terest and profit during this season. 18. In the Castiles there are 
no trees, and therefore there are no birds. 19. There would have 
been much less danger, if every one had remained (htUnese per- 
manecido) in his place (sitio), 20. Will there be [a] war, or will 
there be none (§197)? 21. There were (sing.) people whom I did 
not know (imperf,). 22. There was nobody in the sitting-room. 
23. There would be no remedy if a fire* should-break-out.* 24. 
There was a moment of the deepest silence, and then* the conver- 
sation* went-on.* 



Essentials of Farm and Inflection, 415 

JSxereise Twenty-Eighth. 

in Bardmetro. 

COMEDIA EN UN ACTO 

LaCondesa} jDibs mio*! j Dios mio! esto^ es insoportable. 
Hace^ tres meses y medio' que llegu^* d esta quinta, y ni un solo 
dia ha dejado' de Hover. Yo® no tengo* resignacion para*® sufrir 
este tiempo, que me aburre, me desespera y me mata. Vamos d" 
ver si el bardmetro me da alguna esperanza. j Nada" ! Ayer mar- 
caba*? lluvia» y hoy indica tempestad. ] Esto^ es hprroroso ! Pues 
bien, voy" d acabar de una vez" con" el cdmplice de esta lluvia 
etema. (Descuelga*' el bardmetro y le arroja al suelo,^^ haci^ndole 
pedazos*^ con estr^pito*) Ya^^ no me mortificard m^ con sus 
pr^s^os. {Vdse,^) 

In this passage the following verbs are regular : ist conj., acabar, 
arrojar, dejar, desesperar, matar; 2d conj., none; 3d conj., sofirir, 
aburrir (used in the 3d pers. sing, and plur. only; otherwise in the re- 
flexive form, aburrirse). The following make orthographic changes: 
indicar, marcar, mortificar, llegar (§ 371). The following are irreg- 
ular: 1st conj., dar (§ 543)» descolgar (like rogar, §§483, 370 » 
^ conj., hae«r (§ 530), llorer (§ 418, imperK.), ser (§ 385), tener 
(§ 536), ver (§ 548); 3d conj., ir (§ 552), irae (§ 552, a). All these 
verbs must be learned or reviewed before the lesson is passed. 

I. The countess is in her summer-house in the south of Spain, in 
that ancient province that is called (calls itself) Andalusia. 2. It 
has rained incessantly during all the time that she has been there, 
and she has becorae-impatient at (de) so much bad weather. 3. In 
the capital of Spain, where she lives, it scarcely ever rains (no IL 
cast nuncd). 4. Seeking some victim of her anger, she hits on the 

—^^^^—1^1 ■■■■»■■ »i.i^ii» ,■■■■■■■ ■ ■^— . ^1, ,, I _■■ _ . ■ ■ — .■■■■»■■■ ^ ■ ■ ■ — — ■■■■ ■ ■» 

1 97, 43?. * 249 and a. * a66. * 426, b» ^ 172. * 371 and b, ' 415 and 726, 3. 
8 187, a. ' 322. "^^ 729. 11 552 and 725, fu: vamos A. ver is much more 
energetic than veftmos, which a calm person would use, let us see, "^ 313. 
1* 697, a. 14 De una vez, adverbial phrase, " of one time," aS^ ohce^ once for 
all, '^ Cozi, . wUh^ is the regimen of a-eabar, io finish with (con) , we say, " to 
put an end to." i^ From deacolgrar : desctulgo^ gas^ ga, like rograr* § 483. 
17 On, the fioor, lit. to the fioor. is Hacer pedazoa, with the direct obj., lit. 
to make a thing pieces^ i.e. to break it in pieces, l^ 607. ^ 552, a ; 906. 



4i6 Drill-Book. 

barometer, which does not cease to point to [a] storm. 5. She 
takes it down from the nail on (de) which it-was-hanging {fiendla)^ 
and she throws it violently on-the floor. 6. Thus' triumphant* over 
{de) her foe, and leaving the field strewn with the evidences of the 
fray, she retires from the scene. 

SzercUe Twenty-Nlnfh. 
ESCENA SEGUNDA. 

An$dnu>y criado ; Victorina, criada. 

Vict. iQpi ruido es este? j Jesus M El bardmetro hecho 
afiicos' ! 

Ans. iQu^ Ustima'! Despues que le* cost($ mil quinientos 
reales^ al* sefior' conde, ha tenido el pobre chisme un fin muy 
desgraciado. Todavfa me acuerdo^ de la tarde que fuf con el amo* 
i. la tienda del dptico* de la calle de la Montera, y . • . 

Vict. Vdmos/® no empiece" usted ya con los discursos de 
siempre," y recoja*' usted esos pedazos dntes que vuelva" la 
sefiora. (Lee un periddico.) 

Ans. Mejor seria que usted me ayuddra,*^ para*' acabar mis 
pronto. I No oye " usted ? (j Se hace *' la sorda y sigue *® leyendo*' 
sin hacer** caso !) ^Trae alguna noticia interesante ese*' periddico? 

Vict. Muy interesante. Han preso ** d Vargas.** 

Ans. \ £so** es imposible, imposible I 

Vict, ^ Imposible.^ Oiga" usted: **A1 fin se ha conseguido*' 
capturar al c^lebre bandido, que por espacio de un afio ha sido cl 
azote de los pueblos de Andalucfa." 

1 658, d. Rem, > afiicoa, stronger than pedaoos, and popular ; hecho a., 
hroken into a thousand fragments. < 291, a, ^ i.e. ^75. ^ 215. ^ seflor and 
senora are used with titles, and words denoting relatives, to indicate respect; 
omit in English. T From acordarse, 474, 396, 757. > el amo, for ml 
amo, as being sufficiently explicit in comnion language. * d casa de, 
to so and so*s (house) ; d la tienda de, to so and so's (shop, store) ; translate 
to the optician's in Montera Street. 1® 659. a, imperat. of ir, lit. let us go, here 
used as an exclam. like the French ailons, voyons, '* come now ! " 11 From 
exnpezar, 371, 469, 367, a, b, 1* Speeches of ahoays ^^the old story, ' i» 375. 
I* volver, 491, 710. !• 713, 709, e. i« 799. ^^ From olr. i» hacerse la s., 
to pretend not to hear {to be deaf). l« From se^iilr. »» From leer. « 718 ; 
h. oaao, to take notice, to pay attention. " 263. >> 569. 41a ^ 748. ss 955^ 
« From Olr, 553, ^ 41a 



Essentials of Form and Inflection, 417 

Ans, Y ^d($nde han atrapado i. ese tunante? 

Vict. £n Mairena. 

Ans. I Caramba ! y qu^ cerca estaba de*® nosotros . 

Vict. A media legua*' de esta casa. No he acabado de" leer 
todavfa. Oiga usted: **Vdrgas es un hombre muy original, y 
podemos dar algunos pormenores de su persona. Su mirada es 
terrible, pero llena de inteligencia ; su boca perfecta, aunque con- 
traida por una sonrisa irdnica ; de frente sombria, adornada de una 
magnfiica cabellera negra. Con los hombres es implacable, pero tan 
galante con las sefioras que jamds las despoja de sus sortijas sin 
besar'^ caballerosamente la mano/^ Como que" es hijo de una 
buena familia, segun dicen. 

Ans. j Ya ! Y le ha quedado esa costumbre de cuando gastaba 
levita." 

Conjugate the regular verbs: 1st conj., atrapar, ayudar, besar, 
captnrar, despojar, gastar, quedar ; 2d conj., leer (549, ^), prender 
(569), recoger (375). Conjugate the irregular verbs: ist conj^ acor- 
darse (474), costar (473), empezar (469, 371), estar (382); 2d conj., 
pod« (532), traer (537), volver (49O; 3d conj., decir (539), oir (553), 
Begnir and oonaegair (516). 

I. Do you hear a noise? 2. It-is the barometer falling (that 
falls). 3. It has been broken into [se ha hecho) fragments. 4. How 
much did it cost our (to the) master? 5. He purchased it at the 
optician^s {en la /., etc.). 6. Do you know the optician? 7. I have 
often* been^ in his shop. 8. I have bought' opera-glasses there.' 
9, His shop is near the Gate of the Sun, [a] famous square in (of) 
Madrid. 10. Do you not remember it? 1 1. I think I do (that yes). 
12. Will you pick-up the pieces? 13. I will (yes), if you will help 
me (/«/.). 14- The lady will come-back soon. 15. What are you 
doing (do you)? 16. I am reading the newspaper. 17. What 
news is there? 18. They have caught a famous marauder. 19. Who 
(cudl)? 20. A highway-robber who has been the terror of this 
region. 

M 627. » 639,/ » Finished reading, 726, h. «1 " Without saluting them 
politely ; '* ancient Spanish salutation was by kissing the hand of the person 
saluted: see also §253.0. ■*> como que, an ellipse for ^cdxno no? 

puesto que, why notf since ^ etc. ^ levita, the gentleman's afternoon or 
Prince Albert coat ; hence crastar L, to be dressed like a gentleman (to wear 
a levita), to be a respectable citizen. 



4i8 DrilUBook. 



Kxerclse Thirtieth. 
EdCENA TBRCERA. 

La Condesa* Mayo, UGvia; Junio, Ihivia; Julio, grandes Uuvias, 
y Agosto, tempestades. (Ve d los criados.) . ^Qu^ haceis* aqui ? 

Ahs* Sefiora, esUbamos recogiendo' lo^.restos mortaks del 
bardmetro que fu^.' (Vise.) 

La Cond, (i Vict.). ^Qud papel es ese q,ue tienes en la mano? 

ViU. Es un periddico do SeviUa, coa uoa noticia que de seguro 
la^^gradaxi. 

La Cond. iQyi€ noticia? 

Vict, La de que^ el Cuaoso bandido Varg^su ha sido preso al fin. 

La Cond. jOh! ^cuinto me alegro*! Te aseguro que su re- 
puerdo^ me ha hecho pasar.noches terribles. Todavfa le veo en 
mis sueftos. 

Vict. Y ademis dice el peri<5dico que desde Sevilla lo Uevardn i 
Madrid con una cadena de hierro muy gruesa para que no se 
escape.*^ 

La Cond, No tendria yo' necesidad de cadena para que me 
llevdran alii. 

Coi^ugste or review the foUowing verbs: ist con;. (r;i^»/eir), agrmdat, 
msegwrar, Uevar, fiaaaz; (rejl.^ j^), alegsarse, escafMurse; {f^og., 380, 
382), estar reeogiendo; {pass,, 386), ser i»«0o; 2d conj. (rrr^^.)> 
haoev, tener, ver ; 3d conj., deoir. 

I. It has rained the whole month of May. 2. What are the 
servants doing {progress.)} 3. They are busy at {en) (the) work. 
They are working. 4. The news pleases me. 5. Does the news 
please you? 6. I do not wish anybody (§ 317) to be {subj.) unfor- 
tunate. 7. You cannot be {no se puede ser) kind to some people 
(certain people). 8. Do you remember him? 9. I do not remem- 
ber him. 10. I have a vivid recollection (r^tr«^r/i5!?) of what took- 



1 180 (^)» 182. . ^380. ' QU0 fue, ihatwas^ i.e. thelaU barometer; soj el 
ministro Que ftie^ (if dead) t/u laU minister ; el nou que bar ^^o (if alive^ 
lutt out of office), the late m, > aao. . ^ lja.de que is an ellipse ^ la n<^cia 
de, the news of, namely (que) AM, etc. We would say simply : thai the 
famous, etc. . • How. I r^oice ?« how J^i4 i ami ^ Lit, his memory asa the 
thought of him, 871a •365,190. 



Essentials of Form and Inflection. 419 

place that night. 11. What does the paper say further? 12. Read 
it, madam. 13. You read {famil.y it for me (liemelo tii) 14. Are 
you glad? 15. I am very glad (I rejoice much). 16. What are 
you glad of (of what) ? 17. That he has been arrested and carried- 
ofF (de que ha sido, etc.). i8. He is-going (not prog.) where / 
should-like (quisiera) to go. 19. Where would you like to go? 
20. Home ; I do not like-* the country any more (ya ^no*), 21. When 
it rains the town is more agreeable than the country. 22. To (para) 
me it-is the. (A?) same. 



Exercise Thirty-First. 

£SCENA CUARTA. : - . - 

La Condesa, (sola. Sin dejar su asiento mira d la campiQa 4 trav^s 
de los cristales de las ventanas.) Nada, no escampa. Esto es 
peor que el diluvio universal, que no durd mds que cuarenta dias, y 
ahora hace^ dento que llueve sin descanso en est^ pais que dicen es 
un rincon del ciela \ Me gusta cl tal rinconcito'^ Y yo que creia 
reunir aquf una tertulia de mds de^ treinta personas, me veo sola. 
Lo dnica* que me consuela es, que hoy Uegar^ la Camiiia del mar- 
ques de la Pefla, que es numerosa y de excelente humor sobre todo, 
especiaimente la buena marquesa, que me ha pedido permiso^ P^ra 
traer i. su sobrino Cdrlos, con<^ quien tiene el proyecto de casarme. 
Dificil me parece que lo consiga.^ He sido tan dichosa en mi 
matrimonio, que la segunda prueba no serd nunca como la primera. 
(Dan* Jas doce.) \ Las doce t Ya debe estar el tren de Sevilla en 
la estaclon inraediata. \ Si no hubiese Hegado ! No quiero pen- 
sarlo. J Si pasard todavfa un mes en esta soledad ! \ Imposible ! 
Prefiero morirme.' 

Conji^te the following verbs: (Regular)^ easaraa, durar, gusiar, 
minur; oreer (549, ^), deber, verM (548); reunir; (^Irreg,), conaolar 
(476), peBBar (457); parecer (374, «)» queror (534); decir (539), 
morir (509), pkUbr (512), preferir (500). 



1 696, £, 3 j^g^ a ; lit. " I like such a little nook, indeed," said in irony ; we 
would say, a pretty nook, indeed, this! « 137, h, < 83. * 753. • Regimen of 
oaaaxve ; we say, to wkotn, 7 xkat she will succeed in it; subj. after <lif ioU 
Mrith impers. verb, * 678, Rem, • 395. 



420 



DrilUBaok. 



Idioms. 



I. Onstarle A uno, to Uke (lit to please any one). 



me gosta el libro, 

me gustan los libros, 

la casa que me gusta, 

las casas que nos gustan, 

no me gusta — gustan, 
^le gusta a v.? 

^no le gusta a V.P [aquello? 

^qu^ le gusta & V. mis, esto 6 

i mi amigo le gusta charlar. 



I like the book. 

I like (the) books. 

the house that I like. 

the houses that we like. 

I do not like it — them. 

do you like it? 

don't you like it? [(thing). 

what do you like better, this or that 

my friend likes to talk. 



2. Casane oon dUgaien, to marry sonubody. 



^con qui^n se casa? 
se casa con su primo, 
se cas6 ya. 



whom does he (she) many, 
she marries her cousin, 
he has already got married. 



3. Pe4iirle k nno alguna oosa, to ask any one for anything. 



le pido i V. permiso para, 
qu^ me pide V.? 
no me pidi6 nada, 
pide al caballero dinero. 



I ask your permission to . . . 
what do you ask me for? 
he did not ask me for anything, 
he asks the gentleman for money. 



I. Without getting-up the lady looks out of {se asoma d Id) the 
window. 2. The countess does not like the rain. 3. All the 
country round-about is impassable on account of the bad weather. 
4. The weather will never clear-up. 5. The friend of the countess 
wants to marry her to {con) a gentleman whose name is (who calls 
himself) Charles. 6. She does not wish to marry the {por) second 
time. 7w He has asked me for my (the) hand. 8. We expect 
some friends by {con) the Seville train. 9. The train has already' 
left ^ the station of Mairena, and presently it-will-arrive at this [one]. 

10. The train carries two engines, because the weather is so bad. 

11. What-if {si) our friends should not arrive! 12. They would 
have to {que) pass the night in the cars. 13. They might {podrian) 
return to Seville. 



«i9b. 



Essentials af Form and Inflection, 421 



ISxerol«« Thirty-Second. 

ESCENA QUINTA. 

La Condesa. ^Ha llegado el tren de Sevilla? 

Anselmo, No, sefiora Condesa, las dguas han destrozado la via, y 
por un milagro han podido salvarse los viajeros. No se sabe' 
ctiindo podrd' estar expedito el camino. 

La Cond- Haz^ que enganchen^ en seguida. 

Aus. Pero ^qu^ piensa V. hacer, sefiora? 

La Cond, Irme con Victorina y contigo i, Sevilla, aunque seac 
nadando, y desde alii d Madrid; 

Ans, I A Madrid d nado? 

La Cond. Sf, i Madrid; ^y eso te espanta? Vamos ^qud es- 
peras? Corre. 

Ans. Pero, sefiora, si* no se puede^ dar un paso,' ni i pi^ ni en 
coche, por la campifia, y ademds la casa de Madrid esti en obra, 
aprovechando el vei*ano, y luego tienen que arreglarla los pintores 
y los tapiceros. De modo que hasta dentro de un mes lo 
mdnos* . . 

La Cond. Tienes lazon,*** vdte," no quiero ver i. nadie. (Vdse 
el criado.) 

ESCENA SEXTA. 

La Cond, (sola). Es decir," que me veo" obligada i. permanecer 
aquf como un prisionero. Dicen que los prisioneros *^ se resignan ; 
me resignar^. Voy i. leer. (Toma un libro y lee.) ** El Lago." 
J Jesds ! me horroriza todo lo que " es agua. (Arroja el llbro y se 
levanta.) ^En qu^ me ocupar^, cielo santo? Voy d dibujar. S£, 
el dibujo es una gran distraccion, y divierte al mismo tiempo. 

1 409. * can be cleared^ lit. " will be able to be cleared," See 53a, a, « 530 ; 
hacer is causal, signifying that another is to carry out the action expressed by 
the principal verb. We generally omit it: ** Solomon butit him an house" ; 
Span^ ** Salomon hizo ediflcar una casa" caused a house to be built. 
* 709, c. * 710. ^ 601. "^ 408. 8 dar, to give, has many other meanings, here 
to take; so, dar tin pasSo, to take a walk, ^ JB3 and 610. i<> tener razon, 
to have reason » to be right, ^^ Imperative of irse. See 55a, a, ^^ eso 
.understood, but never expressed in this phrase: that is to say^ that means, 
^389,tf. "664. 1*343. 



422 Drill-Book. 

Copiar^ la iglesia de ese pueblo inmediato, y el campanario gdtico 
que tambien se distingue dctde aqvf. (Toma un dlbum, y se 
coloca frente d la veatana en actitud de dibujar ; pero en seguida 
vuelve i Hover*' con furia.) jOtro aguacero! Ya no veo*' ni ei 
campanario, ni la igtesia, ni las ca3as« ni el hodzonte* ni nada. 
Tqdo'* ha deaaparecido de.tr^s de esa catarata. jQu^ espectic^lo 
tan'* horrible! . Ni uo 9^r viviente se ve" e^ el cam i no. Pero 
j calla I me parece que aquel es un viajeco« Si* no hay duda. Ha 
ido i, ampararse debajo dc un irboL ^Porqn^ no se refngiai^ en 
mi casa? Si supiese*^ odmo me fastCdio de estar sola. ]Oh, qui 
idSa \ Quisis Tenga* de Madrid. Traeri noticias, y frescas ; eso 
es indudable. (Tira del" cordon dela campaniUa.) 

Conjugate the following verbs :.efiganchar, refugiarae; horrorisar 
(§ 37'f Of colocar (§371, d)\ desaparecer (§ 374, «), pennaneoer 
(iV/.); saber (§ 535), poder (§ 532); distingnir (§ 376, a)y diyertir 
(502), venir (§ 541). 

Idioms. 

I. Aoabar de (infin.), U finish (pres. part)« or to have jusi 
(past part). 

acaba de cscribir la carta, M^ fi"*^« '^^^'^ **** ^««'- 



acabibamos de salir, 
acabimos de salir, 



} 

acabo de recibir una carta, 



I he has just wriiUn the letter, 
we had just gone out. 
I have just received a letter. 



1, Volver k (infin.), to (second verb) again. 



vuelve k salir, 

no le he vuelto i, ver, 

cuando vuelven W. & escribirles, den- 
ies muchas memorias de mi parte, 

acababa V. de escribir la carta, y 
ahora la vuelve i escribir de 
nuevo. 



he goes out again. 

I have not seen him again. 

when you (//.) write them again, 

give them my kindest regards, 
you had just written the letter, and 

now you are writing -it over 

again. 



I. The train has just arrived, and it will not go-out again to-day. 
2. I-shall-learn this lesson so well that* it-will ^ not* be necessary^ 



"608; 725, a. 17 607. " 341, a. w a^i. Rem, *» 408. W Fromjio^^. 
Xjzo. ^Tirar means to throw away: tirar da, to pull ait . ^ ' 



Essentials of Form. and Inflection. 423 

{ot-m^' (tio-iiie) to karn. .i^ s^Ui (volverla d afi.). 3. The lady 
|>ersist8 in returaiDg (infinS) Xo the city. 4» The. carriage cannot 
go {andar) over the country on account of the inundation. 5. A 
gentleman has just come-in who says that the roads are impassable. 
6. IHs necessary to resign one's self to one's (the) fate, and to 
liave patience. 7. A Spanish-woman out-of-patience goes and 
comes, jumps-up and sits-down, skips-about again, and runs (com 
que corre) over (Por) the* whole* house. 8. An English [woman] 
or an American [woman] in like circumstances sits-down calmly 
and busies herself with (en) something useful (of profit)* 



Bxerdke Thirty-Third. 

ESC^NA SEPTIMA. 

La Condesa. (al criado.) ^ Ves i. un viajero debajo de aquel drbol 
tan corpulento? 

Anselmo* Sf, sefiofa. 

La Cond' Corre d €V y dfle* qi^e venga.' 

Ans, La seQora Cpndesa le conoce sin duda. 

La Condy Corre, te digo. (Vdse.) ; Ah ! es atrevido, es teme- 
rario 1q que acabo de hac^r, pero lo primero es yivir, y yo no puedo 
vivir de esta manera. Sin embargo, abrir las puertas de mi casa d 
UQ hombre que no conozco, es md$ que rareza, es una ycrdadera 
locura — es . . . ; Victoriiia-^-a ! " \ Victorina-a-a ! 

£SCE2^A OCTAVA. 

La Cond. (d la doncella.) Llama en seguida i, Anselmo, que^ 
venga al momento. 

Victorina, Es imposible, sefiora, ya va* muy Mjos. 

La Cond, No importa, v^ d buscarle.* 

Vict, Pero, sefiora ^c6mo voy d hacerlo? Mire usted, ya vuelve. 

La Cond, ^Solo quizds? . . . i Qu^ miro! Viene con el otro. 
; Qu^ es lo que he hecho ! j Ah ! Ya estoy arrepentida. Oigo que 
suben.^ 

1 aia * 212, from dectr, * 709, c, * 708, b. Rem, * Substitute for estar, 
389, a. • ir d 'buacar, to go after a,o, ' / hear them coming up-stairs; 
lOB is understood. 



424 



Drill-Book. 



Vict, (aparte.) ^Qui^n seri*? ... La seCtota no esti satisfecha 
con nada. ContiniSa la tormenta ; me voy dotes que empiecen* los 
truenos. 

Conjugate the verbi llamar, oorrer, abrir (§ 561) ; conocer (§ 374, r), 
oir (I 553)* Ck>nti]iiiar is regular, but notice accent: contint^, cott- 
Hntias; conHntU, cqhHhiIUs, etc. 

Idioms. 



Tener raion (reason), 


to be right. 


no tener rajmn. 


not to be right, to be wrong. 


tener yergiiensa (shame) ^ 


to be ashamed. 


" miedo {fear). 


** afniid. 


<' mie&o {sUep), 


** sleepy. 


** Iiambre {hunger). 


•* hungry. 


** aed {thirst). 


" thirsty. 


" firio {coltf). 


" cold. 


" oalor {warmth). 


** warm. 



tiene razon, no tiene razon, 

^tengo yo razon, 6 no? 

no tenemos miedo de nadie, 

tendran hambre y frio, 

el que bebiere del agua que yo 

le dar£, no volvera i tener . sed 

jamis. 



he is right, he is wrong. 

am £ right or wrong. 

we are afraid of no one. 

they will be hungry and cold. 

he who drinketh of the water that I 

shall give him will never thirst 

again. 



I. The traveller stood under a large' tree* to {para) shelter 
himself from the rain. 2. The lady, who found in (the) society her 
only resource, saw him and .sent for him. 3. (The) reflection, 
which always comes late to the impatient, suggested to-her her 
folly, when the step that she-had taken {given) could not be re- 
called {no se podia revocar), 4. In her selfish vanity she rejects 
blindly the humiliating reproof of a servant couched in these words : 
•* Madam knows the gentleman, of course." 5. She has more con- 
fidence in (the) man than respect for herself {si misma). 6. The 
great qualities that once shone-forth {imperf,) in the nations of the 
South have survived only in the impetus of the senses. 



• 703. c, • 710. 



Essentials of Form and Inflection. 425 



SzerclM Thirty-Fonrtli. 
BSCENA NONA. 

La Condesa. Caballero . . . dispense V. si le* he hecho entrar 
casi d la fuerza, pero . . . pero . . . (^Qu^ le digo* i, este hombre'?) 
Pero anoche hubo^ una tempestad horrorosa; el viento soplaba con 
furor, y como se ban roto^ todos los cristales de la casa, y el tiempo 
esti tan malo, hay necesidad absoluta de' volverlos i, poner. 

El Desconocido, De modo que V. me ha tornado por un vidriero. 
(Pues me gusta la ocurrencia.) • 

Iji Cond, Sf, eso es, por un vidriero . . . (No s^ lo que digo.) 
Ya comprenderd V. que d cierta distancia . . .' cref que . . . Ahora 
veo que me he equivocado.* 

Descon, En efecto, un poco, sefiora, porque soy militar.' 

La Cond, \ Ah ! Conque usted . . . 

Descon, Siento de todo corazon no ser vidriero* en estos momentos. 

La Cond, £n verdad, caballero, que estoy confusa y avergonzada 
de mi error. Quisiera darle ^^ una satisfaccion completa, y no s^ . . . 

Descon, Ninguna reparacion me debe V., sefiora. Lo unico que 
k^^ suplico es, que tenga^^ la bondad de' prestarme un pardguas 
para ir d la estacion, y en ese caso^ yo serd el que la d^ ^* un millon 
de gracias.'^ 

La CofuL (Acaba de entrar, y ya piensa irse.) 2^6mo! ^No 
esperard V* siquiera *^ que pase ^^ este aguacero ? £s imposible tran- 
sitar por esos*' caminos Uenos de barro. 

Descon. Cuando se han pasado^ cuatro meses en los campos de 
Africa, el andar" media hora sobre la tierra un poco humeda de 
Andalucfa, es bien poca cosa. Por tanto, si tuviera^^ V. la bondad 
de prestarme un pardguas . . . 

La Cond, jAh! Conque ,iV. ha estado** en Africa? jBrillante 
campafia ! * 

Descon, Un poquito penosa. 

La Cond, (V, sirvid** en infanterfa? Es un arma que me gusta 
mucho. 

1 ai9. * 696, c, • 215. * 354. • 408 and 571. « 724 ; 79^, a, ^ 639, / 
• 397« • ^. «• ^* 219, 2ao. 11 709, c, w fYom dar, 711. " 163. 1* 605. 
»»709.*. W26S. "719. 18 708,*. i«39i,^. »SI3- 

* General O'Donnell's unjustifiable war against Morocco in i859-6(X 



yp6 DrilUBi?oi. 

DescoH. No, scfionu 

La Cond, £nt6ncea^ seria* en cabaneHia. Todavfa me gusta m^ 

Discon. He servido en.ingeni^ros, s^fiora. 

La Cond. j£n ingenieros! A m{ me** agradan infiaito los 
ingenieros. 

Discon, Sefiora ^tendda V.** la bondad de mandar qae me 
trajesen'** un pardguas? 

La Cond. (Vaelta al tema de! par^guas.) De modo que ha 
tenido V. la glona de enconttarse** en la famosa batalla de que tanto 
se habl6 . . .• 

DiscoH, ^ £a la batalla del cdatro de febrero,*' 6 en la** de 
Vad-Ras? 

La Coud, Eso es,** en la de Vad-Ras. 

Descon, Sf , sefiora, he tenido esa honra. — Aunque el pariguas 
sea* malo, no importa.* 

The student cannot review the conjugations too frequently. It is the 
basis of thoroughness in the handling of the spoken language. Hence- 
- forward, however, he need give only the first peison singular of each tease, 
conji^ting any specially irregular or peculiar parts of &e verb. Give the 
outline, then, of the following, ccmjugating the necessary tenses of those 
^iiaJies: entrur, niandar, importar ({415); sufdicar^ {% yji), andar 
(5 528), dar (§ 543), enconirar (§477). p^nsar (§ 457); compnpder, 
creer (J 549, b\ dsbeiv h»ber (S 354) ; h<^cer (§ 530),, qvtrer (§ 534)» 
romper (§ 571), saber (§ 535) ; tener (§ 536), iratr (§ 537), veti^ 548) ; 
'i^r (5 539), ir and irse (§.55a)» uuHr (§499). servir (§513)* . 

t 

(Jmpercdive — polite farm.) 

I. Excuse me, madam. 2. Excuse me, ladies. 3. Come in (sin^. 
and pL). 4. Go-out {sing, and //.). 5. Come-up. 6. Go-down. 
7. Come-out. 8. Go-in. 9. Don't come-in. 10. Don't go-out. 
11. Don't come-up. 12. Don't go-down. 13. Don't come-out. 
14. Don't go-in. 15. Do it {hdgalo V.). 16. Don't do it {no lo 
h. v.). 17. Try it; don't try it. 18. Ask-for it; don't ask-for it. 
. 19. Give it to-me; don't give it to-him. 20. Look-for it; don't 
look-for it. 21. Forgive him; don't forgive him. 22. Hang it up; 

» 706, / « ai4. M 706, tf. M 709, c J 713. 25 389, a. «« 409. iJ 67s, 
date of the battle of Tetuan, ^ a6^ » TAa^'s if. »> 71a <l 415. 



\ 



Essentials of Fartfk and Inflection. 427 

doaH hang it up. 23* COme-netr ; don^t 6>me-iiear. 24* Go*away; 
-doD't go (away)« 25. Do him the favor ; don't do him the favor. 
26. Have the goodness to ... ; don't refuse to . . . 27. Turn^uround ; 
donH turn-around. 

TMuA Trigtelm<H)al]ita. 

ESCENA NONA — CONTINUACION. 

La Coudesa, (llamando al criado.) ^^nselmo! jAnselmo! 
<(aparece.) • Ya que este caballero quiere absolutamente poiierse en 
camino, v6 i, buscar un par^guas, y trdelo al instante. (Que no 
haya* ni un solo paurdguas en la casa ^endendes?) (Vdse el 
criado.) Pero si^ntese V.« caballero. 

Descon. Sefiora, tengo prisa por marcharme, y agradezco' la 
invitacion de V. Me esperan algunos amigos en la estacion, y 
ademas, prolongando* mi presencia en esta casa, temo^ ser indis- 
creto, cuando* no me es posible ni dun componer los crlstales que 
*se han roto. 

La Cond, Puede V. estar tranquilo, porque el tren no sale hasta 
dentro de* tres horas. Conque decia V. que en Africa ... Y ^fud 
V. herido' en campafia? 

Descon, Sf, sefiora, dos veces, y muy gravemente por cierto, 
midntras tratdbamos de establecer una paralela. 

La Cond, Conque ^V. ha tratado de establecer una paralela? 
No sabe V. lo que* yo he deseado siempre saber lo que es una 
paralela. 

Descon. Voy d satisfacer entdnces la curiosidad de V. mi^ntras 
traen el pardguas. 

La Cond. Pero sidntese V., yo se lo* ruego. 

Descon, Gracias. La paralela, sefiora, consiste en una linea de 
ataque y de defensa trazada sobre el terreno que ocupan los sitia- 
dores, con objeto de avanzar por zanjas 6 caminos cubiertos hdcia 
la plaza 6 el punto sitiado. 

La Cond. Comprendo perfectamente. 

Descon. Esas zanjas se construyen en tres Ifneas unidas entre si 

1 708, b, Bern. * affradecer (§ 374* a). * 755. ^ 793. " that I shall be." 
* simee* * hasta dentro da a befyre^ in^ with. a. negative verb. ^ 39a 



428 Drill-Book. 

por otras en forma de zig-zags. La profundidad de cada zanja es 
la de un metro, y su longitud varia desde uno hasta tres metros 
prtfximamente. Hay seis modos de construirlas : de zapa sencilla, 
de zapa volante, Uena, medio-llena, doble y semi-doble. ^Com- 
prende V.? 

La Cand, \ Vaya*® si comprendo ! £s may interesante todo eso. 
Decfa V. que hay cincuenta y seis maneras de construir las zanjas . . . 

Descon, \ Cincuenta y seis ! \ Ave Marfa Purisima" ! seis, senora, 
seis. 

La Cand. £s verdad, perdone V., me he equivocado. Como 
nosotras no tenemos obligacion de saber esos trabajos de zapa . . • 

Deseon. \ Pues ya lo creo ! Como que los hacemos nosotros." 
Vamos ahora d*' definir ciaramente lo que es zapa sencilla. 

La Cond. Vamos i ver. 

Descan. Se llama zapa sencilla . . . (Sale^^ el criado.) 

Conjugate deaear, Yariar ; avantar (§ 371, c) ; rogar (§ 483), seniarse 
(§459); ogradecer (^ ^^^)\ eft/ender (^ 471), componer {% $^^)i con- 
struir (§ 522), salir (§ 554) ; ser herido (§ 386). 



Idiom. 

tratar de (inf.), to try to (inf.). 

tratemos de averiguarlo, 
tratar^ de encontrarle. 



let us try to ferret it out. 
I shall try to find him. 



I. I wish you [a] good journey. 2. He has changed his {de) 
opinion. 3. The ship changed her {de) course. 4. He-came- 
forward boldly. 5. Let him come-forward. 6. I came-forward to 
{d) salute him. 7. I begged him to (// to-hini), 8. He begged us 
to. 9. I beg you not to go-out {subj\), 10. He begged me not to 
go-out. II. We beg you to sit-down {que se sienie). 12. I thank 
you for it {it to you). 13. I shall be infinitely obliged to you for it. 
14. He does not understand me. 15. Don^t you understand me? 

16. Nobody understands him ; he speaks badly. 17. He who 
makes shoes is called [a] shoemaker ; he who mends them is called 
[a] cobbler. 18. He who draws up plans of houses or property is 

w 659, a, ** Of course I do." 11 658, rf, Rem, m « Oh I of course, since we 
are the ones to construct them *' ; sapa has the two meanings here, u *• ^q^ 
let us explain "... ^^ Salir, in plays, means ** to enter." 



Essentials of Form and Inflection. 429 

called a draugbtsman. 19. He is trying to construct a tramway 
from {desde) his village to the city. 20. When do you start for 
Seville? 21. The train will leave in (within) two hours. 22. Will 
you leave by the mail-train or by the accommodation ? 23. There-are 
excursion-trains almost every day during the bathing-season. 



ESCENA DECIMA. 

Anselmo, (d su ama.) Sefiora, he revuelto toda la casa, y no he 
podido encontrar mis que esto. (Saca de la funda el armazon de un 
pariguas viejo y muy grande y le abre.) 

La. Condesa, (al Desconocido.) Ya ve V., caballero, que no le 
fidta mds que la tela.' Crefmos que harfa* buen tiempo y no hemos 
pensado en traer pariguas (^plur,) de Madrid. 

Ans. Y ademis, seri inutil dentro de pocos minutos. La lluvia 
ha cesado, y cualquiera dirta que el sol va d salir. 

La Cond. (corriendo hdcia la ventana.) ^Serd' posible? Va i. 
salir el sol. \ Qu^ alegn'a ! Hard buen tiempo y vendrdn los amigos 
que espero con tanta ansiedad.^ Anselmo, sube al momento d la 
azotea y cada cinco minutos baja d decirme cudP es el estado del 
delo. 

Ans, (Pues, seiior,' vamos arriba d desempefiar las funciones del 
bardmetro que se hizo pedazos esta mai&ana.) (Vdse.) 

Conjugate bi^ar, sacar (§ 371); revolver (§491) ; venir (§ 541). 

Idioms. 
Haoer, to be (of the temperature and weather). 



hace buen (mal) tiempo, 
^qu£ tal tiempo hard mafiana? 

hacia mucho frio, calor, 

hizo un tiempo muy templado, 



it is good (bad) weather, 
what kind of weather will it be to- 
morrow? 
it was very cold, warm, 
it was quite moderate weather. 



1 lit. it does not lack to it more tAan the clothe i.e. " it lacks only the 
cover.** ^ // would be» * 703, b, ^ 624. * 993. ^ Addressed to himself in 
good humor. 



430 DrilUBook. 

' I. What kind [of] weatb^ is-il^going to be (va d A*) to-4tioiTow?. 
2. Tke sua set (hais set) clear; I fancjr (that) it wfllbe £ur. 
weaflher. 3. It*was very cold that night, do you xemember? 4. It* 
has not been very hot this summer. 5. It-Is hotter in Madrid than 
in Boston, but one does -not ieel it {m^ se sUnte) somndi there; 
because the atmosphere is very dry in the centre of Spain. 6. One 
never perspires there, and they {se) do not wear* straw-hats or (nor) 
white dothes much.* 7: Spaniards onfy want'good government and 
(the) material* prosperity.* 

■Tga» Trfg*slii> o 4^ ptiin o« 
BSCENA VNDECIMA. 

Disconoddo, Como dedamos, la zapa sencitla ... 

La Condesa, Cablllero, V. me pcrmitlrd que le diga* que es 
una impnidencia por mi parte detenerle mis tiempo, y que estoy 
abusando de* su amabilidad. 

Descon, Al contrario, sefiora. 

La Cond, S^ bien lo que es un viaje. Falta el tiempo para todo ; 
los mementos son preciosos. 

Descon, Pero ^no me ha dicho V., hace un momehto, que tengo 
tres horas dfsponlbles? Ahora soy yo el que'pide* i. V, el favor de 
no abandonar tan pronto esta casa. 

La Cond, Si es asf . . . caballero . . . (de mal humor.) 

Descon. Vuelvo i mi narradon. La zapa sencilla .. * 

La Cond. \ Dios mio I '\ Dios mio ! 

Descon. ^Se pone V. mala*? 

La Cond. No, no es nada. 

Descon. £n la zapa sencilla sdlo se emplean gaviones y £aiginas, 
que consisten ... 

ESCENA DUOdAcIMA. 

Anselmo. \ SeJk>ra Condesa, seiiora Condesa ! 
• La Condi ^Qu^ocurre? 

Ans. £1 sol que apareci6 un instante se ha retirado bruscamente. 
£1 cielo esti cUbierto de unos nubarrones^ negros que asustan . . . 
y oiga v., seiiora, la lluvia cae d torrentes. 

La Cond. \ Horrible contrariedad ! La marquesa y su £amilia no 

podrdn venir, y voy A continuar sola en este infierno. 

' • - ' - -- — . ■ - ,, . ■ ■-■-.- 

1 709, £. 3 757. • 694, a. * Idiom : are you Hit • 767. 



Essentials of Form and Inflection. 431. 

Ans. (Se ha puesto furiosa. Mevoy i. escape, porque como 
ahora soy yo el bardmetro, no tendrfa nada de extrailo' que hidera 
conmigo^ lo que hizo con ml antecesor). 

Conjugate aparecer (§ 374) and caer (§ 544). 

Idiom. 

Ponerse, to place or ptd one's self; (of dress) to put on; (of the sun) 
to set; (of physical or moral state) to get^ to become^ to he, 

I. He has been wounded by {de) a ball (§ 765, Rem* I.). 2. We 
have been wounded* in our self-respect. 3. The sun appears through 
{^por entre) the clouds. 4. The sun sets, had set, went-down. 
5. A friend put himself between the two combatants. 6. When the 
sun^ goes-down* among clouds it is [a] sign that {de que) the follow- 
ing day will be overcast or stormy. 7. They know {conocer) the 
signs of the sky, but they do not discern the signs of the times. 

8. He put on his (frock-)coat and went-out to {d) make some calls. 

9. (The) excursion tickets are called in Spain tickets of out and 
back (go and return). 10. The machine or engine that draws the 
train is called there **locomotora," and in (the) Spanish America 
•Mocomotiva" from-the English. il. He-has got well (good) 
again- 12. If he should go to Malaga he would get well (good). 
13. I should become very angry if he said that to-nte, 14. He is ill ; 
he is getting* better. 

Tema Trlgf^lmo-Octavo. 

ESCENA DECIMA-TERCIA. 

JLa Condesa (al desconocido^ con dulzura). Cuando V. guste,' 
mi querido amigo, puede continuar esa 4eilciosa descripdon de 
los trabajos de zapa. 

Descan. Al momento, seflota. Toda vez. que V, io desea, pasa* 
rdmos d la zapa volante. 

La Coftd, Ya escucho. (Y es buen mozo.) ' 

Descon. La zapa volante se comienza & practicar casi siempre 
de noche, y se hace salir* de la trinchera un destacamento de tra- 
bajadores ; cada uno lleva una pala, una espiocha y uh fusil. 

La Cond, Una pala, una espiocha y un fu . . . 

* " It would not be at all strange if** {que). ' 203 ; con here sas to. . * he 
goes getting better^ se va poniendo m. I710. * Literally: a detachment is 
made to come forth ; we say : they take from the trinchera a detachment of 



433 Drill-Book, 

ESCENA DECIMA-CUARTA. 

Anselmo. ] Victoria! | Victoria I £1 sol ha triunfado de la 
Uuvia, y el delo, casi despejado, presenta un aspecto magnffico. 

La Cond, \ Oh ! qu^ alegrfa ! Vi d preparario todo, Anselmo, 
para recibir d mis amigos, que vendrdn hoy fijamente en el primer 
trea. (Al Desconoddo.) Cabailero, retener d V. un momento 
mds en esta quinta serla un abuso, una inconveniencia. Y dates de 
marchar reciba V. un millon de gracias por la paciencia y la amabi- 
lidad con que me ha hecho compafi(a por espado de una bora. 
Crea V. que jamds olvidard su conducta. 

Desctm. Adios, sefiora Condesa, y gracias por la hospitalidad 
que he encontrado en su casa de V. 

La Cond* Y yo ruego d V., cabailero, que olvide la manera 
especial y violenta que he tenido de hacerle entrar en ella. 

Descon, Dichosa violencia, sefiora, que me hapermitido conocerla. 

La Cond, Tampoco olvidar^ que V. me ha hecho pasar una de 
las horas mds deliciosas que he disfrutado en tres meses. 

Descon, £sa bora pasada cerca de V. va d hacer muy largas las' 
que faltan para que saiga el tren. Adios, Seiiora. 

La Cond, ^Quiere V. seguir mi consejo? Ese tiempo lo puede 
V/ emplear en visitar los alrededores, que son deliciosos. Ahora 
no hay pellgro ninguno de caer en manos de los bandidos y ser 
degollado por el famoso Vargas. 

Indicate all the verbs that are in the subjunctive mode, — guste^ olvide, 
salga^ — and apply the principle regulating each. Give the imperative in 
the familiar form, and change it into the imperative with the polite form. 
Give all those in the polite form, and change them to the familiar form; 
affirmative and negative, with and without a pronoun. As: ha%^ kdzlo^ 
HO hagas, no lo hagas ; haga V., hdgalo V,, no kaga K, no lo haga V. 

I. The treaty of the United States with Spain was signed at {en) 
St. Lawrence, that is, at the Escorial, near Madrid, by the famous Man- 
uel Godoy, called [the] Prince of the Peace, and Thomas Pinckney 
on {de) [the] part of the United States, the twenty-seventh of Octo- 
ber,* (of) one thousand seven hundred [and] ninety-five. 2. The 

* WiU make those that remain before the train starts very long, ^ The 
object comes first for emphasis^ and is repeated in a pronoun substitute {lo) 
superfluous in English. Unemphatic is : Puede V, emp, ese tiempo en, * 675. 



Essentials of Form and Inflection. 433 

king, Charles [the] Fourth/ ratified it at the palace of Aranjuez, 
April 25, 1796, and George {Jorge) Washington ratified the same 
by-the {de) advice and with the consent of the Senate, at {eu) 
Philadelphia, March 7, 1796, Timothy* Pickering* being* then* 
Secretary of State.* 3. The Treaty, with all its documents, was 
then* printed* (se imprimid) at Madrid in a small 4to volume of 
fifty pagesi with this title: Treaty | of Friendship, Limits and 
Navigation | concluded | between the King our Lord | and the 
United States of America : | Signed at {eti) St. Lawrence the Royal | 
October 27th f (of) 1795. | By {de) order of the King. | Madrid, in 
the Royal Press, | year of 1796. 4. This volume is {estd) in two 
columns, the one for the Spanish text and the other for the Eng- 
lish, with the powers {poderes) and ratifications at- the end, running 
across the page (if rengi^m seguido)^ and with two engraved plans of 
passports or sailing patents (^patentes de mar). The draft of the 
treaty is said to have been made (was made, as it is said,) by the 
celebrated Count de Aranda, one of Spain^s ablest statesmen. 

Tema Trisrislmo-Nono* 
ESCENA DECIMA-CUARTA — CONTINUACION. 

Desconocido, ^Vargas? 

La Condesa, Sf, un bandido que ha sido el terror de este pais, 
y que me ha hecho pasar noches terribles. S6I0 con nombrarle me 
echo i} temblar como una azogada.* 

Descon, (Voy i, vengarme de tf.) ^ En efecto, ahora recuerdo 
que ayer arrestaron d ese c^ebre bandido y que hoy le he visto en 
el camino de hierro. 

La Cond. Gracias d Dios que nos vemos libres de ese hombre. 

Descon. No tan libres como V. cree. 

La Cond. \ Cdmo ! Pues i qud ha sucedido ? 

Descon, Hombre de una destreza y de una fiierza increibles, ha 
logrado romper los hierros que le aprisionaban ; ha herido i cuatro 
guardias que le custodiaban, y ech<5 i. correr por escs' campos sin 

que fuera* posible darle alcance. 

■ ■ ■ - ■ — . ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ I . , . ■ ■ ■ ■ . 

* 674. t d veinte y siete cU O, ^ echaree d, to begin ; " at the bare 
mention of his name I begin to." 3 An eaogado (from asogrue, quicksilver) 
is one who has destroyed his nervous system by labor in the quicksilver mines. 
We say, " to tremble like a leaf.'* • 065. translate " the open fiekls." ^ jzxx. 



434 Drill-Book, 

La Cond. \ Eso es horrible ! Van i. empezar otra vez los robos 
y los crfmenes, y yo vuelvo i tnis noches de iosomnio y de angustia. 
Dicen que ese hombre es un mdnstruo de fealdad. 

Discon. Se exagera mucho, seilora. 

La Cond. i V. lo conoce ? Ahora recuerdo que acaba V. de 
dedr que esta maf^na . . . 

DescoH, No es tan feo como se asegura. Figdrese V. el color de 
mis cabellos. 

La Cond, ^Es posible? 

DescoH, Frente igual d la mia. 

La Cond. i De vdras? 

Descon, La nariz, la boca y la barba de una semejanza perfecta. 

La Cond, Pero jeso es raro! ^Y su estatura? (inquieta.) 

Descon, Como la mia ; ni mds alta ni mds baja. 

La Cond, Y ^qu^ edad representa? 

Descon, La misma que yo. 

La Cond, \ Dios mio ! Empiezo i sospechar. (£1 j6ven derra 
por dentro todas las puertas y se guarda^ las Haves en el bolsillo.) 
I Qud esti V. hadendo, caballero ? 

Descon, Sefiora, el famoso bandido que tanto la aterra, soy yo. 

La Cond, \ Socor . . . !' 

Descon, No dd V. un solo grito si quiere V. conservar la vida. 

La Cond, \ Estoy perdida ! 

Descon, V. misma me ha hecho entrar en su casa y por fuerza. 

La Cond, ^Qu^ quiere V.? ^Dinero? Le dard todoel que me 
pida. 

Descon, ^Por'qui^n me toma V.? por un vidriero al prindpio, y 
ahora por un cambiante de monedas { 

La Cond, {Qui^n lo creydra! Un hombre que me pareda de 
modales tan distinguidos ! 

I. The stranger made her tremble, feigning himself [to be] the 
robber of whom* the morning* paper* spoke.* 2. It would seem 
to be a very ungallant vengeance to take on a lady,* but we must 
remember that her behavior toward a stranger had been quite 
extraordinary. 3. The lady began to cry (to the) help, but the 

* ffUardar, to keep, also to lay aside, as a book ; here to put (away). For 
the se, see $ j 331 and 353. > | Socorro I helpf * It seems little gallant to 
avenge one's self thus of a lady, but one must, etc. 



Essentials of Form and Inflection, 435 

pretended robber, seeing the gravity of the situation, sought to 
(^ocurar) moderate the terror of his victim [by] giving her an 
account of his life. 4. Knowing the character of (the) ladies, he 
sought to excite her sympathy even in [the] midst of the danger 
that seemed to surround her. 5. While' the narration^ went-on,' 
however,' the lady found means to (^pard) notify the servants of her 
position. 6. The-latter' having* come* to {en) her aid, the stranger 
was obliged to acknowledge that he was acting a farce. 7. The 
declaration of his attachment to the lady under the circumstances 
does not add to the interest of the play in our opinion. 8. It is, 
however, very popular in [a] certain class of Spanish theatres, 
which are called summer or caS6 theatres (631, b). 



Tema Cvadraflrteiiiio. 

ESCENA D^CIMA-CUARTA — CONTINUACION. 

DescoH, £s que' ^0 no soy bandido por instinto, slno por un 
rapto de amorosa desesperacion. 

La Cond, (Un poco mds tranquila.) \ £s posible ! 

Descon, Sf, seiiora Condesa. No he hecho mis que vengarme. 
£1 amor linicamente es lo que me convirtid* en un hombre criminal. 

La Cond. (Para ganar tiempo.) Debe ser esa una historia 
romintica y terrible i la vez. 

Descon. S(, seiiora, romintica y terrible. 

La Qmd, Tengo mi^do de estar sola con V., y sin embargo 
quisiera saberla. 

Descon. Yo adoraba con delirio en mi pais i, la hija de un rico 
labrador. (La Condesa se sienta junto i, la mesa y escribe sin ser 
vista algunas palabras en un pedazo de papel, mi^ntras sigue la 
reladon.) 

La Cond. Que seria hermosa sin duda. 

Descon. Hermosa como un dngel de la gloria. Dirfa que era la 
mds bella de todas las mujeres, si no hubiera tenido la fortuna de 
conocer d V. 

La Cond, (Esto es lo que se llama un bandido bien educado. 
Yo habia oido decir que habfa algunos muy finos, pero no en el 
campo). 

1 i88p Rem. < convertir, 502. 



436 DrilUBook. 

Daeem. Nos amiLbamos con frenesC. Paes bien, senora, aqnella 
nifia, d quiea yo creta nn modelo de poreza, roe proporciomS d mis 
cruel de los desengaftos. 

(La Condesa se hab£i aproziiiiado todo lo posible i. la paerta, y, 
fingiendo que se le cay6 el pafiuelo, pasd por la rendija el papd 
donde habfia escrito.) 

ESCEKA DCCIMA-QUINTA. 

Anseimo, (por fuera.) Sefiora, sefiora ^llamaba V.? 

Desam. (d la Cond.) Puede V. decir lo que le plazca.' Ya sabe 
V. que estoy armado. 

La Cond, (al criado, con voz conmovida.) Anselmo i ha Uegado 
el tren? 

Ahs, S(, sefionk 

La Cond. ^Y la (amilia que esperaba? 

Ans, No ha venido. £1 tren IIeg<5 con dos horas de retraso i 
causa del mal estado de los caminos. La tormenta ha descaigado 
sobre el rio y ha convertido en un lago la campifia. 

Descon, (aparte.) jDemonio! Yo me marcho. Ademds, voy 
vengado, y el susto ha sido de primera clase. (A la Condesa.) 
Sefiora, con permiso de V., me retiro, y ahora estoy seguro que no 
me detendrd mis tiempo d su lado, Pero ^qu^ ruido es ese? (Dan 
fuertes golpes en la puerta.) 

Ans. (desde fuera.) Sefiora, valor, aquf estamos para librarla 
de ese infiime bandido. Somos seb hombres y traemos cada uno 
nuestra escopeta. 

La Cond, (al Descon.) Ese ruido significa que mis criados van i 
acabar con V., dentro de pocos momentos, si se atreve i. dar nn 
solo paso. 

Descon. (aparte.) Pues me he metido en buen zipizape. No hay 
vciis remedio que confesar la verdad y salir de este atolladero. 
(Alto, i. la Condesa) Sepa V., sefiora Condesa, que todo ha sido 
una farsa. V. me tom<5 como recurso contra la Uuvia y contra el 
fastidio ; yo lo comprendf, y quise darla un susto fingidndome ese 
bandido que tanto la aterra. 

La Cond. \ C6mo ! 

Descon. Sf; pertenezco i. una de las familias mis nobles de 

«S45- 



Essentials of Form and Inflection. 437 

Andalucfa, y soy sobrino de la marquesa de la Pefia, que hoy debfa 
salir de Sevilla para ir d la quinta de la Condesa de Alvarado, con 
quien tieae el proyecto de casarme. 

La Cond. Coaque V. . . . (La puerta cede al fia i los golpes, 
y entra Anselmo con cinco criados, todos armados de escopetas.) 

I. There are rail-ways over all Spain. 2. One goes from the 
French frontier on the north to Cadiz in the extreme south. 3. This 
road gives-off lateral branches that lead to Lisbon and Oporto in 
Portugal, and on the other hand to Malaga, Carthagena, and 
Valencia along (/<?^) the eastern coast. 4. Besides, there are 
roads from Madrid to Barcelona via (^por via de) Saragossa, and 
to the north-west as-fj^r-as-to Bilbdo and Santander. 5. These are 
the great lines ; there are many short [ones] which connect impor- 
tant places with the capital. 6. The Spanish language is spoken 
to-day by more people than any other language in western Europe, 
except the English. 7. In a few years the demands of commerce 
will make it the' only* absolutely^ indispensable' foreign^ language^ 
in {de) this country. 8. It is spoken over the whole of Central and 
South America {por toda la A, del Centra y del Sur)^ but with [a] 
certain local type like that which {al que) distinguishes the Anglo- 
American from the Englishman. 9. Still the educated of both 
countries may be said* to have a common speech and type. 
10. Many distinguished Mexicans, Chilians, et cetera^ have con- 
tributed by {con) their writings to (the) Spanish literature, and have 
become {hacerse) members of the various Academies of the mother- 
country. 

Tema Cvadrag^slmo-Prlino. 

ESCENA DECIMA-SEXTA. 

Anselmo, (al Desconocido.) Ddte preso,* tunante, ahora las vas d 
pagar' todas juntas. 

La Cond, \ Eh, detendos'! Y tu, Anselmo, respecta la persona 
de este caballero como si fuese la mia propia. 

Ans. Pero, entdnces ^qu^ significa el papel que me did V. por 
debajo^ de la puerta? 

* Still, it may be said that the educcUtd of both countries have^ etc. 

1 Lit., give yourself up as a prisoner; that is, " you are my prisoner." * Often 
render ir ^ by the future of the following verb : " you'll pay now for the whole 
score." ' 209, 404. ^ 649, Rem, 



43* Drill-Book. 

La Cond. Calla ; laego lo sabrds todo. 

Descon, Conque ^V. did aviso sin que* yo lo notara? 

La Cond, Creo que V. en mi lugar hubiera hecho lo misrao. 
£1 lance no ha sido para m^nos.' Pero despues he procurado 
enmendar mi error. 

Descon. {Oh, sf ! mil gradas. Mi nombre es Cdrlos Velazquez, 
y ofrezco i V. mi mano y mi corazon que sabrd amarla siempre. 

Ans. (aparte.) Me parece que esto va d acabar en tragedia, es 
decir, en boda. 

La Cond, Pero ^y esa seAora con quien desea casarle^ la mar- 
quesa de la Pefia? 

Cdrlos. Renundo d ella para siempre. 

La Cond, £nt<Snces, caballero, siento no poder dar d V. mi 
mano, porque V. mismo acaba de negarse d ello.' 

Cdrios. { Yo negarme*! . . . No comprenda 

La Cond, £std V. en casa de la Condesa de Alvarado. 

Cdrlos. (con alegrfa.) \ Serd posible ! | Ah ! soy feliz, y voy d 
obedecer degamente las <5rdenes de mi tia. 

Ans, ({Caramba] esto va por la posta.*^ £s preciso ponerse 
bien con este hombre.) Caballero, V. dispense si hace poco" me 
tomd la libertad de poner" la mano . . . 

Cdrlos. £stds perdonado* 

ESCEMA (Ultima. 

Vidorina. ^Estd jra preso? 

Anselmo, Sf, preso, y para toda su vida el infeliz. 

La Condesa, (al publico.) 

£n la pasada lluvia 

Tendf mis redes, 

Y pesqudwCSte^ingeniero 

Que^ofrezco^^ustedes. 

Ya^importawUn bledo " 

« Lit., without that I should note it, i.e.. " without my observing it." • The 
occasion demanded it ; lit., " the critical occasion was not for less." ^ le ^^you, 
^ eUo refers to the idea, — not to the mere word mano, which is fern. * 731. 
10 1p por la poata, to go " by express" as we say. n hace poco, just now, 
a little while ago, M to lay my hands (on you). M Bledo : Low Lat. bledum^ 
Germ. Blait, Fr. BU: agrain, a whit, A negative is understood with the verb: 
*• I don't care a whit now, whether " {que). 



Essentials of Form and Inflection, 439 

Que^el bardmetro marque 
Bueno^d mal'tiempo. 
Ayer, al verme sola, 

Aqui morfa . . . 
Y^Jioy puede ** que me^estorbe 

La compafifa. 
Sf . . . yo soy franca, 
Y con franqueza pido 

Una palmada.^^ 

I. He shuts the door; shut the door (y2z/«. and ^/.). 2. He 
opens the door ; open the door. 3. He goes up stairs ; go up stairs 
(la escalerd). 4. He goes down stairs ; go down stairs. 5. He 
leaves him ; leave him ; don^t leave him. 6. He calls them ; call 
them; don't call them. 7. Do not speak to me. 8. Let no one 
come in {que nadie pose or entre), 9. Let no one see me. 10. Let 
there be no one at the door. 11. Let it not be so. 12. Let us go 
(vamos) ; let us go up ; let us go down. 13. Let us not listen to 
him. 14. Let us give (to)-the poor' [man] something.* 15. Let 
us not give him anything (nothing). 16. Pardon, brother ! 17. May 
{que) God relieve you. 18. Farewell, cavalier {Go with God^ cava- 
lier), 19. To {para) deny an alms in Spain, they say to the beggar : 
** Pardon, brother," or *'God protect you" {Dios le ampare)^ or 
both (things). 20. The beggar answers cheerfully, **Go, your 
worships, with God ; another time it will be" {otra vez serd). 

^^fuede qtie, popular for puede Ber que, impersonaL 1* The usual end- 
ing of Spanish plays, the " vos plaudite " of the ancients. Observe that in 
poetry similar vowels meeting one another are absorbed in pronunciation; 
vowels that are not similar are diphthongized, or even uttered in triphthongs. 



SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



-oo'^Q^o^ 



A, to, at, in, within, at — off. 

AbalSrics, m. pl., glass beads. 

Abandon&r, to forsake, to leave. 

Abrir, to open, $ 561. 

AJbflolatameiite, absolutely; quiere 
a^ is determined to. 

Abtolato, », absolute. 

Abornr, to weary, to wear out. 

Abu&r, to abuse, foil, by de, § 757. 

AboflO, M., abuse, outrage. 

Aeab&r, to bring to an end, to finish, 
to close; to get through; a, con, 
to put an end to, to make an end 
of; a, de^ to finish (doing some- 
thing) ; to have just, p. 422. 

Accioniaia, m., shareholder. 

Aceite, m., (olive) oil. 

Acord&rse, to remember, foil, by 

de, § 474. 
Actitad, F., attitude; en a, <//, in a 

position for. 
Acto, M., act. 
Acudid — acudir, 
Acudir, to apply (^, to). 
Acaerdo(me) — acordarse, 
Ademis, besides, furthermore. 
Adida, good bye. 
Adorar, to be in love with, to 

adore. 
Adomado, a, adorned {de, with). 
AduIaciSiiy F., flattery. 
Afeite, m., cosmetic. 
Aflige — afligir. 



Afligido, a, sorrowfuL 

Afligir, to grieve. 

Agosto, M., August. 

Agradar, to please, to like; nsed 
same as gustar, p. 420. 

Agradeoer, to thank, §§ 374, 754. 

Agradezoo — agradecer, 

Agaa, F., water; las a — x, rain; 
inundation. 

Aguaeero, m., shower. 

Agaeda, f., Agathe or Agatha. 

Agiiero, m., augury, omen. 

Aguila, f., eagle, § 8x. 

Ahora, now, at present. 

Aborrar, to lay up, to save. 

Aire, m., air, atmosphere. 

Airoso, a, successful, triumphant. 

Ajeno, a, another's, of others; for- 
eign (</<?, to). 

Ala, F., wing; rim, § 81. 

Alancea — alancear. 

Alancear, to dart, to spear. 

Alancea — alancear, 

Alav6Sf a, Alavese, of Alava. 

Albaric5qae, m., apricot. 

Albedrio, m., will (arbitrium') . 

Alberg^e, m., refuge. 

Albricias, f. pl., present for bring- 
ing good news. 

Album, M., album, sketching-book. 

Alcalidno, a, of Alcala. 

Alcance, m., range; dar a., to come 
up to, to reach. 

Alcorndque, m., cork-tree. 



Spanish-English Vocabulary, 



441 



Alcnuft, F.,vcraety oil-jar. 
AlegrarBOy to rejoice, to be glad 

(</<f, at, of). 
Alegri*, f^ joy, delight; iqniaJ 

how glad I am ! 
Alemiii, a, German. 
Alfilar, M., pin; (two and three 

penny) nail, (four and six cent) 

nail. 
Alguno, », some, any; FL., some, 

a few. 
AUiiya^ F., jewel. 
Alicantlno, a, of Alicante. 
Almen&ra, f., beacon. 
Almiid, m., measure. 
AlqnOa, f., sign (which indicates 

that a hack is not engaged). 
Alrededor, adv., around; a. dty 

prep., around; los a — ^i, M. PL., 

the environs, outskirts. 
Alio, a, high, tall. 
AlUk, thither, there (motion). 
AIM, there (rest). 
Ama, F., lady or mistress of a house 

(with respect of the servants); 

nurse, § 81. 
Amabilidad, F., kindness. 
Amapola, f., poppy. 
Amar, to love. 
Amara, from amar, 
Ambigu, M., rotunda. 
Ambigno, a, ambiguous. 
Anuga, F., friend (lady). 
Amigo, M., friend. 
Amiatad, f., friendship. 
Amo, M., the gentleman or master 

of a house. 
Amor, M., love. 
Amordflo, a, pertaining to love, on 

account of love. 
Amparane, to seek shelter. 



Amplio, a, full, ample. 
Andalncfa, f., Andalusia (soatln 

em Spain). 
Andalos, a, Andalusian. 
Andar, to go, to walk (indefinite) ; 

el a., the going, walking, § 528. 
Anden, m., platform, inside of a 

railway station. 
Angel, M., angel; a. He la gloria^ 

an angel in paradise. 
Angosiia, f., anguish, suffering. 
i^wintft^ p., (disembodied) soul, § 8l. 
Andche, last night. 
Amdedad, F., anxiety; contantaa^ 
• so anxiously. 
Anieeea5r, m., predecessor. 
Antes, adv., before, formerly; a. de, 

prep., before; a, que, conj., before 

(with subj.). 
Antigiiedad, f., antiquity. 
Aniigao, a, old, ancient. 
Amcos, M. PL., fragments; kecAo a., 

broken into fragments. 
Afio, M., year. 
Aparecer, to appear, to present one's 

self, § 374. 
Apriaionar, to bind, to hold captive. 
Aproveeh&r, to take advantage of, 

to avail one^s self of. 
Aproximane, to approach, to draw 

near. 
Aquel, la, lo, that, that one, yonder. 
Aqui, here. 

Aragon^s, a, Aragonese. 
Arbol, M., tree. 
Arboleda, f., row of trees ; trees 

(coll.). 
Arder, to burn. 
Ardid, m., cunning. 
Ardiendo, aglow, burning. 
Argiur, to argue, § 526. 



442 



Spanish-English Vocabulary. 



Ar gfijo — argUir. 

Axmik, F., arm, weapon; branch of 

military service, § 8i. 
Armido, a, armed. 
AinuMdn, m., frame, skeleton (with* 

oat the cover). 
Arte, M. and f., art, §§ 8i, 94,^. 
ArregUtr, to arrange, to ** fix," to 

put in order. 
Arrepentido^ a^ repentant. 
ArresUr, to arrest 
Arribft, ap» above, np-stairs. 
Arrojftr, to throw, to throw away 

or down. 
Armin&do, a, in ruins. • 

AMgnr&r, to assure, to assert*, se 

as^gura^ it is asserted. 
Aaiento, m., seat, chair. 
Aapecto, m., appearance. 
AflturUno, a, Asturtan. 
Arastar, to frighten, to scare; to 

be dreadful. 
At%jo, M., short-cut (of roads). 
At&qae, m., attack. 
Ataud, M., casket, coffin. 
Aterrar, to terrify, to frighten; reg. 

aierro, atirras^ etc. 
AioUadero, m., bog, slough, mire; 

scrape, difficulty. 
Atrap&r, to catch. 
Atreverse, to dare, to presume, 

foil, by d. 
Atrevido, a, bold; es a., it is a 

piece of effiront'ery. 
Auditdrio, m., audience. 
Aula, F., public hall; university; 

court. 
Ann, even. 
Aon, yet, stiU. 
Aunque, although. 
Anreo, a, golden. 



Auto, M., judicial indictment; order 
for commitment ; triaL 

Autor, M., author. 

Avanaar, to advance, to come for- 
ward. 

Ave Maria Pnrf ahna ! bless me 1 

AvergoiiBado, a, abashed, ashamed. 

Avarigaa — atferiguar, 

Averiguar, to find out. 

Armgiie — ttverigHor. 

Averigno — averiguar, 

Aviar, to arrange, to pot in order, 
to prepare. 

Avie — aviar. 

Aviso, M., notice; dar a., to notify^ 
to give an alarm. 

Ayer, yesterday... 

Ayudar, to aid, to help. 

Aiogido, a, (a man or woman 
whose nervous- system has been 
destroyed by work in a quick- 
silver mine) ; temifiar como un a^ 
to tremble like a leaf. 

Asote, M., scourge, terror. 

Asotea, f., flat roof of southern 
houses, the terrace. 

Azncena, p., White lily. 

Azol, blue. 

B. 

Bada, f., barber's basin. 
Bailarin, a, dancer, ballet girL 
Baile, m., dance; ball. 
Bajar, to go down, to come down 

{d with infinitive). . 
Bijo, a, low, ^ort. 
Baladf, of no value. 
Balido, M., bleating of sheep. 
Bandido, m., robber, marauder, 
BaiLo, M., bath. 
Baraja, F., pack of carcUk 



SpanishrEnglish Vocabulary, 



443 



Barba, F., chin. 

Bar6metro, m., barometer. 

Baron, m., baron. 

Barro, m., clay, mud; lUno de b., 

muddy. 
Bata, F., morning-gown. 
BataUa, f., battle, engagement. 
Baal, M., trunk, box. 
Baalismo, m., baptism. 
Bebe — beber, 
Beber, to drink. 
Bello, a, fair, beautiful. 
Beaar, to kiss; besarle d uno la 

mano, to salute ai^y one. 
Bien, adv., well, very. 
Bien, m., good, blessing; PL., goods, 

property. 
Bilbaino, a, of Bilbao. 
Bledo, M., a blade of corn; me im- 

porta un b., I don't care a straw. 
Boca, f., mouth, lips. 
Boda, f., marriage, wedding. 
Boleollo, M., pocket. 
Bondad, f., goodness, kindness; 

fener la b, de^ to be so good as to. 
Bonito, a, pretty. 
Borcegnl, m., buskin. 
Beta, F., wine-bag. 
Bribon, m., rascal. 
BrUlante, brilliant, magnificent. 
Brascamentet suddenly. 
Bneno, a, good, well. 
Bulio, M., bundle, package, lay- 
figure. 
Barla, f., mockery, jest. 
Burra, f.^ she-ass. 
Basca, f., search, guest. 
Bnscar, to look for, to seek, to 

search; ir d b., to go after or for; 

enviar d b., to send for. 
Busto, M., bust. 



C. 

Caballeria, f., cavalry. 
Caballero, m., gentleman ; (in direct 

address) sir. 
Caballerosamente, adv., politely, 

like a well bred gentleman. 
Cabellera, f., head of hair. 
Cabellos, m. pl., the hair of the 

head. 
Cach5rro, m., whelp, cub. 
Cada, each, every. 
Cadena, F., chain; c, <U hierro, iron 

chain. 
C&e — caer, 
Caer, to fall, § 544. 
Caerse, to fall down ; se le cat el 

panuelo, her handkerchief falls, 

she has let her handkerchief fall. 
Cal — caer. 
Caida, F., fall. 
Caigo — caer. 
Caldo, M., broth. 

Galla 1 hush ! be still \ hold ! stop I 
Callar, to keep silent. 
Calle, F., street. 
Galleja, f., lane. 
Oambiante, m., changer; c, de 

monedaSf money changer. 
Camino, m., road, way; ponerfe en 

r., to s^t out, to go. 
Campanario, m., church tower, 

belfry, spire. 
CampaniUa, f., door-bell, service 

bell. 
Campaila, f., campaign. 
Campiiia, f., country (around a 

city or village). 
Campo, M., field; esos campos, the 

open fields. 
Capturar, to take captive, to catch. 
Caramba, zounds !. 



444 



Spanish-English Vocabulary, 



Oaiidid, F^ charity, love. 

Cirlos, Charles. 

Cartaginte, », Carthaginian. 

Caaa, f., house. 

Oaaftr, to marry any one (to, eon), 

Casfirte, to marry, to get married. 

CU, almost. 

Gaao, M., case; haeer c, de^ to take 

notice, to pay attention {de^ to). 
Caiiell&no, a, Castilian. 
CataUuL, a, Catalonian. 
Oatarita, f., cataract, deluge. 
Caudal, m., capital. 
OaudalSao, a, swift-flowing (of a 

river) ; of abundant means. 
CS&nsa, F., cause; d e, de, on ac- 
count of. 
Gaia, p., shooting; game. 
Ceder, to give way, to yield. 
C^lebre, celebrated, famous. 
Cena, f., supper. 
Cofiir, to gird on. 
CepiUito, M., little brush (dim. of 

cepillo), 
Cerea, adv., near; ^. ^, prep., near, 

close to, by. 
Cerrar, to shut, to shut up; to lock 

(with a key). 
Cesfir, to cease, to stop; la lluvia 

ha cesado, it has stopped raining. 
Oielo, M., sky, heaven. 
Cien — ciento. 

Oienda, f., science, knowledge. 
Ciento, one hundred (before noun 

cien) . 
Cierto, a, sure, certain ; a certain ; 

d c — a distancia^ at a certain 

distance, some distance off; por 

c — o^ surely, indeed. 
Cienra — cerrar, 
Cincaenta, fifty. 



Cita, p., summons, engagement; 

citation. 
Ciadad, f., town, city. 
Ciudadano, m., citizen. 
Civil, civil. 
Claramente, clearly. 
Clare, a, clear, light; es ^., of 

course. 
Claae, f., class; de primera c^ a 

first-class one. 
Coche, M., carriage, car; en <-., by 

carriage. 
CodXda, F., greed, covetousness. 
Coima, f., hag. 
Colar, to strain ; to slip through, to 

slip in, § 476. 
Coleccion, f., collection. 
Colocar, to set, to place; r. Hen^ to 

adjust properly. 
Colocarse, to place one's self, to 

take one's place, § 371. 
Color, M., color. 
Corned — comer, 
Comedia, f., a play. 
Comenzar, to begin, foil, by d with 

an infinitive, § 469. 
Comer, to eat, to dine. 
Comiamos — comer, 
Comida, f., dinner, meal. 
ComiSnia — comenzar, 
Como, as, since, like. 
C6mo, how? how! 
Compaflia, f., company ; kacerle d 

uno r., to keep one company. 
Completo, a, complete, full. 
Cdmplice, m., accomplice. 
Componer, to repair, to mend, § 553. 
Comprender, to understand. 
Con, with. 
Conde, m., earl. 
Condesa, f., countesis. 



Spanish-English Vocabulofy. 



445 



Condnctft, F., behavior. 

Oonfesfir, to confess, to acknowl- 
edge, §461. 

Confiado, a, trusting, relying. 

Oonfoso, a, confused, confounded. 

Oonmlgo, with me \_mecum\, 

Conmovido, a, pitiful. 

Conooer, to be acquainted with, to 
become acquainted with, to know, 
to make one's acquaintance, § 374. 

Gonoaoo — conocer. 

Cdnqne or oon que, so then. 

Conqaense, of Cuenca. 

Consei^do, a, succeeded in; se 
ha r., they have s. in (w. inf.). 

Cloiiaegair, to attain, to succeed in, 

§516. 

Consejo, m., counsel, advice. 

Ckinsentir, to consent, § 499. 

Conaervar, to preserve. 

Conaiente — conseniir. 

Connga — eonseguir, 

Consigo — eonseguir. 

Coiudgo, with him (her, them, you) 
[secutn^ . 

Conaiatir, to consist (/», of). 

Conaolar, to comfort, § 476. 

Conaon&iite, f., consonant. 

Constnur, to construct; to dig (a 
trench); se construyen^ are con- 
structed, § 522. 

Conairujen — eonstruir, 

Conaaela — consolar, 

Contento, a, satisfied, pleased. 

Contigo, with thee, with you 
\tecum\ 

Contintia — eontinuar, 

OontiiLaaoioii, f., continuation, 
continued, of a story. 

Conitnnar, to continue, to go on. 

Coiitinuo, a, continuous. 



Contraido, a, contracted, drawn 

up, distorted. 
Contrariedad, f., disappointment, 

unfortunate circumstance. 
Conirario, a, contrary; al r., on 

the contrary. * 

Convertir, to convert, to transform, 

§502- 
Convirti6 — convertir, 

Gopiar (oopio, as, a), to copy. 

Ck>raion, m., heart, valor ; de iodo e,^ 
with all one*s heart; (with verb 
sentir) deeply. 

Cordobea^ a, Cordovese, of C6rdova. 

Cordon, m., cord ; e,de la campani" 
lla, bell-puU. 

Coro, M., choir. 

Corona, f., crown. 

Corpolento, a, immense, of a large 
trunk (as a cork-tree). 

Correddr, m., runner, agent 

Correr, to run, to be quick. 

Corriendo — correr, 

Corro, M., group, knot. 

C6rteB, F. PL., the ^anish Parlia« 
ment. 

Cortina, f., curtain. 

Cosa, F., thing; no es e. de, there is 
no question of. 

Conia, f., little thing, trifle. 

Coaiar, to cost, § 473. 

Coetumbre, f., custom, habit 

Cree — creer. 

Creer, to believe, to think, to sup- 
pose; to be assured, to rest as- 
sured, §*549, d. 

Crel — rreer, 

Creia — creer, 

Creido, a, believed. 

Creimoa — creer. 

Creyera — creer. 



446 



Spanish-English Vocabulary, 



CrUUU, F., midd, senrant 

Criido, M., servant. 

Orimen, m., crime. 

CriininJtt, adj., criminal; kombrec, 

criminal. 
Criat&l, M., Window-pane, pane of 

glass. 
Cruel, cruel. 
CiUU, which? what? 
Cnalgottra, any one, any. 
Ciuuido, when, since; de €^ dnce 

the time when. 
Cniado, when? 
CnftntiSso, a, large, copious. 
CQAnto, a, as much, as many. 
OaAato, a, how much? how many? 
CiuureiitA, forty. 
Ca&si or can, almost 
Cnatro, four. 

Cabierto, a, covered (<<Sr, with). 
Cubo, M., paiL 
Cuchillo, M., (table) knife. 
Cuela — colar. 
Caere, m., leather. 
Cveitioii, F., question, matter. 
Cuidfido, M., care. 
Caidadoso, a, careful. 
Coita, F., woe. 
Caota, F., share, scot. 
Curioaidfid, f., curiosity. 
Curioso, a, inquiiutive; neat. 
Caatodi&r, to guards to accompany, 

as a guard. 

CH. 

Chico, a, little; a little boy or girl. 
Chisme, m., implement, tool, thing. 
Chorro, m., stream of water. 
Chucho, M., kind of owl. 
Chulo, M., boy of the ring, bull- 
fighter. 



Chnsma, f<, crowd, rabble. 

D. 

Dailo, M., injury, harm. 

Dar, to give; to hit, to strike; to 

take, § 543. 
Dardo, m., dart 

Debajo de, under, beneath; por- tf. 

de, (along) under. 
Deber,to owe ; to be to ; ought, niu5;t. 
Decidldo, a, decided, resolved (<f, 

to). 
De<^, to say, to tell; to mean; di^o 

quit 1 meani that;- es </., that is to 

say» 1 539. 

Dedo, M., finger, toe. 
Defenaa, f., defense. 
Definir, to define, to explain ; vamos 

d d., let us explain. 
Degollado, a, beheaded; ser d., to 

be beheaded, to have one*s throat 

cut [^ola']. 
Dejar, to leave; d, de, to leave off, 

to cease. 
Deleite, m., joy, pleasure. 
Delicioso, a, delightful. 
Delirio, m., delirium; con d., wildly, 

madly, ' passionately. 
Demonio, heavens ! 
Dentro de, within; por d., on the 

inside. 
Derecba, f., right (hand) ; d li d., 

to the right, on the right. 
Desagiie, m., drainage. 
Desahucio, m., ejectment 
Desaparecer, to disappear. 
Desbordamiento, overflowing, in- 
undation. - 
Deeeanflo, h., rest; sin d., without 

cessation, incessantly. 



Spanish-English Vocabulary, 



447 



Descargar, to fall with fury {sokn^ 
upon), § 371. 

Descolgar, to take down (anything 
suspended), § 485. 

Deaeonocido, a, unknown ;. a 
stranger. 

Descripcion, F., description. 

Descuelga — descolgar, 

Desde, from, since \ d. — Jiasta or il, 
from — to; d, alliy from there; 
d, uquU from here, hence* 

Deadicha, f., misfortune. 

Deaear (deaeo, as, a), to desire, to 
wish. 

Desempeiiar, to discharge; to act, 
to play. 

Deseng&ilo, m., disillusion, disen- 
chantment ; proporcionarU d uno 
un </., to undeceive one. 

Desesperacion, f., despair, des- 
peration ; amorosa d.^ desperation 
on account of love. 

Desesperado, a, in despair. 

Desesperar, to put in despair, dis- 
courage. 

Deagraci&do, a, unfortunate, la* 
mentable. 

Desliz, M., delinquency, slip. 

Despedir, to dismiss, § 512. 

Despejado, a, clear, free from 
clouds or obstacles. 

Despide — despedir, 

Despojar, to despoil, to strip, to rob. 

Despues, afterward, subsequently; 
detptus dej prep., after; desptus 
que^ conj., after. 

Destacamento, m., detachment. 

Destreza, F., dexterity, cunning, 
shrewdness. 

Desirozar, to break up; to carry 
*way,§37i. 



Detendr^ — detener, 
Detener, to detain, § 536. 
Detenerse, to stop, § 536. 
Detria, behind; d, de, behind, be- 
yond. 
Deudo, M., relative. 
Di — decir and d€tr, 
Dia, M., day. 

Dibujfir, to sketch, to draw. 
Dibijo, M., drawing, sketching. 
Diccionario, M., dictionary. 
Dice — decir, 
Dioen — deHr, 
Dicho, a, said, told (decir), 
Dichdso, a, happy, fortunate, 

blessed. 
Dificil, difficult; not likely. 
Diga — decir. 
Digo — decir, 
Dijiste — decir, 
Diluvio, M., flood^ deluge. 
Dinero, m., money. 
Dios, God ; D. mio, dear me ! 
]>iria — decir, 
Dirigirse, to direct one's self, to 

proceed (^d, toward), 5 375* 
DiBonrso, m., speech ; d, de siempre, 

old story. 
Disfmtar, to enjoy. 
DinmolOyM .^simulation ; con </.,slyly . 
Dispenaar, to excuse; V. dispense, 

pardon, beg pardon. 
Disponible, to dispose of, to spare. 
Diatancia, f., distance; d cieria </,, 

at a certain distance off. 
Diatingoido, a, distinguished, high 

born {distingue, guee) , 
Diaiingtur, to descry; se distingue, 

is visible, § 376. 
Diatracci5n, f., something to oc- 
\ cupy one's mind. 






448 



Spamsh-Englisk Vocabulary, 



Dirertir, to amuse, § 50a. 

Diyierte —-t/iverHr, 

Doble, doable. 

I>oee» twelve ; las </., twelve o'clock, 

noon, midnight. 
DoUente, grieving, pitifuL 
Dolor, M., pain, grief. 
Doncell*, f., lady's maid. 
Donde, where; idAndef where ? 
DrogotrU, heri>-shop ; (Spanish 

America, drug-store). 
Daobo, a, clever, skilful. 
Dad*, F., doubt; sin d^ doubtless, 

of course; $to hay d^ there is no 

doubt of it, it is certain. 
Daelo, M., pain; mourning [Fr. 

deuH\. 
Dnliora, F., sweetness; con d^ 

affably. 
Dnnur, to last. 

K 

^bano, M., ebony. 

Ech&r, to throw, to toss; echar d 
and echarse d^ to begin to (foil, 
by an infinitive). 

Ed&d, F., age, number of years. 

liducacion, f., education ; buena /., 
good manners, courtesy. 

£dac2do, a, educated; Hen ^., well 
bred. 

Efecto, M., effect; tne^ indeed you 
have; in fact. 

Ejeeat&rse, to be effected, executed. 

£1 que, he who, the one who. 

lUefitUite, M., elephant. 

memento, m., element. 

Smbarcadero, m., station, landing. 

Embargo — sin . e., notwithstand- 
ing, still. 

Smbudo, M., funnel. 



Bmoeioii, f., emotion. 

Empefiarse, to persist (jen^ in), to 

insist {en, on). 
Empezar, to begin (by, con), foil. 

by d with an infinitive, $ 469. 
Empiece — empezar, 
Empieoen — empezar, 
Empieso — empnar. 
Bmplreo, a, celestiad. 
Emplear, to employ, to use, to 

make use of; se emplea, is used. 
En, in, into, at, on. 
Bneontrar, to meet with, to find, 

to come upon casually; refl.9 to 

find one's self, to be. 
Enganchar, to harness up, to put 

the horses to the carriage; ka* 

que en^nchen en segtuda, have 

the carriage made ready at once. 
Bngaila — engaHar. 
BngaiSar, to deceive. 
Engafie — enganar, 
Engafio, M., deception. 
Eigoague, m., finger*bowl. 
Enjato, a, dry, thin. 
Enmiend&r, to amend, to correct 

§459. 
Enredo, M., plot, snarL 

EnseSar, to teach; to show. 

Eniefie — ensenar, 

Entender, to understand, to hear, 

§471- 
Entiendes — entender. 

Entdnoes, then. 

Enirar, to go in, to come in, to enter. 

Entre, between (two), among (sev- 
eral) ; entre si^ together. 

Epistola, v.y letter, epistle. 

Epoca, f., period, epoch. 

EqiiiTOcane, to be mistaken; me 
he equivocadOf I made a mistake. 



Spanish-English Vocabulary. 



449 



— j^r. 
Srgnido, a, erect, with head set 

back. 
Ihrror, m., error, mistake* 

Ss — ser. 

^iscala, F., steps, ladder. 

Ssealera, f., staircase, ladder. 

Escampar, to stop raining. 

Escaparse, to get away, to escape. 

Esc&pe — d escape, quick; irse d e^ 
to be off. 

Escena, f., scene; stage. 

Escoces, a, Scotch, Scotsman (or 
woman). 

Escopeta, f., musket. 

Escribur, to write, § 561. 

Eaca&lido, a, squalid. 

Eacuela, f., school. 

Ese, esa, eso, that (where yon are, 
which you have, or which you 
say). 

Eslabon, m., link of a chain; flint. 

Eao, that (thing) ; eso es, that's it. 

Espacio, M., space, period; /or e. 
de, during, for. 

Espantar, to scare, to terrify. 

Espafiol, a, Spanish, a Spaniard. 

Especial, peculiar, extraordinary. 

Especialmente, especially. 

Espectdcolo, M., sight, view, display. 

Esperanza, f., hope, encourage- 
ment. 

Esperar, to expect; to wait, to wait 
for, to await. 

Espi5cha, f., pickaxe. 

Eati — es/ar, 

EaiSba — e^ar. 

Eatablocer, to establish, to con- 
struct (as a parallel), § 374. 

EstaeiSii, f., station, "depot,'' (Fr. 
^ar/). 



Estado, M., state, condition. 

Estar, to be (incidentally or tem- 
porarily) ; to be in, at home, §382. 

Est&toa, F., statue; effigy. 

Estatora, f., stature, height. 

Esbe, esta, esto, this. 

Esfc6ioo, stoic; stoical. 

Estorbar, to disturb, to be in one's 
way. 

Esioy — es^ar. 

Esiremefio. See ExiremeHo, 

Esir^pito, m., loud noise, crash; 
con e,, with a crash, noisily. 

Btemo, a, unceasing, eternal. 

Eoro (6-a-ro), m., Eurus. 

Eoropa, f., Europe. 

EiXacto, a, exact. 

Exagerar, to exaggerate; se ex* 
agera, they exaggerate, it is ex- 
aggerated. 

Excelente, excellent, first rate. 

Exhortar, to exhort. 

Eixpedito, a, cleared, put in running 
order (of trains). 

Experimentado, a, experienced. 

Extraiio, a, strange. 

ExtremeS.0, a, of Extremadira or 
Estremadura. 

Exoliar (seldom), for exuitarse^ 
to exult. 

P. 

Faeeioao, m., rebel (CarHst). 
Fagina, f., fascine (long fagot for 

military defense). 
Faltar, to lack, to be wanting; 

falia ei Hempo^ there is no time 

(Jtaroy to, for). 
Falda, f., marine launch, felucca. 
Familia, f., family. 
Famoao, a, famous^ notorious* 



450 



Spanish-English Vocabulary. 



Fftraa, p., farce. 

Fasiidiarte (faatidio, as, a), to 

be weary {de^ of). 
Fastidio, m., ennui, 
Fantdr, m., abettor. 
Fealdad, f., ugliness, plainness; 

monstruo di /, prodigiously ugly 

looking. 
FebrSro, m., February. 
Felix, happy. 

Feo, a, ugly, plain, ^homely." 
nria, p., fair. 
Feudo, M., fief. 
Figuirae, to fancy, to imagine, to 

picture to one's self. 
Fijamente, without faiL 
Fila, F., row. 
Fin, M., end; al fin^ at last, at 

length. 
Fingir, to pretend, to feign, § 375. 
Fino, a, polite, elegant. 
Flamenco, a, Fleming. 
Forma, f., form; en / de^ in the 

form of. 
Fortona, p., good fortune. 
Fragna, f., forge. 
Fragnar, to forge, § 372. 
Fragile —fraguar. 
Fraile, m., friac. 
Frances, a, French, Frenchman or 

woman. 
Franco, a, frank. 

Franqneza, p., frankness; con /., 
' frankfy, openly. 
Freneal, m., frenzy; eon /, wildly, 

passionately. 
Frente, p., forehead; / i, in front 

of, before. 
FrMCo, % fresh, cool; recent. 
Fuego, M., fire. 
Fnera — ser and iV. 



Fuera, outside; desde f^ from with- 
out; por f^ outside^ from the out- 
side. 

Fnero, m., privilege. 

Fnerte, strong, powerful; fuertei 
golpes, hard blows. 

Fnersa, F., strength; porf. or d la 
/., by force. 

Fuese — ser and ir. 

Fui — ser and i>. 

Fnncidn, f., office; fl., id. 

Fnnda, f., cover for furniture, etc 
(Fr. housse, eiui.') 

FtLria, F., fury; conf.^ furiously. 

Foridso, a, furious, in a fury. 

Furor, fury; con/., furiously. 

Fmdl, M., gun. 

G. 

GkMlitano, a, of Cadiz, 

Ghtlante, polite, courteous, pleasing 
to ladies. 

Galantea — galantear. 

Galaniear, to court ladies' sodety, 
to play the beau. 

GalantSe -^galantear. 

Galanteo — galantear, 

(Valeria, p., gallery. 

Ghtlgo, M., grey-hound. 

Gallego, a, Galidan. 

G(anga, f., bargain. 

Gastar, to spend; to waste; to 
wear (a garment). 

Gato, M., cat. 

Gavion, m., gabion (a cylindrical 
wicker basket, open at both ends, 
used, filled with earth, for de- 
fense). 

General, M., general. 

Gengibre, m., ginger. (Some spell 
jengibre,) 



Spanish-English Vocabulary. 



451 



Genio, m., disposition, genius. 
Genie, f., people ; pl., id. ; lasgentes 

del pais y the people of the local- 
ity; the country people. 
Gesto, M., gesture, movement. 
Giro, M., whirl, turn; draft. 
Giiano, m., gypsy. 
Gloria, f., glory, honor; dngel de Ui 

g.y an angel in paradise. 
Qolpe, M.,blow; dar ung., to strike ; 

fuertes g — f, hard blows (^«, 

on). 
G6tico, a, Gothic. 
Goso, M., joy. 

Ghradaa, f. pl., thanks, thank you. 
Ghran — grande, 
Granadfno, a, of Granada. 
Grande, great, large (before a noun 

sing.,^<i«). 
Gravemente, seriously. 
Greda, f., chalk. 
Ghrieta, f., crevice. 
Grito, M., cry, shout ; dar un g.^ to 

utter a cry. 
Grueao, a, thick, heavy, big. 
Gmlla, f., crane. 
Gnapo, a, pretty. 
Gnardarse, to put away, to put (in 

one's pocket). 
Gufirdia, f., guard; M., guard. 
Gnarida, f., den, lair. 
Gaedeja, f., lock of hair. 
Gnerra, f., war. 
Gnia, f., guide. 
Gtii6n, M:, hyphen. 
Guipnzooano, a, a Basque from 

Guipdzcoa. * 
Guisantea, m. pl., peas. 
€hiit&rra, f., guitar. 
Gala, F., gluttony. 
Giuiarle k tmo, to please any one, 



to like, p. 420; me gusta, I like; 
cuando V. guste, when yoa like. 
Goato, M., taste, pleasure. 

H. 

Haba, F., bean. 

Habeis — haber. 

Haber, to have (only as an aux- 
iliary), ^^k,i, 

Habia, there was, there were, } 354. 

Habia — haber, 

Hablad — hablar. 

Hablado, a, spoken, talked. 

Hablar, to speak, to talk (<l, to; 
cotiy with; de, of). 

Hace — ha€€r, 

Haoe, it is; ago; h, — que, it is — 
since ; h. un momentOy a moment 
ago; h.pocoy a short time ago, a 
while ago. 

Hacer, to make, to do, to cause, to 
be; hacer pedatos, to break in 
pieces ; h. easo, to take notice, to 
pay attention, § 530. 

BLaoerse, to be made, to become; 
to pretend to be, to dissemble; 
se hace la sorda^ pretends not to 
hear. 

H&cia, toward, in the direction of. 

Hago — hacer, 

Halagiieilo, a, flattering, chaiming. 

'ELaX^Sk^^haUar, 

Hallar, to find. 

Hallasgo, m., diSGovery. 

Han — haber, . 

Har& — hacer. 

Hasta, until, up to, to; desde — kasia 
or dy from — to. - 

Hay— ^tf^^r, §354. 

Haja —haber, % 354. 

Haz — hacer. 



452 



Spanish-English Vocabulary, 



F., bundle. 
He — kaber^ % 351. 
Hebreo, », Hebrew. 
HechOy a, made, done, caused, had 

— hacer, 
H«rU — iurir, 
Herido, a, wounded; ser ^., to be 

wounded. 
Herir, to wound, § 500. 
Horm&eo, a, beautiful, fine. 
H^roe, M., hero. 
Her6ioo, a, heroic. 
Hice — haeer, 
Hidalgo, M., gentleman. 
Hielo, M., ice. 
Hierro, m., iron; camino de h^ 

railway; PL., hitrrQt, fetters, 

handcuffs. 
Higo, M., fig. 

Higo-chmnbo, m., prickly-pear. 
H^a, F., daughter. 
Hijo, M., son, child; descendant. 
Hilo, M., thread, linen. 
Hiatoria, f., history, story. 
HiflO — kacer. 
Hollar, to trample, } 475. 
Hombre, m., man. 
Honra, f., honor. 
Hora, f., hour, o'clock. 
Horadido, a, pierced. 
Hom&iite, M., horizon. 
HoxTorizar, to terrify, §371. 
Horroroao, a, horrible. 
Hospitalidad, f., hospitality. 
Hoy, to-day ; at the present day. 
Habieae — haber, 
Hnbo — haber^ § 354, 
Huello — hollar, 
Hoida, f., flight 
Hair, to flee, § 522. 
Huireis— ^»i>. 



Hole, M., oil-clotk. 
Htf flsedo, a, damp, wet. 
Hmnilde, lowly, humble. 
Hmndr, M^spirits, humor; de malh.^ 

ill naturedly, in ill humor. 
Hnrto, M., thefL 
Huao, M., spindle. 



Idea, f., idea; qtu f ., what a bappy 

thought ! 
Ido, a, gone — ir or irse, 
Iglesia, F., church. 
Ignal, like, the same as, folL by d» 
Imbnido, a, permeated. 
Implacable, inexorable. 
Importar, to be important, to be of 

consequence; tm^r/a, it matters; 

no i,f never mind. 
Imposible, impossible, it cannot be. 
Impnidencia, f., indiscretion; es 

ufta f., it is imprudent. 
IncUnado, a, inclined, bent over. 
Inoonveniencia, f., improjMriety; 

es una 1., it is inexpedient. 
Increible, incredible. 
Indicar, to point out, to indicate^ 

_ S 37». 

Indio, a, Indian. 

Indiacreto, a, indiscreet, impru- 
dent. 

Indudable, undoubted, sure. 

Infame, infamous. 

Infanteria, f., infantry. 

Infeliz, unfortunate; poor man. 

Infierno, m., torture. 

Infinite, exceedingly. 

Influjo, M., influence. 

Ingeniero, m., engineer ; YL^ coipa 
of engineers. 

Ingenio, m., genius; talent, . 



Spanish-English Vocabulary. 



453 



Ingles, a, English, Englbhman or 

woman. 
Iniciio, a, heinous. 
Inmarcealble, unfading. 
Inmediato, a, next. 
Inmenso, a, boundless. 
Inmortal, immortal, undjring. 
Inqmeto, a, uneasy, anxious. 
Insomnio, m., sleeplessness; $Mches 

de i., sleepless nights. 
Insoportable, intolerable. 
Instante, instant, moment; a/ t., 

immediately, at once. 
InaUnto, m., instinct. 
Inteligencia, f., intelligence. 
Interesante, interesting, of interest. 
Imitil, useless. 
Invitacion, f., invitation. 
It, to go, § 552; i> d, to be going 

to (with infinitive) ; ir d buscar^ 

to go after, for. 
Irae, to go away, to go off, to be 

going; vdstf exit (in plays). 
Irlandes, a, Irish, Irishman or 

woman. 
Ir6]iico, a, sarcastic. 
Lrreguliar, irregular. 

J. 

Jaleo, M., outcry, uproar. 

JamiU^ never, ever. 

Jaiila, F., cage. 

Jerezano, a, of Jerez or Sherry. 

Josds, heavens 1 

J6ven, young man or woman, youth. 

Joan, John. 

Juego, M., play, game. 

Jnez, M., judge. 

Jucio, M., judgment. 

Jolio, M., July. 

Jonio, M., June. 



Junto, a, joined; together; pagar- 
las todas juntas, to pay off old 
scores, to make a final settlement. 

Junto A, near. 

Jura, F., oath taking ; act of admin- 
istering an oath. 

Juzgar, to judge, § 371. 

Juzgo — juzgar. 

L. 

Labrador, m., farmer. 

Lado, M., side; d su /., by him, by 

her. 
Lago, M., lake. 
Lance, m., occasion ; // /. no ha sido 

para minosy the o. demanded it. 
Largo, a, long. 
L^uitima, f., pity; qu^ /., what a 

pity! 
Lecci5n, f., lesson^ 
Leche, f., milk. 
Lee — Uer, 
Leer, to read, § 549, b, 
Legua, F., league. 
Leido, a, read — leer, 
Lejos, far, far off; muy /., a good 

way off. 
Leones, a, Leonese, of Leon. 
Leudo, a, leavened. 
Levantarse, to get up, to rise. 
Levita, f., frock-coat ; gente de /., 

middle and upper classes; gastar 

/., to be a gentleman. 
Ley, F., (fl., leyes'), law. 
Leyendo — leer, 
Libertad, f., liberty; tomarse la /., 

to take the liberty {de^ to). 
Librar, to deliver; to set at liberty. 
Libre, free, rid. 

Libro, M.,book; l.demolde, (print- 
ed) book ; /. de mono, manuscript. 



454 



Spanish-English Vocabulary. 



lioeo, M., Lyceum, 
liicito, %t allowed, Uwf uL 
LimpiOi % clean, neat. 
Linaa, f., line. 
liifljm*, F., flattery. 
Lociira, f., folly, piece of folly. 
Logrir, to succeed in. 
Longitad, f., length. 
Laego, then, next; presently. 
LogSr, M., place, stead. 

LL 

Tilftwia, F., flame. 

Tilam&r, to call; to knock (<l, at). 

Tilftmftr>e,to be called, to be named; 

j^//(7ma, is called; ^c6mo se llama 

V, f what is your name ? 
Llftnto, M., weeping ^planclus\. 
Llave, F., key. 
Lleg&do, a, arrived — lUgar, 
Llegir, to arrive, to come, § 371. 
Lleno, a, full, filled {de^ with). 
Llevar, to carry, to take. 
Llordso, a, tearful. 
Llover, to rain; volver d IL, to rain 

again, { 418. 
Llueve — Hover, 
Llavia, f., rain; grandes lluvias^ 

heavy rains, much rainy weather. 

M. 

Madrileiio, a, Madrilenian, of 

Madrid. 
Magnifioo, a, magnificent. 
Mairena, name of a town about 

sixteen miles from Seville, prop* 

crly, M. del Alcor, 
Maitines, m. fl., matins. 
Majuelo, m., vine-patch newly 

planted or set out. 
Malogueilo, a, of Malaga. 



Maldad, f., evil, wickedness. 
Male, a, bad, evil; poor; ill (before 

a sing, noun masc, mal), 
Manchego, tk,o{ Za Mancha. 
Mandadero, messenger,errand-boy. 
Mandar, to order; to cause, have 

(anything done). 



F., manner, way; de esia 

m., in thb way. 
Mano, F., hand; besar la mano d, 

to salute (a person). 
Mafiaiia,F.,moming ; M.,tO'morroir. 
Maragato, a, a man or woman of 

Astorga. 
Marcar, to mark, to indicate, f 571* 
Marohar, to walk, to go. 
Marcharse, to go away, to deport 

to go. 
Marchito, a, withered. 
Marea^ f., tide. 
Marque — marcar. 
Marques, m., marquis. 
Marquesa, f., marchioness. 
M&s, more, longer; no — /»., no 

longer ; no — mds que^ only, 

nothing but. 
Matar, to kill; to wear out 
Mairimonio, m., marriage; man 

and wife. 
Matritense, of Madrid. 
M&zime, especially. 
Mayo, M., May. 
Mediaddr, m., mediator. 
Medio, M., means; de qui m^ in 

what way? 
Medio, a, half. 
Major, better; seria m, qtie, it would 

be better if, you had better. 
M6no8, less; lo m^ the least thing; 

at least. 
Meroed, f., grace, £avor. 



Spanisli-English Vocabulary. 



455 



Merecer, to deserve, § 374. 

MeSy M.y month. 

Mesa, F., table, writing desk, desk 

(in schools). 
Meterse, to get (en, into). 
Metro, M., metre. 
Miedo, M., fear; ieher m., to be 

afraid (dV, to). 
Mientras, while. 
Mil, a thousand. 
Milagro, m., miracle, wonder. 
Militar, soldier, military (^cer. 
MUlon, M., million. 
Minato, m., minute. 
Mirada, f., look, glance. 
Mirar, to look, to see, to behold; 

m. d, to look at ; mire K, see, look. 
Mismo, a, same, self; lo m., the 

same (thing). 
Modales, m. pl., manners, style. 
Modelo, M., model, beau-ideal. 
Mode, M., way, manner; de m, quiy 

so that, so. 
Memento, m., moment; al m^ this 

instant, instantly; en estps m — ^, 

at present. 
Moneda, f., coin, piece of money, 

small change, change. 
Monstmo, m., monster; m. de feal- 

dad, prodigiously ugly. 
Montera, f., hunting-cap; name of 

a central street in Madrid, leading 

from the Puerta del Sol to those 

of Fuencarral (pop. FuncarraV) 

and Hortaleza. 
Morder, to bite, § 490. 
Morir, to die, § 509. 
Morirse, to die, to give up. 
More, M., Moor. 
Mortal, mortal. 
Mortificar, to provoke, § 371. 



Moiiii, M., riot, disturbance. 
Mozo, M., boy, waiter; buen m., fine 

looking. 
Machacko, a, Af . f., boy, girl. 
Macho, a, much, a good deal of; 

PL., many, a good many. 
Macho, adv., much, gi-eatly. 
Maerdo — morder, 
Maero — morir or morirse. 
Majer, f., woman, wife. 
Marciano, a, of Murcia« 
MormoUo, m., murmur. 
Masa, f., muse. 
May, very. 

N. 

Nada, nothing, not anything, no I 
Nadar, to swim. 
Nadie, no one, not anyone. 
Nado — d nado, swimming, by 

water. 
Naraiga, f., orange. 
Narigon, m., long-nosed. 
Nariz, f., nose. 
Narraeidn, f., story, recital. 
Navarro, a, Navarrese. 
Necesidad, f., need, necessity. 
Necesitar, to need, to be in need of 

(generally foil, by de^. 
Negarse, to decline, to refuse (foil. 

by d with pron. or infin.), § 371. 
Negro, a, black, dark. 
Neatro, m., neuter. 
Ni, neither, nor, not ; no — ni — ««', 

neither — nor^ not — either — or; 

not even, not so much as. 
Nieta, f., granddaughter. 
Nieto, M., grandson. 
Nlmio, a, excessive. 
Ningono, a, no, not any, not at all; 

no one, not anyone. 



456 



Spanish-EngUsh Vocabulary, 



KiilA, P^ child, girl. 

Nilto, M^ boy, chikL 

No, not, no. 

Koble, noble, high-bom. 

Koeha, r^ night; de n^\sf night, 
at night. 

Nombrir, to mention by name, to 
speak a name; sdlo con nom- 
brarie^ at the bare mention of his 
name. 

Nombre, M., name. 

Nototroa, fta, we (men), we (wom- 
en), us (after prep.). 

Kot&r, to observe. 

NoticiA, F., news, item, piece oC 
news; PL., news. 

KnbftTrtn, m., great cloud, black 
cloud. 

Nnevo, a, new. 

Kola, », null, void. 

Nnmerdso, a, numerous. 

Nimca, never (with neg. irerb if it 
follows- verb). 

N. 
Nndo, M., knot. 

O. 

Objeto, M., object; con o, de^ for 
the purpose of. 

Obligadon, f., duty, obligation ; no 
tcner o, de, not to be supposed to. 

Obligado, a, compelled, forced 
(4, to). 

Obra, F., work; cstar en o., to be 
in repairs, or repairing. 

Ocapar, to occupy, to hold. 

Ocuparse, to employ one's self 
(^/f, in, about). 

Oonrrenoia, f., occurrence, inci- 
dent, coincidence. 



Ocnrzir, to happen, to be the mat- 
ter; ^fuc ocurrtf what is the 
matter? 

Ocho, eight. 

Odioso, a, hateful. 

Odre, M., wine-skin. 

Ofrecer, to offer, § 374. 

Ofreaco — ofrecer. 

Old — oir^ 

Oido, a, heard; o. decir^ heard say 
— oir, 

Oido, M., hearing; ear. 

Oiga — oir, 

Oigo — oir. 

Oir, to hear, to listen, § 553. 

Olor, M., odor, smell. 

Olridar, to forget; refl. with de, 

Opaoo, a, opaque, dark. 

Optico, M., optician. 

6rd«ii, F., order (command); K., 
order (sequence). 

Orgallo, M., pride. 

Original, m., extraordinary, pecu- 
liar. 

Otro, a, other, another, other one. 

Oye — oir, 

Padeneia, f., patience. 

Pagar, to pay; pagarias^ to pay for 
it, to "catch" it; pagirias todas 
juntaSf to settle for old scores, 

§§ 37i» 753. 
Pais, M., country; district, region. 

Pala, F., shovel. 

Palabra, f., word (in discourse; a 

single word is vo9, F.). 
Palenqae, m., wrestling place, arena. 
Palmada, f., clap of the hands, 

applause. 
Panzfido, a, corpulent. 



Spanish-EngHsk Vocabulary. 



457 



PaSnelOy M., handkerchief; shawl 
(anything put over the head or 
shoulders). 
Papel, M., paper; newspaper; part, 
character (in a play); hacer un 
p., to act a part, to cut a figure. 
Papelito, M., Uttle paper; pop., 

paper segar. 
Para, for; to, in order to, so as to ; 
/. qt$e^ in order that, that, so that 
(siibj.). 
.Paz^goas, M., SING, and fl., um- 
brella. 

Paralela, f., parallel (a trench with 
a parapet constructed opposite 
the enemy's works). 

Parece,itappears, itseems— /ar^^^r. 

Parecer, to appear, to seem, § 374. 

Parezco — parecer. 

Parte, f., part; por mi /., on my 
. part, in me. 

Pasa, F., rabin. 

Pasado, a, passed, spent; past, late. 

Pasado^ M., past. 

Pasar, to pass, to spend, to expe- 
rience; to pass over; to pass any- 
thing (/tfr, through). 

Paaatiempo, m., pastime, passing 
amusement. 

Pasidn, F., passion. 

Paso, M., step; dar un /., to take a 
step. 

Pedazo, M., piece; hacer pedazos, 
to break in pieces. 

Pedir, to ask, to ask for, §§512, 753. 

Peine, m., comb. 

Peligro, M., danger. 

Penoso, a, painful, severe. 

Pensar, to think, to reflect, to ima- 
gine; to intend; /. en^ to think of, 

§457- 



Pefla, F., cliff, rock. Ptoper name, 

Fr. de la Roche, 
Peor, worse; lo peor, the worst. 
Perder, to lose; to ruin, § 470. 
Perdido, a, lost, ruined, undone. 
Perdonar, to forgive. 
Perfeciamente, perfectly. 
Perfecto, a, perfect, complete. . 
Periddico, m., newspaper. 
Permanecer, to remain, § 374. 
Permiao, m., permission; pedir d 

uno p. para, to ask leave to. 
Permitir, to allow, to permit {gtte 

with subj., to). 
Pero, but; why. 

Persona, f., person; appearance. 
Perteneoer, to belong, § 374, 
Pertenezco — pertenecer, 
Peacar, to fish, to £sh up, to catdi 

ra fish), § 371. 

Pesqu^ r-/«far. . 

Pida — pedir, 

Pide — pedir, 

Pido — pedir, 

Pi^ M., foot; dp,, on foot. 

Piensa — pensar, 

Pintdr, m., painter. 

Placer, m., pleasure. . 

Placer, to please ; place, it pleases, 

§545- 
Plaza, p., square, market; fortress^ 

Plazca — placer, 

Plnma, f., pen. 

Pobre, poor, sorry, wretched. 

Poco, a, small, little; PL., few; unp., 

a little, slightly. 

Podemos — poder, 

Poder, to be able, can, may, 

§532. 
Podldo, been able -r poder, 
Podrft., will ,be able, .can — poder* 



458 



^anisk'Englisk Vocabulary. 



Pmir, to put, to place, to lay; to 
put in ; /. la mano, to lay one's 
hand (en, on), { 533. 

Posfine, to become, to get; /. Hen 
con, to get on good terms with; 
/. btuno or malOf to be well or 
ill; /. €H camtHOf to start ofT, to 
set out, to go. 

PM|iiiio, veiy little, rather, some- 
what. 

For, by, for, throt^, along, over. 

Pormen9re8, m. tl., particulars^ 
details. 

P5iqae, because, for (consequence). 

Porqnft and Por qa4, why? 

POfllble, possible. 

Posta, P., post; irfor fa /., to gp 
by express. 

PtaeUcSne, to be constructed, 

§371- 
Precidso, a, predous, valuable; 

magnificent, superb. 
Pteciio — esp.<t it is necessary. 
Preferfr, to prefer, § 500. 
Preftero — preferir, 
Prender (pp. preso), to arrest, to 

seize, to take. 
Preparar, to prepare, to arrange; 

prepararlo todo^ to get everything 

in readiness. 
Presagio, M., prophecy. 
Presencia, f., presence. 
Presentar, to present. 
Preso, a, arrested, taken — pren' 

der; darse p.y to surrender. 
Prestar, to lend. 

Primero, a, first ; lop., the first thing. 
Prinapio, m., beginning; al /., at 

first. 
Prisa, F., haste; tener p.^ to be in a 

hurry {^or oit para, to). 



PriflionSro, m., prisoner. 
Proearar, to try, to seek (de, to). 
Ptofandidad, f., depth. 
Ptolongfir, to prolong, to leng&eti 

out, § 371. 
Pronto, quick, soon ; mdsp.^ quicker. 
Prdpio, a, self, own. 
Proporcionar, to bestow, to afford, 

to give. 
Pr6xiiiiamenie, approximately, 
Pr6zimo, a, near, next. 
Proyeeto, m., plan, purpose; temr 

eip, de, to purpose. 
Pmeba, p., proof, trial; essay. 
PdbHco, M., public. 
Podzir, to decay, $ 510. 
Pueblo^ M.» village; town; people. 
Pliede^ may, can, is able — pader, 
Pnedo, nop^ I cannot — poder. 
Pnerta, p., door, gate. 
PoSs^ then, well, why; /. Hen, welL 
Ptiesto, a — poner B.nd ponerse. 
Pnesto tj^B, smee. 
Panto, M., point; moment. 
PnrSsa, p., purity, virtiie. 



Que, who, which, whom; tfaa^ 
since; until; let (with subj.). 

Qa6, what? what! how! 

QuedSr, to remain, to be left; ^. d., 
to keep ; quedarse con., to keep. 

Qnema, f., bum, scorching. 

Qnerella, f., feud. 

Qaerer, to wish, to want, to like; 
wiU, § 534. 

Qnerido, a, dear. 

Qneso, m., cheese. ' 

Qoien, who; after a prep., whom, 

Qai6n, who? whom? 

Qoiere — querer. 



Sfttmsk-Eu^tish Vocabulaty. 



459 



Qiiieto, a, quiet, still. 
Qnlmica, f., chemistry.. 
Quinientos, as, five hundred. 
Qninta, f., summet^houM. 
<)iiise — qnerer. 
Quisiera — querer. 
Q«Ibo — quertr. 
Qaiz&s, or qniz&, perliaps (subj.). 

R. 

Rareza, f., eccentricity. 

Ba^, a, odd, curious, strtoge* 

Rasgo, M., dash, stroke. 

Rato, If., while. 

Raiito, M., little while, moment. 

Randal, m ., torrent, rapid. 

^taaa, f., race, stock. 

Razon, f., reason; iener r.« to be 

right. 
Real, M., a rial or royal (5 cts. in 
. Spain, and loots, in Cuba). 
Recibir, io recdve. 
Recoger, to gather up, to pick up, 

Recdja — recoger, 
Recordar, to remember, § 474. 
Recuerdo — r^cardar, 
Reoueido, m., recollection, memory, 

thought; su r., the thougkt of him. 
RecdrsQ, m., resource, recourse, 

convenience. 
Bed, F., net. 

Refugiirae, to take refuge (^i», in). 
Rigir, to rule, § 5I5. 
Registro, m^ record. 
Regular, usual. 
Rel — reir, . 
Reinado, m., reign. 
Reino, m., kingdon. 






it«r and rw«e, to latigh {Se^ at), 

§520. 
R0I6J (mofe often now, relf)^ if., 

watch, clock. 
Beinedio, m., remedy; ne hay mdf 

r, que, the only way is to, 
Beiic^ia, ¥^ opening, rent, crevictt; 
Rendurse, to surrender, § 513. 
Remmcilgr, to give up, to abasdoii 

(foil, by d). 
Reiiir, to quarrel, to fight, § SiS. 
Reparacion, f.^ amends, satisfac* 

tion. 
Repr^sd&t&r, to appear to b< of 

(such an age). 
Resignacion, f., patience. 
Resignarse, to be resigned. 
RfiiipeiMr, to respect. 
Besio, M., the remainder; PL., r^^ 

mains. 
Retener, to hold, to keep, § 536. 
Reiilrarse, to withdraw, to disappear. 
Retraso, m., backwardness; llegar 

con r, (of a train), to be behind, 

to be late. 
Beonir, to gather. 
Revolver, to turn upside down,: to 

ransack, §491. 
Bevuelto, a — revolver, 
Rej, M., king. 
RicaclioA, very rich. 
Rico, a, rich. 
Rie — reir or reirse, 
Rige — regir. 
Rincon, m., corner. 
Riaooncito, m., little comer, node. 
Rindo, me — rendirse, 
Rifia, f., quarrel, fight. 
Rio— r^r or reirse, 
Rio, M., river. 
Robo, M., rdfebtey, theft. 



J 



46o 



Spanish-English Vocabulary. 



fiodilla, F., knee ; der-^SyOn one's 
knees. 

Bog&T) to request, to beg, to be- 
seech, § 483. 

Bom6aitico, a, romantic, fall of 
romance. 

BompSr, to break; refl., to be broken. 

Bota, F., rout, defeat. 

Boio, a — romper^ § 571. 

Raeda, f., wheel, 

Ruego— r<5f<ir. 

Riiego, M., request 

Ruido, M., noise, tumult. 

Rokteso, %t boisterouSy noisf • 



S. 

Sabe, knows ; j^ j., is known— *J0#^/'. 
Saber, to know, to know how, to 

learn ; to be able, can, § 535. 
Sabr&8 — sdbef, 
Saeftr, to take out; to take down, 

S371. 
Sacudid, shake ye — sacudir, 

Saca<Ur, to shake. 

Salir, to go out, to come out, to go 
away, to go, to start to leave ; to 
get out of, to escape from (with 
de) ; to set out from, to leave, to 
start (foil, by de, from), § 554. 

Salvarse, to save one's self, to be 
saved. 

Santignarse, to make the sign of 
the cross, § 372. 

Santiguo — santiguars^, 

Santo, a, holy; cielo s., heavens! 

Santo, a, M. and F., saint. 

Saiiado, a, full of wrath. 

Satasfaccidn, f., satisfaction, atone^ 
ment, amends. 

Satidfacer/tO'itaXisfy, } 53t; * -: 



Satiflfecho, a, satisfied, co atnited , 
pleased — satisfacer, 

S6 — saber. 

Sea— j^r. 

Segoia -^siguir. 

Segnida — en s., -at once, imme- 
diately. 

Segnir, to follow, to take (advice) ; 
to go on, § 516. 

Segon, according to, according as, 
as. 

Segoro, a, sure; de s — o, sorely, 
certainly.. 

Semcgftasa, f., likeness, similarity. 

Semi-doble, half-double. 

Sencillo, a, simple, plain, single. 

Sehtane, to sit down, § 459. 

Sentir, to perceive by the senses, to 
feel, to hear (as steps) ; to regret, 
to be sorry, § 499. 

Sella, F., sign, address; standard. 

SeflSr, M., sir, gentleinan, Mr. 

Seiiora, f., madam, Mrs., the lady, 
mistress (of the house). 

Sepan — saber, 

Ser, to be (absolutely, of. what is 
permanent, inherent), § 385. 

S6r,- M., being; soul, individual. 

Servicio, M.,r service. 

Servir, to serve; x. en^ to be of (a 
branch of public service), § 513. 

Sevilla». f., Seville (pron. sh^4l^ 
and not se-vill, because from 
Hispalis, and Arab. Isbilia^ so 
thatz^V/f is not separate from the 
stem) ; tren. de S,, Seville train. 

Sevillano, a, of Seville. 

Sexo, M., sex. 

Si, if, whether; why. 

Si, yes. 

Sido, been — j«r.* ■ • - . . 



Spdnish-^EngUsh Vocabulary. 



461 



Siempre, always, ever; para s^ for 
ever; //^f j., eternal; continuing to 

,- (verb); 

Sien, F., temple, forehead ; ias 
stents, the temples. 

Sienta — sen/arse and senHr, 

Si6ntese V., sit down — sentarsi, 

Sienten — sentir and sentarse, 

Sienio — sentir and seniatse, 

Significar, to signify, to mean, §371. 

SigniJEicativo, a, significant. 

^igam ^r- seguir. 

Sigpien — seguir. 

Sin, without; j<m^i^, without (that). 

Sine, but; no — sino, only. 

Siquiera, even; ni s^ not even. 

Sirgo, M., twisted silk. 

Sirvi6 — servir, 

Siiiado, a, besieged. 

Sitiador, besieger. 

Sobre, on, upon, above, over; sJodo, 
above all. 

Sobrino, M., nephew. 

Socorro, m., help. 

Sol, M., sun. 

Soldado, M., soldier. 

Soledad, f., solitude, lonely situa- 
tion... 

Solo, a, single, alone, only. 

S6I0, adv., only. 

Sombrerero, M., hatter. 

Sombrero, m., hat. 

Sombrio, a, gloomy^ morose. 

SomoB r—ser. 

Son — ser. 

Sonrisa, f., smile. 

Soplar, to blow. 

Sordo, a, deaf; hacerse la sorda^ 
to pretend not to hear. 

Sorlija, f., (jewelled) ring. 

Soapechar, to suspect. 



Soy — j^r. 

Su, his, her, its, one's, your, their. 

Subir, to go up, to come up; to go 

up stairs, up the steps; to come 

up stairs, up the steps. 
Suceder, to happen. 
Sneedido, a, happened. 
Snelo, M., ground,, floor; tU s,, on 

the floor, down. 
Snejio, M., dream. 
Sofirir, to endure. 
Snpiese — saier, 

Suplicar, to beg, to request, § 371. 
Sosto,. Si., fright, scare. 
Snyo, a, his, hers, its, yours. 

T. 

Tahnr, m., gambler. 

Tal, such, such a. 

Tambien, also, too; likewise. 

Tampoco, and — not, nor. 

Tan, as, so. 

Tanto, a, as much r-^many, so much 
— many; par /., therefore, con- 
sequently. 

Tapicero, m., upholsterer. 

Tarde, f., afternoon. ' 

Tarda, adv., late. 

Tasajo, m., flitch of bacon. 

Taza, f., cup (coffee or tea). 

Tejuelo, m., lettering on the back 
of a book. 

Tela, Fm cloth (cotton or linen), 
material, covering. 

Tema, m., theme, subject, talk; old 
story; exercise. 

Temblar, to tremble, § 463. 

Tembloroso, a, tremulously. 

Temer^to fear, to be afraid. 

Temerario, a, rash, fool-hardy. 

Tempestad, p., storm, violent storm. 



46a 



Spanish-English Vocabulary. 



TendSr, to stretch, to spread (as a 

a«t). §471. 
Vindri — tener, 

Tener, to hare; to take; /. pu^ to 

have to, § 536, 
Tenga — tentr, 
Vtnldo— /n»/r. 
Teniente, m., lieutenattt. 
Tentir, to try; to tempt, § 459. 
Teaido, a, dyed ~/r4lf>, $ 518. 
Terrene, m., ground. 
Tarrible, terrible. 
Tertolia, f., party, compaay. 
Tia, F., amt. 
Tiempo, m., time; weather; mds /., 

longer. 
Tienda, f., shop,^store " ; in la /. 4fif, 

at — *s; d la /. tUy to — *s. 
Tienea —*^iR/r. 
Tientan -^ tentar, 
Tierra, f., earth, land, soil. 
tiSan^^haiirU d uno /., to make 

one tingle. 
Timbre, m., stamp ; hand-beU. 
Tinta, p., ink. 
Tio, M., uncle. 
Tira, f., strip. 
Tirar, to pull (^, at). 
Todavla, yet, still; t un, una, 

another. 
Todo, a, all, the whole; M., every- 
thing; ioda lo fue, all that. 
Toledfino, a, of Toledo. 
TomSr, to take, to take np (as a 

book) ; /.poTf to take anyone for. 
Tomarae {la Hhertad de)^ to take 

(the liberty to). 
Tonteria, f., folly, nonsense. 
Toreo, m., bull-fighting. 
Tormenta, f., tempest. 



Toro, M., bull. 

Torre, p., tower. 

Torrente, m., torrent; d t9mmies, 

in torrents. 
Tortnoso, a, winding. 
Trabajador, m., laborer. 
Trabajar, to work. 
Trabi^o, m., work; pl., operations; 

/ — s de Mapa, underminiiig oper^ 

ations. 
Trie— ./r«#r. 
Traer, to bring, to carry; tecentaia 

(of a newspaper), { 537. 
Tragedia, f., tragedy. 
Traido-^/Ttf^r. 
Trfiigo<^iini<r. 
Trajeaen — trtur, 
Trigo — iraer, 

Tranqnilo, a, quiet, calm; at ease. 
Tranaitar, to go, to make one's way. 
TraUr, to try (d>, to). 
Travea — d L de, through, across. 
Trazado, a, traced, carried {sobre^ 

along) — trazar. 
Trazar, to trace, {371. 
Treinia, thirty. 
Tren, m., train. 
Trinchera, f., intrenchment 
Triate, sad. 
Trian£ur, to triumph, to get the 

better {de, over, of). 
Tropelfa, f., outrage. 
Tmeno, m., a clap of thunder, 

thunder; PL., peals of thnnder, 

thunder. 
Trujo — traer. 
Tubo, M., lamp chimney. 
Tndenae, of Tuy (learned). 
Tad68, a, of Tuy (popular). 
Tunante, m., rascal. 
Tuviera — tener ^ 



^fanish-Et^glis/t Vocabulaty. 



463 



Tuyoi % thine. 

U. 

liltimo, a, last, Bi\ftl. 

'd'nico, a, only; lo ti., the only 

(thing). 
XJnido, a, united, connected {jntr^ 

sU together, to each other). 
Usir, to join, to unite. 
XJniversa}, universal. 
XJnos, as, some (usually omitted in 

Eng.), a few. 
TJio, M., use. 
XJsied, your worship, you. 

V. 

Va — ir and irss^ 

y acia — vafiar, 

Vaciir, to empty. 

Yaiven, M., vibration, oscillation; 

undulation. [ K^v ^ vex, go and 

come.] 
Yalenciftiio, a, Valencian. 
Yalido, M., confidential minister^ 

king*s favorite. 
Val5r, M., courage. 
Yalle, M., valley. 
YalliBoletano, a, of Valladolid. 
Yamos, let us go, let us come; 

come! come now! vamos d, let 

us — , From ir. 
Yan — iV or iVj/. 

Yara, f., cane, stick; yard (meas.). 
Yariar, to change, to vary, to alter; 

V. de parecer, to change one's 

opinion. 
Yaiio — variar, 
Yaron, m., man; male. 
YasGnence, Basque language. 
Y&ae, exit — irse, , 



Yate, M., bard, poet. 

Yaya ->— ir, indeed ! of course I 

vaya si — of course I do, I will I 
Y6 — ir; v6te — irst. 
Ye — v£r. 

Yeces, f. fl., times ; dos v., twice. 
Yed— z^^r. 
Yeinte, twenty. 
Yelludo, a, hairy, shaggy. 
Yendri — venir, 
Yenga — venir; diU que v., tell 

him to come. 
Yengarse, to avenge one*s self {de^ 

of, on), § 371. 
Yenir, to come, § 541. 
Yentana, f., window; los cristales 

de la v., window panes. 
Yeo — ver. 
Yer, to see ; vamos d v., let us see, 

§548. 
Yerse, to be (substitute oi esiar), 

Yerano, m., summer. 

Yeras — de v., truly I indeed ! 

Yerd&d, f., truth; en v., truly; en 

V, que, truly I — . 
Yerdaderoy a, true^ genoine, down* 

right. 
Y6te — irse. 
Yez, F., a time ; oira v., again, once 

more; de una v., at once, once 

for all. 
Yia, F., track (of a railway). 
Yiaje, m., journey; travelling. 
Yiajero, m., traveller, passenger. 
Yicio, M., vice; bad habit. 
Yictoria, f., victory ; hurrah ! 
Yida, F., life. 
Yidriero, m., glazier. 
Yiejo, a, old. 
Yiene — venir. 
Yiento, m., wind. 



464 



SpanishrEnglish Vocabulary. 



YiilAy F., vineyard. 

YiolSnei*, F^ force, vic^ence. 

YiolSnio, a, forcible, violent. 

Yiriad, f., virtue. 

yirt&5ao, a, virtuous. 

Yiata, f., visit, call. 

Yiflitir, to visit, to pay a visit to. 

Yisto, a, seen — ver, 

Yindo, M., widower. 

Yiv© — vivir, 

YiTian — vivir. 

Yivieate, living. 

Yivir, to live. 

Yiseaino, a, Basque (of Biscay). 

Yolante, flying; %apa v., defence 

made of baskets filled with earth 

and placed close together. 
Yolver, to return, to come back, 
^ §491. 
Yolver i, again (as v, d hacer, to 

do again). 
Yoto, M., vow. 
Yoy — ir or irse, 
Yoa, F., voice, tone of voice; a 

word. 
Yiielo,M.,flight(ofabird); soaring. 



Yaelta, f., turn, return; v. al tetna, 

back to the old subject again. 
Vuelva — volver, 
Vuelve — volver: 
Vuelvo — volver, 

Y. 

Y, and (before initial f or >li, 6}. 
Ya, now, already; ya no — ntds^ 

not — any more, no more^ no 

longer ; yes ! of course 1 
Ya que, conj., since. 
Yedra, f., ivy. 
Yema, f., yolk. 
Yeso, M., -fime, mortar, 
Yngo, M., yoke. 

Z. 

Zanja, f., trench, ditch. 
Zapa, F., sap, trench, undermining^. 
Zapad5r, m., sapper. 
Zarag02&no, a, of Saragossa. 
Zig-zag, PL., zig-zags, m., zig-zag. 
Zipizape, m., scrape; scufile. 
ZoKobra, F., anxiety. 
Znmbar, to buzz, to hum. 



ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY. 



'-•o>9{e«- 



Able (Jo be)f poder — pnedo, es, c. 

About (^cofuernifig)t acerca de; 

. {nearly) f cosa de; poco mas 6 

m^nos. 
Absolately, absolutamente. 
Academy, Academia, F. 
Accoinmodation-trttiii, el tren 
-. mixto (composed of ist, 2d, and 

3d class carriages) ; tren-omnibus 

(from French). 
Account {narration) , relacion, F. ; 

to give an a. of J hacer la r, de ; 

on a. of, i. causa de. 
Accostomed {to be), soler (with 

infin.) ; estar acostumbrado 4. 
Acknowledge {to), confesar. 
Acquaintance, conocido,a, M.and f. 
Across, a traves de; por; running 

a, the page, i, renglpn seguido. 
Act {to), representar. 
Action^ accion, F.; acto, M. 
Active, activo, a. 
Add' (/!?), contribuir; does not a,, 

no contribuye. 
Adorn {to), adornar. 
Advice^ consejo, M. (usually PL., los 

consejos) ; fy tke a., de consejo; 

{in government) de acuerdo. 
Afljeniooiii, tarde, f. ; tAis a., esta t. ; 

in the a., por la t. 
Again» otra yez; volver a (vdth an 

infin.) ; ^ as, ^ goes oui a., vuelve 

k salir, p. 422. 



Against, contra. 

Agnes, Ines, f. 

Agreeable, agradable. 

Aid, auxilio, M. ; to eome to one's a., 

' venir or acudir en sn auxilio. 

Air, aire, M.; cielo, M.; {that which 

we breathe) el &ire or la atm^fera. 
Alight {to), posar {of birds). 
Alike, igual; PL., iguales. 
All, vA]., todo, a; PL., todos, as; 

{everything) todo. 
Alliance, alianza, F. 
Allow {to), permitir. 
Almost, casi. 
Alms,, limosna, F. 
Already, ya. 
Also, tambien. 
Always, siempre. 
America, America, f. 
American, Americano (if Span.); 

Anglo-Americano (if from the 

U.S.). 
American, adj., americano, a.. 
Amiable, amable* 
Among, entre {rest), por entre 

{motion). 
Amusing, divertido, a; entrete- 

nido, a. 
Ancient, antigao, a. 
And, y ; (before i or hi) 6. 
Andalusia, Andalucfa, F. 
Andalusian, andaluz, a. 
Anger, c61era, f., ira, F. [no. 

Anglo- American, Angio-ameriei* 



466 



English-Spanish Vocabulary, 



Anfiy, incomodSdo, a, {maderatt); 
enfadido, a. 

Another, .otro, a; a, titrUp otra vez. 

Amwer (A^), responder; eontestar 
i (mk<m questioned). 

Any {you please), cualquiera ; in 
a, lat^uage, en caalquier idioma, 
p. 437 ; (otherwise^ etny b wttally 
left untranslated) ; a, mor§^ jra^- 
no; 9At I datCl like Ae eowUry m„ 
mort^ ya no me guita el campo. 

An7body(withneg.)»nAdie; (with- 
out ncg.) ilguien* 

ApniJMMit {oferkome)^ euarto, M. ; 
(pfajloor) habitadon, F.; {ofei 
palace) aalon, M. 

Appenr (Jo), in the lenae of i» pn* 
sent one's self, apareoer. 

Appeiur {to), meanini; to seem, par* 
ecer; it appears, perece. 

Approve {to), aprobar. 

April, abril, M.; April ajA^ i 
veinte y cinco de A. 

Arab, irabe, m. and F. 

Anugues, [aram 7e>yis\, a rayal 
seat, about two lioun by rail icam 
-*' MadricI, 
J Are, son; estiiu 

Are {there), hay. 

Army, ej^rcito» M. 

Arrest {to), prendec 

Arreeted, preso, a. 

Arrival, Ilegada, F. 

Arrive {to), Uegir. 

Artist, artista, M. 

As (^^r^ri/f M(f ai),8cgnn,conformeiL 

As, conj^ como; adv^ tan; as-^as, 
tan — como. 

As-far-as, baata. 

As-many— » as, tantoe, at— > como. 

AJhmnoh — as, tanto, a — coma 



{to), as a question, pregontar; 

as a request, pedir, p. 420; to ask 

for a tlting, pedir a]^[uaa cosa. 
JLt^ en, a. 

Atmoephere, atm6sfera,F.; aire, M. 
Attaehmenty amor, m., carifio, m. 
Attempt^ atentado, M. 
Attend {to), asisfir, foil, by a. 
Atiendaaee, aatateiicia, f. 
Attended, concurrid(Ha; veryvieU 

«.» rnny concwrrido» a, «r concu- 

rridlsimo, a. 
Attendn {h»\ wiafte i. 
Anntk tia, F. 
Aathor, auloc* if . 
Avenge •m^s stlf {io\ vengirse 

(^de). 

B. 

Bad, malo, a (mal). 

Badly, maL 

Baloony* bak»n, u. 

Ball, peldta» f.; {Toeapam) hthk, v^ 

{shot) balixoyif . ; tmrnrndid^y^ii^ 

bcndo de un baliso. 
Banker, banquero, m. 
Basque, subst, Viscnno, a. 
Basque, adj., vascongido^ a> 
Bath, bafio, M. 
Bathing .season, temporada de 

bafios (la). 
Battalion, batallon, M. 
Be {to), ser {absolute) ; cstir (aeei-^ 

dental) ; {0/ weather) hacer, p. 

429. 
Beaatifol, hermoBo, a; bello> a. 
Because, porque. 

Beooana ( 4pXhacers^ poa«rae,p^3i. 
Be e t carae de vaci^ or simpfy 
I came, F. 



English-Spanish VecabuUtty^ 



467 



tido; estado; {pf wtaUur) 

hecho; b, able, podido. 
Bfifojrt (Jimi) intes; {presence) 

ante. 
Beg (Jo)y meaning to reguest^tQgix'f 

meaning to soiicU alm$y p^ir. 
Beggar, mendigo (seldom iiaod); 

pobre. 
Begin {to), empezar {io^ a); echar 

a; eckarse i; ponene a. 
Behavior, conducta, F., compor- 

tamiento, M. 
Believe {to), creer.. 
Belong {to\ pertcaecer {to^ &); 

ser {to, de). 
Bencby baoco, M. 
Benevolent, caritativo^ a. 
Bernard, Bernardo. 
Besidei, ademas. 
Beat, el (la, lo). mejor. 
Better, mejor; pl., meiores. 
Beyond, . mw alia de {farther) ; 

{outside or besides) fuera de. 
Bilbao* Bilbioy a large town on Ihe 

Bay of Biscay. 
Bird, ave, t.; pajaro, M. (p. is less 

used in poetry or in the higher 

style of prose). 
Blamei, censura, F. 
Blindly, ciegamente. 
Block, trozo, m., trocito^ li. 
itor^ golpe, M. 
Bine, azul. , 
Boldly, resueltamente {bravely) \ 

desvergonzadamente(i4«/iM>iif//)/). 
Book, libro, m. 
Boston, B6ston. 
Both, ambos, as ; los (las) dos. 
Box, caja, f. 
Boy» iDiichacho, u. 
Bracelet, pulsera, F. 



Branch, ramo, Ki^, ramal, M. 
Break {to)t romper ; to b, infieees^ 

hacer pedazos, or afiicos. 
Break oat {to), estallar. 
Bright, vivo, a ; claro, a. 
Brilliant, brillante. 
Bring {to), traer; brings, trae; he 

broHght, trajo. 
Broad, ancho, a. 
Brother, hermano, m. 
Building, edif icio, m. 
Bnsy, ocupado, a, (a/, en). 
Buay one's self {to), ocupaise {wHk 

or at, en). 
Bat, pero, mas ; (after neg. 9ent.)« 

sine. 
Buy (/o), comprar. 

0. 

Cadix, Cadiz ; of or pertaining to 

Cadiz, gaditano, a. 
Cadis {of), Gaditano, a« 
Call, vislta, F. 

Call {io)^ llamar; called, liamado»a. 
Call one's self {to), llamarse. 
Called {to be), Uamarse; is e, or 

named, se llama; are c, {they), se 

Hainan. 
Calmly, con cakna; tranquilo, a, 

(adj. for adv.). 
Campaign, campafia, r* 
Can, poder; / e,, puedo; /cannot, 

no puedo; h^ c, puede ; he cannot, 

no puede; you c, V. puede, or V. 

podra (if the idea is future). 
Cap, gorra, F. 
Capable, capaz. 
Capacity, capacidad, f. 
Capital, capital, f.; {of Spain) 

corte, F. 
Captain, capitin, M. 



468 



English-Spanish Vocabulary^ 



Capime, touM, f. 

Gar {railway) t coche, M. ; the tars, 

el tren, sing. 
Care, cuidido, M. 
Care {to), meaning inelination, 

querer (quiero, quieres, etc,) ; not 

to €., no querer. 
Careleaely, descuidadainente ; con 

ligereza. 
Carlist, Carlista, M. and F. 
Carriage, cocbe, m. 
Carry {to), llevir. 
Carry off (A?), Uevir; Iler^ne; 

llevir fuera. 
Carthagena, Cartagena, f. 
Castile, Castaia, F.; New C, Cas- 

tiUa la Nueva; Otd C^ Castilla la 

Vicja. 
Castilian, Castellano, a, M. and f. ; 
' adj., castellano, a. 
Cat» gato, M.; gata, F. 
CataloniaB, Catalan, a; Catalan, a. 
Catoh {to) , coger (cojo, coges,^/r.) ; 

capturw. 
Cavalier, caballero, m. 
Cease {to), dejar {/o, de). 
Ceiling, techo, m. 
Celebrated, c^lebre, famoso, a. 
pent, centavo, M. (Span. Am.). 
Centre, centre, m. 
Century, siglo, m. 
Certain — a <*., cierto, a {without 

un, una) ; in a c. class, en cierta 
. clase; superL certisimo, a, and 

ciertiumo, a. 
Chair, silla, f. 
Change {to), variar de {direction, 

opinion); mudar de {residence, 
.clothes, etc). 
Chapter, cap{tulo, M. 
Character, caracter, m . 



Characteristics of {the), elcaricter 

de. 
Charge {care, office), encargo^ M. 
Charitable, caritativo, a. 
Charles, C&rlos. 
Cheerftdly, alegremente. 
Cherish {to), abrigar. 
Chieftain, cabeciUa {of Carlist 

hancb), M. 
Child {young), nillo ; {of any age), 

hijo, M. 
Children {young)^ nifloa; {of any 

age), hijos, M. 
Chilian (^CAiVi), Chileno, a, M. 

and F. ; chileno, a. 
Christianity, cristianisnio, M. 
Chnrch, igleMa, f. 
Circumstance, circunstaiicia, f., 

caso, M. ; under the c — j, bajo 

las circunstancias. 
Citizen {civilly), vecino, M.; {po* 

litically), ciadadano, M. 
City, ciudad, f. {common name); 

poblacion, F. {rvith reference to its 

inhabitants); villa, F. {officially 

and administratively'}. 
Class, clase, f. ; in a certain c, en 

cierta c. 
Clear, claro, a ; despejado, a. 
Clear up {to), aclarar. 
Clever, hibil. 
Close, fin, M.; at the e, of, a fines 

de, a dltimos de {in deUes), 
Clothes, ropa, F. (coll.). 
Cloud, nube, f. 
Coast, costa, f. 
Cobbler, zapatero de viejo, M. 
Coetaneons, coetaneo, a. 
Coin, moneda, F. 
Cold, frio, M. ; to ie c, hacer f. ; 

to be very c, hacer mucho f. 



Ettglish-Spanish Vocabulary. 



4^ 



Oolleotioii, coleccion, F. 
Color, color, m. 
Column, columna, F. 
Combataai, combatiente, m. 
Come (/<?), venir (vengo, vienes, 

etc^ ; he came^ vino. 
Come back (Jo), volver (vuelvo, 

vuelves, etc,). 
Come down (Jo), bajir. 
Gome forwaxd (Jo), adelantirse; 

presentarse. 
Come firom (to), yenir de; safir de. 
Come in (Joy, entrar.; pasar. 
Come near (to), acercarse. 
Come oat(/^),salir(salgo, sales, ^r.). 
Come np (to), subir. 
Comfortable, c6modo, a. 
Command, mando, m. (authority 

over). 
Commandment, mandamiento, M. 

(divine) ; mandato, M. (human). 
Commeree, comercio, M. 
Common, comun ; ordinario, a. 
Commonwealth, repdblica, F. 
Companion, compaliero, a, M.and F. 
Concluded, concluido, a. 
Condition, condicion, F. 
Conduct^ conducta, F., comporta- 

miento, M. 
Confidence, confianza, F. 
Congenial, simpatico, a. 
Connect (to), unir (with, i)\ en- 

lazar (with, con). 
Conscience, conciencia, F. 
Conscript, quinto, m. 
Consent, consentimiento, m. ; rvith 

the e, of, con c. de. 
Consider {tor), ^considerar (con- 

sidirOy as, a); meditar. 



Considerable, bastante. 

Consist (to), consistir (^ en); con* 
star (of, de). 

Constantinople, Constahtinopla, F. 

Constitutional, constitucional. 

Construct (to), constriur. 

Contented, contento, a; satis- 
fecho, a. 

Contrary, contrario, a ; opuesto, a. 

Contribute (/&)> contribuir (con- 
tribuyo, yes, ye) ; have contributed 
(they), ban contribuido. 

Convenient, c6modo» a, (comfort- 
able); conveniente (expedient). 

Conversation, conversacion, F. 

Cool, fresco, a. 

Cost (to), costar (cuesto, as). 

Costume, traje, M. 

Couched, ooncebido, a. 

Counsel, consejo, M. 

Count, conde, M. 

Countess, condesa, F. 

Country, pais^M. (^general) \ campo, 
M. (not city, rus) ; patria, F. (na- 
tive country or province)*, cam- 
pifia, F. (^environs, campagna). 

Couple, par, M. 

Courage, valor, M. 

Coarse, rumbo, M.; of c.,%\ji dnda; 
natur^meute. 

Courteous, cortes, fino, a. 

Cousin, primo, a, m. and F. 

Cross, cruz, PL., cruces, F. 

Cry (to), Uorar (Jo weep) ; gritar 
(to exclaim), 

Cuban, Cubano, a, m. and f. ; cu- 
bano, a; de Cuba. 

Cnrious, raro, a ; extrafio, a. 

Custom, costumbre, f. 



470 



Ef^lisk-Spamisk Vecabuiary, 



P. 

Dark, otcuro, a. 

Xhjp du, M.; t9ery d^ todM \o% 

di«ft. 

Deceive {Ui)^ eaga&ar. 

DeeunoQ, decuion, F. 

Declaration, declaracion^ F.» con- 
feuoQ, F. 

Deepk profondoi a. 

DefSMi^ defccto^ M.; faUa, F. 

Definite, definitivo^ a. 

Denand. exieiacia*^. 

Deny (Jo) 9 ncgar, rehusar. 

Deserve (A>), merecer (mertKo, 
mereces, ce). 

Deaign^proyectOpM.; prop^tOiM. 

Develop (/(?), dcsarrollar^ U 6e 
d — </, doMrroUirsc \ may bg 
d — d more, se hayaa desanoUa- 
do mis. 

Devout, piadoso, a ; pio, a. 

DiffMrent, disUnto, a ; difercate. 

Difficult. diCdl. 

DUigenoe, aplicacion, f. 

Diligent aplicado, a. 

Dine (Jo), comer. 

Dinner, comida, f. 

Direct (/«), dirigir (dirijo, dirige3y 
-ge) ; h< directed^ dirigi6. 

Diacem (Jo), disceruic (disci€rno» 
-nes, -ne). 

Discharge (Z^), desempe&ar; cum- 
plk con (as an obligation). 

Distinguish (io), distinguir (dis- 
tingo, guesjgue). 

Distinguished, distingoido, a, (be- 
fore the noun). 

Disturb (to), alborotar (of tur- 
moil)*, estorbar (of inconve- 
nienci). 



Do (to), hacer (bago, haccs); tf 

doing, de hacer. 
Doctor, doctor, m. ; medico, if. ; 

facultativo, M. 
DoewBienik documento, m. 
Dog, perro, M. 
Dollar, peso^M. (Spain luid An^eff.) ; 

duro, M. (Spain). 
Door, puerta, f. 
Doien, docina, F. 
Draft, borrador, M. 
Draaatic, dnunitico, a. 
Draughtsman, pcntp, M,; dibuja- 

dor, M. 
Draw (to)^ Urar (pull). 
Draw up (A?), extender (4 d^u^ 

ment) ; redactar^hacer (of^laus) ; 

drawn up^ puesto en dxdea (^ 

soldiers). 
Drawing-room, sala, f. 
DreaSy vestido, M. \ traje, M, 
Drive, paseo, u. 
Dry, secoy a. 
Drum, tambor, if. 
Doll, trlste ; fiastidioso, a* 
Dulled, entorpecido, a; insensible 

(of conscience) . 
During, durante. 
Duty, deber, m. ; obligacion, F. 

H 
Sagle, iguila, f. 
Earl, conde, M. 
Early, temprano ; adj., ant^guoi a, 

(ancient). 
Eastern, orientaL 
Easy, facil. 
Easy-chair, siUon, M. 
Eat (to), comer. 
Educated, educado, a; the edu- 

catedfYi.., la gente ilustrada (coll.) . 



English-Spanish Vtcabulaty. 



47 1 



Emperor, emperaddr, m. 
Employ, empleaf; anj^toyedy em* 

pieido, a. 
End, fin, m. ; at the end, al fin. 
Enemy, enemigo, m. 
Eng^der (Jo), engendrar. 
Engine, maquina, F. ; locomotora ; 

(Sp. America) locomotiva, F. 
SngUflh, ingles, a. 
Englishman, Ingles, M. 
Bng^iriiweman, Inglesa, F. 
Engraved, grabido, a. 
Engraving, grabido, M. 
BnHglitened, ilnstrado, a. 
Entangling, enredador, a. 
Enter (to), entrar (into, en). 
Entertaining, divertido, a. 
Envelope, sobre, M. 
Err (to), errar (yerro, as, a). 
Errand-boy, mozo, m.; mandade- 

ro, M. 
Escorial, el Escorial ; (fult name: 

San Lorenzo del Escorial). 
Estate, estado, M. (etass) ; heredid, 

F. (property), 
St cflotera^ et cetera* 
Europe, Europa, F. ; western E., la 
- Europa occidental ; el oeste de E. 
Europe (of), European, europeo, a. 
Even, &un ; even if, aun cuando 

(w. subj.). 
Every, cada. 

Bi^rywhere, por todas partes. 
Evidence, prueba, F. ; indicio, M. 
Exceedingly, sumamente. 
Except, excepto ; salvo. 
Excite (to), excitar, mover. 
ExcnrsloB-ticket, billete de re- 

creo (i.^., de ida y vuelta). 
Excursion-train, tten de recreo; 

*• excursion** is viaje de r. 



Excuse (to), dispensir. 
Exercise, tema, m. 
Eixpect (to), esperar. 
Experience, experiencia, F. 
Express-train, el tren correo, or 

el correo ; el tren de gran veloci- 

dad (of express freight). 
Extraordinary, especial, extiaor* 

dinario, a. 
Extreme, extremo, a. 
Eye, ojo, m. 

Fabric, tejido, m. 

Fair, feria, F. 

Fair {of weather), btteno» a. 

Faithful, fiel. 

Faithfully, fielmente ; con fidelidad. 

Fall (to), eaer (caigo, cacs, eie). 

Fall do¥m (to), eaerse. 

Famous, e^lebre; famoso, a. 

TaACff (to), fignrarse; (to think, he^ 

lieve) creer. 
Farewell, adios ; vaya V. con Dios, 

or simply con £K6s. 
Farce, farsa, F.; to act a f., repre* 

sentar una farsa. 
Farmer, labrador, M.; cultivadoc, M. 
Fate, suerte, T,\ destlno, M, 
Father, padre, M. 
Favor, favor, M. 
Favorable, favorable. 
Fear (to), temer. 
Feign one's self to he (to), fingirsc 

(me finjo, te finges, ete^. 
Fellow-man, semejante, M. 
Festival, fiesta, F. 
Fe^ (a), algunos^ as; unos coantoSy 

^; /» pocos, as; in a f, years, 

dentro de algunos aflos; / men, 

pocos hombffes. 



472 



EnglisfhSpanish Vocabulary. 



¥€W9r, m^noc; no tmtos, as. 

Field, M., campo, m. 

Fight, rilia, F-. {personal') \ oom- 

bate, U., pelea, f. (^general). 
Find {{9)9 hallar {wkai was lost) ; 

encontrir {Jo meet with). 
Fine, henaoio, a; fino, a, {quality) . 
Fin, fnegOi m. {elemeni) ; incendioi 

M. {conflagration). 
Fleece, yellon* H. 
Flight, vuclo, M. {as of a bird). 
Floor, tuelo, m.; on the /, al suelo 

{motion) \ en el Bttelo {rest). 
Floor, harina, f. 
Flower, flor, f. 
Foe, enemlgo, M. 
Folio, folio, M. {size); foja {foliated 

U^f)f F. 
Following, adj., siguiente (after 

noun) ; / day^ el dia s. 
Follj, imprttdencia, f. ; lociiia, f. 
Far, para {destination) ; porque 

{reason). 
Force, f ae/za^ F. 
Foreign, extranjero, a.. 
FiMTgive {to), perdonar. 
Form {to), formar, constituir; they 
. /., constituyen. 
Fragment, pedazo, m.; afiicos, M. 

PL. ; to break in f—s, hacer p — s, 

a — ^s. 
Fray, lucha, f.; combate, u. 
Free, libre; exento^ a {from, de). 
Freely, Ubreraente. 
French, frances, a. 
Frenchman, Frances, M. 
Frenchwoman, Francesa, F. 
Friday, viemes, m. ; on F,, el v. \ 
. Fridays^ los viemes. 
Friend, amigo, m,; amlga, f. 
Friendly, amistosQ^ a ; amabl^. 



Friendship, amistad, F. 

Frock coat, levita, f. 

From, de ; {place, time) desde ; 

f-T'to, desde - — kor hasta. 
Front room, cuarto- exterior, M.; 

habitacion exterior, F., or cuarto 

qae da a la calle. 
Frontier, frontera, F. 
Fmit, fruto, m. {on the tree) ; fruta^ 

F. {plucked). 
Fulfil {to), cumplir ; to f, (an obIi» 

gation), cvLvap&c con. 
Foil, lleno,.a ; repleto, a, {of de). 
Fumiah {to), snitii {to provide); 

they f, surten — {with, de). 
Further, mas; z/dnaxoA {besides). 

a 

OaUant, galante. 

Ghhiden, jardin, m. ; huerta, F. 

Gate, puerta, f. 

Gay, alegre. 

General, general, m. adj., id. 

Generally, ordinariamente* 

(Gentle, dulce, suave {of persons); 

manso, a, {of animals). 
Gentleman, caballero, m. ; sefior, M. 
Qerman, aleman, a ; Aleman, a, 

M. and F. 
Get up {to), levantarse ; without 

getting up, sin levantarse. - 
(}et better, ponerse mejor ; to^hg 

getting b., ir poniendosem. 
Qei well {to), ponerse bueno, a; 

to g, w, again, volverse a poner 

bueno, a. 
Girl, muchacha, f.; nifia, F. 
Give {to), dar; {as a present') 

regalar; to give an account off 

hacer la relacion de. 



English-Spanish Vocabulary^ 



473 



GHrve oif (Jo), ^hir. 
Oive up (/<?), abandonir ; en- 
- tregir. 
GUad {to be), alegrarse ; / am g., 

me alegro' (Jh<*fi de que); are 
y(ntg. F ise alegra V.? Hmog. I 

am / \ qu^ alegria ! or \ cuauto me 

alegro ! 
GFlance, mirida, f. 
Go (/<;), v[(definite)-y andar (vague); 

to he going to (inf.), ir 4 ; / am 

going, voy; I am going to (inf.), 

▼oy k ; one goes, se va. 
Go away (Jo), irse. 
Qto down {to), bajar > to god, stairs, 

bajar la escalera. 
Gk> in {to), entrar. 
Qto oh {to), seguir (sigo, sigues). 
Go out (/^)|-salu: {to, £); to go o. 

again, volver a salir (salgo, sales, 

sale). 
Gk> up {to), subir; to go up stairs, 

s. la escalera. 
Go and return {out and hack), 

ida y vuelta, r. 
€k)d, Dios, M. 
QKiAoy{Manuet) , favorite.of Charles 

IV., and his universal minister till 

the i8th of March, 1808. 
Gold, oro, M. 
Gk>od, bueno, a, (buen). 
Gk>oda {blessings), bienes, IC. FL.; 

{mdse^, g6neros, M. PL. 
Goodness, bondad, F. 
GovemnLont, gobiemo, m. 
Graceful, gracioso, a. 
Grammar, gramitica, f. 
Grand, grande (gran) ; in full uni- 

form, de gran lujo; de gala. 
Gravity, gravedad, f.; lo gxave. 
Great, grande (gran). 



Grow {to), crecer (crezco, creces, 

crece). 
Guarantee, garantfa, f« 



Habit, costumbre, F.; bad k., mala 

c^ or vicio, M. 
Half (subft), Boitad, f.; one A.^ 

la m.; one h, of a day^ la m. de 

un dia. 
Half (adj.), medio, a; .k.a^ medio, 

z,; h, a day, medio dia; a day 

and a h,, un dia y medio. 
Hand, mano, F.; on the other A^ 

per otra parte ; por otro lado. 
Hand-laid, becho i, mano; >!.•/• 

paper, papel h. am. 
Hang {to), colgar {on, de); pender 

{to, on,A€)n 
Hang up {to), colgar (cuelgo, as, a)« 
Happen {to), suceder ; it happens, 

sucede. 
Happy, feliz ; dichoso, a. 
Harm, dafio, m« 
Harmoniouji, armonioso, a. 
Hat, sombrero, M. 
Have(/^), haber {only as an auxil, 

— he, has, ha); tev^t {the proper 

verb -^Ungo, tienes, tiene). 
Have juat. (/(}), acabar de (inf.); 

he has just gone out, acaba de salir. 
Have to {to), tener que ; I h,to do 

it, tengo que hacerlo. 
Head-dress, totia, f.; peinado^ m. 
Hear {to), oir (oigo, oyes); enten- 

der {(o understand — entiendo, 

des, de); {of a slight noise) sen- 

tir (siento, tes, te). 
Help {to), ayudar (ayudo, as, a). 
Help, socoiro; to cry for h^ gtitSt 

als. 



474 



EnglishrSpamih Vecabulary. 



Hight alto, a. 

lTi<rlil*.«<ljiy - Mnntiiffiii B. 

Highwaj-robber, salteador de ca- 

muMM, M. 
Hifliory, htetocia, w. 
Hit on (J0)t dar con. 
Hon% adv^ i cata (mHim^i ea 

caaa (r/x/). 
Honor, honor, m.; honra, f. 
Hmmht (/<^), hoocir. 
HoomaiowM. 
Horse, cabaUo, M. 
Bot^ caluroio^ 9^ {of A* tmm) ; ca* 

licnte {pfjire). 
Hoi (/0 Ar), hacer calor (^ Xlsr 

weather) ; ii it ifca/*, hace c. ; iiis 

9ity koif hace mucko c; t/ «ir 

^i/^r tkan^ hace mla c. q«e. 
HoM, hotel (m^ an a^rtment 

homsi)^ M. ; fonda {Jor guests)^ r* 
Honr, hora, f. 
Honae, casa, F* 
Honseihold, casa, f. 
How? ^c6mo? k&mmmehf mamyf 

^cu&nto, a? ^cttintot, as? 
Howeirar, ain embaigo. 
Humiliating, humiUaate. 
Hondrad (4«i/),dcnto (cien). 
Hanger, hambie, v,\ U he hwtgry^ 

tener n« 



Idle, ocioto, a, (^wUh ettar). 
Its!. 

Ignoruit, ignorante {wiA ler). 
HI, male, a; enfermo, a, {with catar). 
Ill, adv., mal. 
ninairated, ilustrado, a. 
Impassible, intransitable. 
Impatient, impaciente; tobec&msi,. 



unpacientane ; cut of ptUitm^e^ 

knpacieatado, a. 
Impetus, impetu, M.; impetaosi* 

dad» F. 
Important, importante. 
Important {to bt)^ importar; con- 

venk; it i^ importa; convieue ; 

is very 1., importa mucho; con- 

viene mucho. 
Impossible, isoposible. 
In, en \, in order thai, para que (w. 

Sttbj.); in order to, para (w. inf.). 
Incessantly, sin cesar, ctmtuiua- 

mente. 
Inecmi^ renta, F^ or rentas» F. PU 
Indispensable, indispensable. 
Indiyidnal, indivtduo, M. 
Infinitely, infinito. 
Inflnentia], influyente. 
}nk,tinta, f. 
Inkstand, tintero, M. 
Innoeent, inocente. 
Inside, interior. 
Interest^ intereStM. ; great i^mia<to 

interes; to the i^ of the plqjft al 

interes que inspira la comedia. 
Intimate, intimo, a. 
Into, en. 

Introdufliion, introduccion, f. 
Inundation, desbordamiinto, M.; 

avenida, F. 
Inrention, invencioa, F, 
Invite {to), convidar. 
Iron, hierro, M. • 
Iron-clad, blindadoy a ; i.^c./rigau, 

fragita blindada. 



J. 
Jane, Jnana, F. 
Jest {Jo), chancear (cbaaciOk 



cea). 



EngUsh'SpaHisk Vocabulary. 



47S 



Jewelry, joyeria, F.; alhajas, F. PL. 

John, Juan, m* 

Jonraej, viaj^ M.; good /, follz 

viaje, 
Joy, alegria, F. ; gozo, M. 
Jadge, juez, m. (pl^ joeces). 
Judgment, juicio, m. 
Jnlia, Julia and Juliana, F. 
Jump np (jo)i Baiter. 
Just, justo, a; tohaif^j.^ acabar de. 



Keep {to)i guardar; quedarse con. 

Kind, bueno, a;* boadadoso, a, {to, 
para). 

Kind, clase, F. ; especie, f.; what k. 
ofweaHier? £qu^ tal tiempo? 

King, rey, m.; i. and queen, los 
reycs, PL. (the sovereigns). 

Kite, cometa, F. 

Knife, cuchillo, M. {table >&.); cu- 
chilla, F. (in machinery) ; corta- 
plumas, M. SING, and PL. (pocket 
k,); navija, F. (clasp k., and com- 
mon name for Jack' k. among the 
lower classes). 

Know (to), saber (0/ things, s6, 
sabes, sabe) ; conocer (of persons 
and of things, to k, thoroughly, 
conozco, conoces, ce). 

Know how (to), saber (w. inf.). 

Known, conocido, a, (persons) ; 
sabido, a, (things), 

L. 

Laborer, trabajador, m. ; obrero* if. 
liftdy, seftora, F.; dama, f. 
Lamb, cordero, M.; corderito, a, 
M. and F, 



Land, tierra, F. ; terreno, M. (traet^ ; 

heredades, F. PL. 
Lane, callejnela, F. 
Language,, lengna, f.; ididma, M.; 

la lengua casteilana : el casteUano 

em idioma m«y facil. 
Large, grande (aflber the noun). 
Largefl^ d (la,lo) mis graade; el 

(la) mayor. 
Laet, dldmo^ a; postrero, a, (po- 

■trir); Uut ni^U^ anochc. 
Late^ terde. 
Latere, lateral. 

Latin, subs., Latin ; ai$.» ktuio» a. 
Latter (M<r), ^ile, &ta ; atoe^^itei. 
Law, Icj, F. 

Lawrence (S^.)* San Lorenso. 
Lead (to), condudr, Uevar ; /> /. 4^ 

Uerir, condocir. 
Lead (metal), plomo, m. 
Lea( hoja, f. (of a tree #r a ko»X)^ 
Learn (to\ aprender (to^ 4). 
LeamM, erudito^ a ; sabio, a. 
Iieave (to\ dejar (not to take)*, 

saUr (to depart, foil, by de); to /. 

by the train^ salir con el ftren ; 

salir, partir (togo)\ when do ycu 

I.? I cuando sale \.lori parte V. ? 
Lecture, oooferencia, F. 
Leg, pi^, M. (of a toble). 
Lemon, limon, m. 
Lend (to), prestar (with dat of 

pew.). 
Less, m^nos; no — tento, a. 
Lesson, leccion, f. 
Let (with imperat.), que (with 

subj.), with 3d pers. suta and pl. 
Letter, carta, f. 
Lettuce, lechiiga, f. 
Lewis, Luis. 
Library, biblioteca, f. 



476 



EnglisJ^Spanisk Vocabulary. 



Light, liu, F. 

Lighten {to\ alumbrir. 

Likftr iguil; pareddo, a, (after 

nonn); like thai vfkichj seme- 

jante al que (& la que, 4 lo que). 
Like (/p), qneter (Jc esUem-^qmo^ 

to, et, e) ; gustarle i uno, p. 420; 

agradarle i uno ; / If me gusta ; 

I do not /., no me gusta; ike 

counttu does noi like, & la condesa 

no le gusta ; I should l^ quisiera; 

would you Lf I quisiora V. ? 
Lhnii, Umite, m. 
Line, Unea, f.; paota, F.; renglon, 

M. (jofa book or Ms,) ; linea {of 

a railway, eic,), 
Lisbon, IiBb6a».F. 
Listen to {to), escuchar (without 

prep.). 
Lit«ratnro» Uteratura, f. 
Little, poco ; a I, {of), un poco de. 
Live {to), vivir ; to live in, vivir en, 

or habitir {without, and by some 

with, en). 
Living {alive), vivo, a. 
Looal, local. 
London, L6ndres. 
Long, largo,a,(fii//r/. larguisimo, a). 
Look, mirada, f. 
Look {to), mirar. • 
Look for {to), buscar. 
Look out {to), asomarse {of, d). 
Lord, sefior, m. 

Lose {to), perder (pierdo, es, e). 
Lost, perdido, a. 
Lonisa, Luisa, F. {ho-ee^a). 
Lovely, amable {moral), hermoso, 

a, {physical). 
Low, bajo, a. 
Luxury, lujcs m. 



Machine, maquina, f. 

l^aiiMn^ sefiora, F. {direct address) ; 

la sefiora (3d pars.). 
Made (p. part), hecho, a. 
Made {to be), ser becho, a. 
Madrid {of — ), Madrilefio, a ; ma- 

drilefio, a. 
Magrnificent, magnCfico, a. 
Mail-train, tiren»correo, m., or-sim*- 

ply el correo. 
Make (/'(7),hacer(]iago,haces,ce); 

he made, hizo. 
Malaga, Malaga, f. 
Man, hombre, M. 
Manners, modBes, m. pl. 
Mannel, Manuel ; familiar, Mano- 

irto. 

Manufaotnrer, fabricante, m.; pl. 

{general) , industriales, fabricantes. 
Many, muchos, as. 
Marauder, bandido, M. 
March, Marzo, m.; M. yth, a siete 

Marzo, or el dia siete de Marzo. 
Marchioness, marquesa, f. 
Marquis, marques, m. 
Marry (/<?), casarse; to m, anyone^ 

casarse con alguien ; to m, some 

one to another, casar a fulano con 

mengana. 
Mary, Maria. 
Mass {crowd), masa, F; {sacra-' 

ment) Misa, F. 
Master, amo, M. {of the house)-, 

maestro, M. {teacher) ; maestro, M. 

{one who excels) . 
Material, adj ., material (after noun). 
May — he m., it m., puede; m, be, 

puede ser. See poder. 
May, Mayo, m. 



^ngUsh-Spartish VoceAulary, 



m 



MiMiH> medioe, m. pl.; to find m^ 

encontrar medios (Jo, para). 
Measure, medida, F.; providen- 

cia, F. 
Meat, carne, F. 
Mechanic, artesano, M. 
Meet (Jo), encontrar. 
Member, individuo, M. 
Memory, memoria, F. 
Mend (Jo), componer (compongo^ 

-pones, -pone). 
Merchant, comerciante, M. 
Messenger (of news), mensagero^ 
. M. (errand-^), mandadero, M. 
Mexican, Mejicano, a; mejicano,a. 
Midst — in M< m, ofi en medio 

de. 
Mild, suave, blando, a. 
imU, mil^Hmo (imaginary coin), M. 
Minister, ministro, M. (political), 
Miscellaneons, varios, as, pju (and 

after the noun). . 
Misfortone, desgracia, F. 
Mistress (of the house), ama, F.; 

sellora, F. 
Moderate (to) caUnar; templar. 
Modern^ modemo, a. 
Moment, momento, m. 
Money, dinero, M. 
Month, mes, M. 
Moral, moral* 

More, m&s; no m., ya no (verb). 
Morning, mafiana, f.; the m. paper ^ 

el periodico d& la mafiana. 
Morocco (of)f Marroqui. 
Mother, madre, F. 
M^ther-coontry, madre-pitria, F.; 

patria. 
Mountain, sierra, f. 
Mora (to)i mover (muevoi^-efl^c). 
Much, mncho^ a^ * : 



N. 

Nail, clavo, M.; alfiler, M. 
Name, . nombre, M. (Christian); 

apellido, M. (sirnatne). 
Named (to be), llamarse; his name 

is, se llama ; what is his name? 

I c6mo se llama ? 
Narration, relacion, f. 
Nation, nacion, f. 
National, nacional. 
Navigation, navegacion, F. 
Near (adv.), cerca ; (prep.), cerca 

de. 
Necessary, necesirio, a ; it is n^ 

es n., es menest^r, es preciso (the 

last is strongest; all with subj. or 

an inf.). 
Necklace, collar, m. 
Needle, aguja, f. 
Neighbor, vecino, a, m. or F. 
Neighborhood, vecindad, F. 
Never, no s— nunca, or nunca before 

the verb. 
New, nuevo^ a% 

News, notida, f., aw^/noticias, f.pl. 
Newspaper, periodico, M.; diario,H. 
Night, noche, F.$ /0-»., esta n.; 

last n., anoche. ' 
No (adv.), no; (adj.), ninguno, a; 

no — alguno, a, (alguno, in this 

case after the noun). 
Noble, noble.. 
Nobody, nadie. 
Noise, niido, M. 
Nor, ni. 
North, norte, m. ; on the n^etk^ 

norte, al norte. 
North-west, noroeste. 
Not, no.- 
Notabla,- notable. 



478 



Engtisk^ Spanish Vocabulary. 



vm 



Notify (/«)» avkir; dar aviso 

(Jo, 4). 
xfow, ahonu 
IfUftbOTy ntfnicrOf M. $ a it. ^ ma 

porcion de. 
n WMf nodfftcaf F. 



Objeei, motivo, M. {cause, ^^)$ 
objeto, M. (vift'Mf). 

Obligatioii, obligadon, V. ; #9 A'l^ 
charge on^s 9,, cumplir con sti 
obligacion. 

ObHgMl (fo 6e), agradecer (agra- 
dctco, agradeces, ce — > under obH' 
goti&n) ; tke stranger was o.ie,,., 
al desconocido le fu^ forzoso el . . . 

(inf.). 

Ooeaiion, ocasion, p. 

Ooear (/tf), saeeder; acaec&; te» 
ner lugar. 

CXoloek, bora, p. ; «/ tohat ^eloekf 
I i. qu^ hora ? 

Oot»TO» octavo, M.; HI odatt&y en 
octavo. 

Oetober, Octubre, M.; Oct jyik, i 
veinte y siete de Octubre, or el dia 
veinte y siete de Octnbre. 

Odd, raro, a ; extraflio, a ; o. (num- 
her^f impar. 

Offence, disgusto, M. ; to take of- 
fence, inconiodarse. 

Officer, oficial, m. 

Official, oficial. 

Often, amenudo ; muchas veces. 

Okl, viejo, a ; antiguo, a ; old man, 
anciano, M. 

Old age, vej^z, p. 

Old people, ancianos, M. PL. 

On, en ; sobre ; ^ttchlfa' d#. 



Once, nna ves {one Hmi)', iniles 

{formtrly)\ atttigaament«(<^tfii/). 
One, w4lh a verb, is expressed by 

the reflexive se, 3d sing.; one 

goes, se va. 
One's, su ; PL., sus. 
Only, adv., s61o; dnicamente; adj., 

dnico, a. 
Open (Jo), abrir; p.p. abierto. 
Op er a ^gl ft ia en , gemeloa, m. PL. 
Opinion, parecer, M. ; in our o^ 

i nuestro parecer. 
Oporio, Potto, M. 
Opponenik contririo, M.; oontnn- 

cinte. 
OpIi^iMi, i^itico, M. 
Or, 6, (before o or ho) d.. 
Orange, naranja, P. 
Ordtr, 6rden, p. ; i^ «. «^ d« e. de» 
Orttftmeni, adomo, iff. 
Other*, otrofl, as. 
Onr, nuestro, a. 
Out and badk, ida y voelta. 
Oni of patience, impacientSdo, a ; 

impaciente. 
Over, por {through) ; por {Ikrougk- 

out); over aU Spain, por toda 

EspaAa. 
Oyercaat, encapotado, a. 
Own, propio, a. 
Oz, buey, m. (pl. bueyes). 



P. 

Page, p&gina, p. 
Pageant, fausto, m. 
Slanting, onadro, m.; pintira, p. 
Palace, palacio, m. 
Paper, papel; peit6dico, M.; th4 
m^rmmgp^ el pcr.de la maffana. 
Parable, paribola^* f . 



English-Spanish Vocabulaiy^, 



479 



PMrabitM^ puaiso, Ac. 

Pardon (fo), perdonir; p^rtiou^ 

brother^ penione, faermano. 
Plurent, padre, m. ; pl^ padnsy M. 
Parishoprieaty cura-parroco, H. 
Part, parte, F. ; pu ih< p, tf, 6» 

parte de. 
Partridge, perdiz, f. 
Party, partido, M. 
Pa8» (/9), pasir. 
PassiTe, pasivo^ a. 
Vtomgott, pastparte, M. 
Patent, patente, f. 
Patience, paciencia, f« 
Panl, Pablo. 
Peace, paz, f. 
Pear, pera, F. 
Pen, pLoimi, f. 
Penalty, pena» f. 
Pencil, Upiz, M. ; kpicect)^ M» 
Pensioned* jobUado, a. 
People, feate» F.; pueblo* M. 
Permanent* permanente. 
Permit (/a), pennitur. 
Pernst (Jo)^ empeHatse (^, en). 
Person, persona, f. 
Perspire, traaspkir; siidar. 
, Peter, Pedro. 
Philadelphia, FiUdeifia. 
Phimueian, Fenicio* a; fenicio, a. 
Pbymeian, medico, m. 
Piok np (Jo\ recc^or (recojo, 

-c6ges» -coge). 
Pietare, cuadro* m. ; kunina {in 

b^oks)^ F. 
Picturesqae,. pintoresco, a. 
Piece, pedazo, M. ; piece of naits^ 

noticia, F. 
Place, lugar, M. ; sitio, m. 
Place (^), poner (pontes poiNs,. 

pone); colocar. 



Flan, piano, M. {fifaplace) \ modelo^ 

M. {model). 
Pl»y W» J^ar (juego* as, a). 
Play, comedia, F.; pieza, F. 
Plaything, juguete, M. 
Pleasant, agradable. 
Please {to\ agradar; U pUusu 

gusta^ agrada, place, 
poem, poema, M. 
Point to {to), indicar. 
Poor, pobre {indig4tU)\ nuJo, a, 

{pfihingi). 
Popular, popular. 
Post, puesto, M . 
Portugal, Portugal. 
Position, situacion, F. {itai4)\ of 

her p., de la situacion en que se 

encontraba. 
Power, poder, M. 
Praise {to), alabar; {of thingt) 

celebrar. 
Precious, precioso, a; de precio; 

more p., de mas precio. 
Present, regalo, m. 
Present, adj., presente. 
Presently, luego; pronto; dentto 

de poco. 
Press, imprenta, f. 
Pretended, fingido, a. 
Pretty, bonito, a; gnapo, a. 
Prfnce, principc, m. 
Princess, princesa, F. 
Principal, principal. 
Principle, principio, hl 
Print (/<?), impriiBir; p.p.impreso,a. 
Printed, impreso, a. 
Printing, imprenta, f. {tlu art)\ 

impresioD, F. {the act)* 
Private, particular. 
Prodigal, pr6digo, a. 
Producing, adj., productor, a. 



48o 



English^Spanish Vccaiulary. 



Profitable, provechoKS a; de pro- 

vecho. 
Frofonnd, prof undo, a. 
Frojeet, proyecto, M. 
FromiM (jo\ promettf. 
P mpfi y, fincas, F. pl. 
Prosperity, prosperidad, F. 
Proad, orguUoso, a. 
Proverb, refran, M. 
«ProTiaoe, promcia, F.; pa£^ M. 
Publio, pdblico, a; subit. pdUioo^ m. 
Public square, plaza, F. 
Punishment, castigo, m. 
Purchase {io), comprar. 
Purpose, prop6sito, m.; fin, m.; for 

tokatpJ ik qu^? (pop.). 
Put &n^f self (Jo), ponorse ; colo- 



Pui on (/?), ponme. 



Quail, codorniz, F. 

Quality, calidad, F. ; condicion, F. 

.Quarter, cuarto, m.; {of a pound), 

cuarteron, M. ; {of a hundred), 

arroba, F. 
Quarto, cuactOyM.; in ^^encuarto. 
Queen, reina, F. 

Question, cuestion, F.; asunto, M. 
Quiet, tranquHo, a. 
Quite, bastante ; bien. 

B. 

Rail-way, ferro-canil, M. ; FL.,ferro- 

carnles. 
Rain (/<?), Hover (Uueve). 
Rain, Uuvia, F. 
Rainy, Uuvioso, a. 
Raisin, 'pa8a,'P. 



Rather, m&s Nea ;~ mejor dicho. 

BstHktationt latificacion, f. 

Ratify (Jo), ratificar. 

Baw-reeruit» bisofio; fl., gente 
biflofia. 

Read (jo), ker; ke r^ leyd. 

Read (p. part.), leido, a. 

Real, real, m.- 

Receipts, ingresos, h. fl. 

Receive (Jo), recibsr; admifir. 

Recollection, recuerdo, m. 

Reflection^ recuerdo, m.; reflex- 
ion, F. 

Refuse (A?), negarse (Jo, &) — (me 
niego &). 

Region, pais, m. 

Reign, reinado, m. 

Reject (Jo), rechazar, despreciar. 

Relative, pariente, m.; parienta 
(^pbpuUr), F. 

Relieve {to), aliviir, amparar; God 
r. you/ \ Dies le ampare i. V. ! 

Religious, piadoso, a; devoto, a. 

Remain (/»), permanec^ (-ezco). 

Remax^ observacioB, f. ; adver- 
tencia, F. 

Remedy, remidio, M. 

Remember (/<?) , acordaise (acuerdo, 
as, a — folL by de, to r. a thing 
or a person)', recordar (recuerdo, 
as, a — tor. that, etc.) ; / r. him, 
me actterdo de .^1 ; / r. that, re- 
cuerdo que .,.^ do you r. f £re- 
cuerdaV. ? to r. (Jo heep in mind), 
tener presente; one must r., se 
ha de tener p., or se debe tener p. 

Reproof, censura, f. 

Reside (Jo), habitar (direct or with 
en). 

Resklettt, Vecinoi a,\M, and F. (of a 
town). 



English-Spanish Vocabulaiy^ 



481 



Xtesig^ {to), hacer demision ; tor, 

one's self, resignarse {Jo, 4), con- 

formarse {to, con). 
Hesource, recurso, M. 
Respect, consideracion, F. {for, 

para). 
Retire {to), retirarse {to withdraw). 
Return {to), volver (yuelvo, ves, 

ve) ; in returning, en v. 
Review, revista, f.; formacion, F. 

{popular), 
Beward, premio, M. ; recompensa, f. 
Ribbon, cinta, f. 
Rich, rico, a. 

Riches, riqueza, F., or PL. riqnezas. 
Right — on the r,, k la derecha {sc, 

nfano). 
Ring, anillo, m. {plain) ; sortija, F. 

(Jewelled), 
Road, camino, m.; Knea, F. {system 

of railroads). 
Robber, bandido, M.; ladron, M. 
Roguish, burlon, a. 
Roof, tejado, M. 
Room, habitacion, F., cuarto, M. 
Rose, rosa, F. 

Round about, alreded^ (adv.). 
Row, fila, F. 
Royal, real. 
Rule, regia, F. 
Run, correr. 
Running, corriendo; r. across the 

page, 4 renglon seguldo. 

S. 

Sail, vela, F. {of a vessel)* 
Sailor, marinero, M. 
Salad, ensalada, f. 
Salute {to), saludar. 
Same, mismo, 9.; the same {thing), 
lo mismo. 



Santander, Santander. 
Saragossa, Zaragdza [ Caesar ea 

Augusta^ 
Saturday, sibado, m. 
Say {to), decir (digo, dices, dice), 

he says, dice; said, dicho; it is 

said, se dice; it may be said, se 

puede decir. 
Scarcely, ap^nas; no — casi. 
Scene, escena, f.; espect^culo, M. 
Scholar, discfpulo, M. {pupil) % 

erudito, M. {learned man). 
School, colegio, M., and escuela, F. 

(used interchangeably). 
Score, veintena, F. 
Sea, mar, m. 

Search {to), or to s.for, bnscar. 
Season, temporada, f. ; s, ticket, 

abono,^/* biUete de a.; I have a 

s. /., estoy abonado, a. 
Secretary, secretario, m. ; s, of State, 

s. de Estado, or ministro de Estado. 
See {to), ver (veo, ves, ve); I saw, 

VI ; he saw, vi^; seeing, viendo. 
Seek {to), buscar; to s. to, pro- 

curar de, tratar de (inf.). 
Seem {to), parecer; which seemed 

to surround her,- que al parecer 

la amenazaba; it seems, parece. 
Seen, visto, a. 

Seldom, raras veoes; pocas veces. 
Selectman, hombre bueno {ancient, 

home bueno). 
Self-respect, amor propio, m. 
Selfish, egoista; s, vanity, vano 

egbismo. 
SeU {to), vender; he sold, vendi6. 
Senate, senido, m. 
Send for {to), enviar k buscar. 
Sense, sentido, m. 
Serious, grave* 



482 



English-Spanish Vocabulary, 



Semuity criido, m^ criftda, f.; caU, 

los crimdot or la aervidumbre. 
8enr« (Jo), servir (sirvo, sirves, 

sirve). 
8«rTio9» servido, m. 
8ei (Jo), ponene (of ike turn). 
Set* juego, M . ; s, of chairs^ sille- 

ria, F. 
Sererftl, virioi^ «s. 
S«v«r«, severo, a. 
SeyiUe (pron. SivHl), SevilU; 

.S. /rtf t», tren dc SeviUa. 
Bhftpe, forma, F. 
Sheep, oveja, f. 
Shelter on^i self (Jo\ ampararse, 

refttgiirse. 
Shine forth (/#), brillar. 
Ship, buque, m. (merchaftt) ; buque 

de gaerra, or fragata, F. (toar). 
Shocking, atroz. 
Shoe, zapato, h. 
Shoemaker, zapatero, M. 
Shop, tienda, F. 
Shop-keeper, tendero, m. 
Short, corto, a. 
Shout, grito, M. 
Shut (to), cerrar (cietro, ai, a); 

he sAuls, cierra. 
Sign, sefial, f.; f/ it a i., es sefial. 
Sign (/o)f firmir; signed, firmido, 

a; it was s,, ini Brmado, a. 
Silenee, silencio, u. 
Silver, plata, f. 
Since, desde (time). 
Sister, hermana, F. 
Sit down (A?), sentarse, (me siento, 

te sientas) ; he sits down^ se siea* 

ta; sit down, siintese V. 
Sitting»rooui, gabinete, m. 
Situation, situacion, F. 
Sixteen mo (i6mo), dtecUeisavo. 



Siae, tamallo, M. 

Skip about (to), brincar; to s, a, 
again, volver a brincar ; she skips 
a, again, vuelve a b. 

Sky, cielo« M. 

Slate, pizarra, F. 

Slim, flojo, a, (of attendance). 

Small, pequefto, a. 

Snow, oieve, f. 

So, tan; s, bad, tan miUo; s, (tk$u), 
asi; s, it is, as( es; t. (it), lo; 
t, muck, tanto, a; x» many, tan- 
tos, as. 

Soberly, sobriamente. 

Society, sociedad, f. 

Sofa, sofa, m. 

Soldier, soldado, m.; militar, K. 

Some, algunos, as; unos, as; unos 
caantos, unas caantas. 

Something, alguna cosa; algo. 

Sometimes, algunas voces. 

Son, hijo, M. 

Song, cancion, f., canto, M. 

Soon, pronto, luego. 

Soul, alma, p.; aaima* F. {disem- 
bodied spirits). 

Sour, agrio, a. 

South, mediodia, M.; in ike s. of 
Spain, en el m. de Espafia; in 
ike extreme j., en el extremo sor. 

Spacious, espacioso, a. 

Spain, Espafia, F. 

Spaniard, Espafiol, a, M. and f. 

Spanish, espafiol, a ; S. woman, 
Espafiola, F. 

Spanish-America, la America es- 
pafiola. 

Speak (/ff), hablir; spoken, hab- 
lado; is s., se habUu 

Speeeh, habla, f. (d habla, nH 
habla). 



/ 



English-Spanish Vocabulary. 



483 



Spend (/»), pBsar (of time) ; gastar 

(of outlay). 
Spirit^ espfritu, M. 
Spring, fuente, F.; manantiat, m. 

(source). 
Square, plaza, f. 
St. (saint) y santo andsaji (% 127). 
Stand (to), estar en pi^ or de pi^ 

(the act), estar; stood, estuvo. 
Start for (to), salir pata, marcharse 

para. 
State, estado, m.; tke United States, 

los Estados Unidos. 
Statesman, hombre de estado, or 

estadista, M. 
Station, estacion, f. 
Statne, estatua, f. 
Stay (to), quedarse ; to s, home, 

quedarse en casa. 
Steamer, buque de vapor, M., orsim- 

ply vapor, M. [paso. 

Step, paso, M.; A7 take a s,, dar on 
Still, todavfa, adn (yet) ; sin em- 
bargo (notwithstanding). 
Stir, animacion, f. 
Stone, piedra, f. 
St<nin, tempcstid, f. 
Stormy, malo, a ; lluvioso, a; tern- 

pestuoso, a. 
Story, cuento, M. 
Stranger, desconocido, M. (un- 
known) ; forastero, M. (from 

another place). 
Straw, paja, f.; s, hoi, sombrero de 

paja, M. 
Street, calle, F. 
Strength, fuerza, f. (physieal)\ 

fuerzas (moral). 
Strewn, cubierto, a ; sembrado, a, 
{with, de), [estndia. 

Stndy (to), estudiar ; h^ studies, 



Suggest (to), sngerir; recordar; 

he suggested, sugirid, record6. 
Summer, verano, M. 
Sun, sol, M. 
Surround (to), rodear; that seemed 

to s. her, que al parecer la amen- 

azaba (of danger). 
Surrounded, rodeido, a, (Sy, de). 
Survive (to), sobrevivir. 
Sweety dulce. 
Sympathy, simpatia, F.; detter, PL. 

lass — s. 



T. 

Table, mesa, F. 

Table*drawer, el cajon de la mesa. 

Take (to), tomar; he took, tom<5; 

to t. a step, dar an paso; to t, a 

walk, dar un paseo. 
Take down (to), descolgar (des- 

cuelgo, as, a, of anything sus- 
pended). 
Take place (to), suceder; verifi- 

carse; tener lugar. 
Talk (to), hablar; to talk to, h. con. 
Tall, alto, a; grande. 
Teacher, maestro, a, M. and F. 
Tell (to), decir (digo, dices). 
Terror, terror, m.; azote, m. 
Text, texto, m. 
Than, que; (before a numeral) de; 

(with a verb) de lo que. 
Thank (to), agradecer (agradezco, 

agradeces). 
That, ese, esa, eso ; aquel, aquella, 

aquello ; t is, es decir ; /. is so, 

eso es. 
That, conj., que. 
Theatre, teatro, m. ; summer or cafl 

t — s, teatros de verano 6 de cafi£. 



4*4 



EngUshSpanish Vocabulary, 



Them, los. If . ; las, f. ; les» com. 

(gov. by a verb) ; ellos, as (gov. 

by a prep.). 
Then, eiit6nces {at that time); 

Ivtego {ufterwArds), 
There, alU; en ^1, en cUa, en ellos, 

as ; A iV, hay ; /. are^ hay. 
Therefore, por con^tiguiente. 
Thief, ladron, M. 
Thing, cosa, F. 
Think (/<?)» pensar (pienso, as^ a) ; 

creer (creo, crees). 
This, este, esta, esto. 
Thomas, Tom&s. 
Those (</), los or las de. 
Thought, pensamiento, M. 
Thonghtftd, sensato, a; cuerdo, a; 

grave. 
Threaten {to\ araenazar. 
Threatening, amenazador, a. 
Throw (/<>), arrojar; to t, oh the 

/loor^ a. al suelo. 
Thus, as(, de este mode. 
Ticket, billete, m. 
Time, tiempo, m.; a /*, vez, F.; the 

second /., por segunda vez ; times, 

veces, F. PL. (pecasioHs). 
Timely, oportuno, a; acertado, a. 
Timothy, Timoteo. 
Tired, cansado, a (estar). 
Tithe, diezmo, m. 
Title, titulo, M. 
To, a ; up to, hasta. 
To-day, hoy ; (at the present </.), 

hoy dia, or en el dia. 
Toil (to), trabajar. 
To-morrow, mafiana; to-m. night, 

m. por la noche; the day after 

to-m., pasado maliana. 
Top, peon, m. 
Towa^rd, hacia (material and moral 



direction) ; para con (moral di' 

rection). 
Town, ciudad; poblacion, f., villa. 

See City. 
Toy, juguete, m. 
Train, tren, m. ; SeTjiUe /., tren de 

Sevilla. 
Tramway, tranvia» and tramvia, H. 
Travd (to), vUjar. 
TrareUer, viajero, m. 
Treacherous, traidor, a. 
Treasure, tesoro, m. 
Treaty, tratado, m. 
Tree, arbol, M. 

Triumphant, triuufante; ufano, a. 
Troublesome, molesto, a; fastidio* 

so, a. 
Tremble (to), temblar (tiemblo, 

as, a). 
True, verdadero, a. 
Truth, verdad, f. 
Try (to), probar (pruebo, as); to /. 

to, tratar de, procurar de. 
Tuesday, m&rtes, m. 
Turn around (to), volverse (me 

vuelvo, ves, ve). 
Twaddle, charladoria, conversa^- 

cioi^, F. 
Twice, dos veces. 
Type, tipo, m. 

TTnde, tio, m. 

Under, debajo de; bajo; u. the cirr 
cumstances, bajo las circunstan- 
cias. 

Undergo (to), sufrir. 

Understand (to), comprender, en- 
tender (entiendo). 

Unfortunate, desgraciado« a. 

Unite (to), unir. 



English^SpaHiih Vocabulary. 



485. 



TJnited, unido, a; Untied StateSj 

Estados IJnidos. 
Unjust, injusto, a. 
Unknown, desconocido, a. 
Until, conj., hasta que. 
Up to, hasta. 

Useful, titil; provechoso, a; depro- 
, vecl^o. 
Usually, ordiniriamente. 

« 

V. 

Vain {puffed up), vanidoso, a. 

Valencia, Valencia, F. 

Vanity, vaiiidad» F.; selfish v,, vano 

egoismo, M. 
Various, diverse, a. 
Verdict, fallo, M. 
Very, muy, bien; liftn v. glad, me 

alegro mucho; v. much,m}ichi' 

simo, a ; v, many, muchisimos, as. 
Vessel, buquc, M. 
Vice, vicio, M. 
Victim, vtctima, F. 
Vile, ruin. 

Villi^e, pueblo, M.; aldea, f. 
Violently, con violencia, F.; arre- 

batadamente. 
Visit, visita, F. 

Visit {to), visitar; pasar a ver. 
Vivid, vivo, a. 
Voice, voz, F. (PL. voces). 
Volume, tomo, m. ; voldmen, m. ; 

in a small 4to vol., en un tomo 

en cuarto pequefio. 

W. 

Wait {to), and to w. for, esperar, 

aguardar. 
Walk, paseo, M. 



Wall, tapia, f. {0/ an enclosure) ; 

pared, f. {of a room) ; muralla, F., 

or muro, M. {o/a town). 
Want {to), meaning to wish, querer 

(quiero, quieres, quiere) ; he wants 

or wants to, quiere ; he does not w, 

to, no quiere. 
Want (to), meaning to need, faltar; 
. / w., me falta ; what do you w. ? 

IQ^k le falta a V.? Spaniards 

only w. good government, a los 

Espafioles s^lo les falta bu^ 

gobierno. 
War, guerra, F. • 
Was— j^^ ser, estar. 
Watch {to), velar. 
Water, agua, F, (el agua). 
"W&j, camino, M. ; via, F. ; in this 

7v., de este modo. 
Wear {to), Uevar, gastar. 
Weather, tiempo, m. ; what hind 

ofw.? ^que tal t.? 
Week, semana, F. 
Well, bien ; as w. as, tan b. como ; 

so w, that, tan b. que. 
Wwre -r-see ser, estar. 
Western, occidental; W. Europe, 

la Europa o., or el Oeste de 

Europa. 
What ? i qu^ ? w. kind of? i qu^ tal ? 
What {that which), lo que ; w. if, 

si (in interrog. and exclam.). 
Wheat, trigo, m. 
When, cuando; ^cuando? 
Where, donde, i donde ? {rest) ; 

adonde, adonde {motion) ; en 

donde {in what place). 
Which, que; {of two), cual. 
While, mientras. 
White, bianco, a; super!. blanquC- 

simo, a. 



486 



English-Spanish Vocahulafy. 



Wbo, que ; tnloM, que, k qmen. 
Whole (M/), todo el, toda la; tn- 

tero, a, (alter the noon). 
WhoM, cuyo, ^cdyo? w. name is, 

que le llama, 
Wky? epor qirf? 
Wild-boMT, jabalf, M. 
Will (/9), meant f^ i^ wisk^ querer 

(quiero, es, e) ; w,y0uf ^quieie V. ? 
Window, ventana, P. 
Wine, vino, M. 
Wine-growing, vinfcola. 
Winter, inviemo, m. 
Wiadom, sabidurfa, F. 
Wise, sabio, a; (^prudenf) pru- 

dente, discreto, a. 
Wish (te) anyone anything^ deseir 

(deseo). 
With (/«), to witt, ie desire, querer 

(quiero) ; sMe does not w., no 

quiere. 
Wit and hmnor, sal, f. 
With, con; together w., jtmtamente 

con. 
Within, dentio de. 
Without, sin ; tcr. doing, sin hacer. 
Woman, mujer, P. 
Wood, madera, F. 



Woods, mSate, M. 

Word, palabia, F.; rot, F. ; in these 

words, en estos teiminos. 
Work (i»)» trabajar; to be working, 

estar trabajaodo. 
Work, trabajo, m.; obra, F. 
Wozvt {tke\ el (la, lo) peor. 
Worth (Jo be), valer (valgo, vales, 

vale); if w., vale. 
Worthy, digno, a {of, de). 
Wounded (jo be), ser herido, a; ke 

has been w., ha side heiido. 
Write (Jo), escribir (p.p. eacrito, a). 
Writings, escritos, m., obias, f. 
Written, escrito, a. 

Y. 

Tear, afio, m. 

Tee»sf. 

Teeterd»y, ayor. 

Tou, nsted, pl. ustedes {polite) \ 

td, PL. vosotros, Bs(/amihar), 
Young, j6ven ; ytmng man, j6ven, 

M. ; young woman, j6ven, F. 
Your, stt, PL. sus (poHte); vuestro, 

a (^familiar). 
Youth, javentud, F. 



APPENDIX. 



>;«:o«. 



Able, h£bil, capaz. 

After, adv^ despu^; some Hnu it., 

algun tiempo d. 
Are (Jhey)t son, esULn, $391. 
Attends, asiste &. 
Be {he-will')^ seri, estar£. 
Been {has)^ ha sido, /. 398, 5. 
Began (Ju^ if), empezo, pruicipi6. 
Between, entre. 
Bought, /./., comprado, a ; kt 

bought, compr6. 
Brought (JU), trajo. 
By, por, de. 
Game (fie, U), vino. 
Cherish (Jhey), abrigau. 
Comes, viene. 

Comes from, sale de, /. 397, 
Consists of, consta de. 
Cry (Jhey), Uoran. 
Disturbed (Jhey), alborotaron. 
Doing (pf)t de hacer, § 718. 
Entered {they), entraron. 
Err {they), yerran. 
Ever {fit any time), alguna ves> 

/. 413. 4. 
Everywhere, en todas partes. 

Few, pocos, as, /. 397. 

Fifth, quinto, a. 

Find {yoU'WiU'), V. encontrari, 

or hallari. 

First, primero, a (primer, $ 123). 

Found (/), hall6, encontr^. 

Gave (fie), did, § 543. 



Gives, da. 

Go (/), voy. 

Gk> (f(v),vamos; we^skall'go,v[im(M, 

Go (Jhey), van. 

€h)es, va. 

Goods (^property), Ucnes, M. PL, 

Has, tiene; has been, ha sido, 

A 398. 5- 
Have (we), tenemos. 

Have (they), tienen. 

He, 61. 

Her, sa, fl. sus. 

Highland-woman, montaneM, F. 

Him (obj, of verb), le, lo 5 (after 

prep.), a 
His, sa, PL. sus. 
I, yo. 
Important* importante; are 1., im- 

portan. 
Is, es ; esUL, $ 391. 
Jest (they), chancean. 
Known, conoado, a, /. 397; sa* 

bido, a. 
Lands (estates), heredadesi tierra% 

F.PL. 

Live (they), viven. 
Lived (he), vivi5. 
Lives, vive ; (dwells), vive, habita. 
Living (active), vivo, a. 
Lost (he), perdid. 
My, mi, pl. mis. 

Occurred (it), sucedid, tuvo lugar 
(took place). 



488 



Appendix. 



One, QUO, a (un). 
[Oaat], noi to bt tramlated. 
Order to (i«), para (w. w/)- 
People (/tf/*j), gentei F.; (the 

masses) t pueblo, M. 
Placed {ke)t coloc6. 
Plays {he), juega. 
Pleaaee {he, it), gusta, agrada. 
Port, pnerto, m. 
PriMner, preso, m. 
Bead {he), \ey6 ; he was refuting, 

lebu 
Bejoioe {to), alegrarse. 
Beliftble, fidedigno, a; r. news, 

noticias ciertas, or fidedignasl 
BeUgioua, religioso, a, /. 397. 
Beeidee, habita, reade. 
Saw (/), v{. 
Second, segundo, a. 
See (/), vco. 

Serve {they), sirven {de, as). 
Seven, siite. 
She, ella. 
Some, alguno, a (algun) ; pl. algu- 

nos, as. 
Spanish language {ihe), la lengua 

castellana, or espafiola. 
Speaks, habla. 
Spends {he), pasa {of time) ; gasta 

{of money). 
Spent (/), pas^ {of time). 
Spent {we), pasamos. 
Spoke {he), habl6. 
Spoken, hablido» a. 



Studies, estndia. 

Snnuner-hooae, quinta, F. 

Their, sii» pl. sus. 

These, estos, as. 

They, cUos, as. 

Those, esos, as; aquellos, as. 

Threatened (t/),ainenaz6; imperf, 

amenazaba. 
Three, tres. 
Took {he), tom6. 
Undergoes, sufre. 
Understand {they), entienden, 

comprenden. 
Unites, une. 

Visited {I have), he visitado. 
Visits, visita. 

Wait {he-vfill'), aguardara. 
Was {he, it), fu^, era ; estuvo, 

estaba. 
We, nosotros, as. 
Wear {they), llevan, gastan. 
Were {they), fueron, /. 398; eran; 

estuvieron, e§taban. 
Who? ^qui^n? PL. ^qui^nes? 
Wood {material), madera, F. ; 
{fire-w,), lefia, F. ; PL. bosque, 
M. ; {elevated wood-land), monte, 

M. 

Worked {he) , trabaj6. 
Writes, escribe. 
Writing (he-was*), escribla. 
Wrote (he), escribid. 
Ye, vbsotros, as. 



.^Eik, 



\ ) 



^.